Cañadón Asfalto Formation

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Cañadón Asfalto Formation
Stratigraphic range:
Late Aalenian-Oxfordian
~171–158 Ma
Fm CAsfalto Cerro Condor 3.jpg
Cañadón Asfalto Formation near Cerro Cóndor, Chubut, Argentina
TypeGeological formation
Unit ofSierra de Olte Group
Sub-unitsLas Chacritas Member, Puesto Almada Member
UnderliesCañadón Calcáreo Formation
OverliesLonco Trapial Formation
Thickness600 m (2,000 ft)
Lithology
PrimarySandstone
OtherLimestone, shale, conglomerate, tuffite
Location
Coordinates43°24′S 69°12′W / 43.4°S 69.2°W / -43.4; -69.2Coordinates: 43°24′S 69°12′W / 43.4°S 69.2°W / -43.4; -69.2
Approximate paleocoordinates40°30′S 29°18′W / 40.5°S 29.3°W / -40.5; -29.3
RegionChubut Province,
Patagonia
Country Argentina
ExtentCañadón Asfalto Basin
Cañadón Asfalto formation.png
Formation map and location, shaded horizontally

The Cañadón Asfalto Formation is a Middle Jurassic to Late Jurassic geologic formation, from the Jurassic period of the Mesozoic Era. Its age is controversial, uranium-lead dating of the volcanic tuff beds having given various different ages.[1] Recent work suggests that the base of the formation was formed around 171 Ma, during the upper Aalenian, while the main age for the Lower Las Chacritas Member being around 168 Ma, during the Bajocian, Bathonian and Callovian While the overlying Puesto Almada Member seems to be around 158 ma, or Oxfordian age.[2]

It is located in the Cañadón Asfalto Basin, a rift basin in Chubut Province of northwestern Patagonia, in southern Argentina.[3] The basin started forming in the earliest Jurassic.[4]

It is composed of fluvial-lacustrine deposits, typically sandstones and shales with a saline paleolake carbonate evaporitic sequence of limestone in its lowest Las Chacritas Member.[3][5] Interbedded with these are volcanic tuffites. It is divided into two members, the Las Chacritas Member, and the overlying Puesto Almada member, but the latter has also been assigned to the overlying Cañadón Calcáreo Formation by other authors.[6]

According to a palynological study the dominant pollen was produced by the conifer families Cheirolepidiaceae (Classopollis) and Araucariaceae (mainly Araucariacites and Callialasporites), suggesting that warm-temperate and relatively humid conditions under highly seasonal climate prevailed during the depositional times of the unit. The abundance of Botryococcus supports the presence of a shallow lake with probably saline conditions.[7]

Vertebrate fauna[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Amphibians reported from the Cañadon Asfalto Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Notobatrachus

N. degiustoi

Cañadon Bagual

Las Chacritas Member

Many articulated, mostly complete skeletons.[8]

Can be distinguished from N. reigsi by features of the skull.

Notobatrachus NT.jpg

N. reigi

Cañadon Bagual

Las Chacritas Member

Most of a partially articulated skeleton and skull.[8]

Can be distinguished from N. degiustoi by features of the skull.

Turtles[edit]

Turtles reported from the Cañadon Asfalto Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Condorchelys

C. antiqua

Queso Rallado

Las Chacritas Member

Most of a skull, carapace, and plastron.[8]

A stem turtle outside both extant groups.

Lepidosaurs[edit]

Lepidosaurs reported from the Cañadon Asfalto Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Sphenocondor S. gracilis Queso Rallado Las Chacritas Member Dentary[9] Rhynchocephalian

Pterosaurs[edit]

Pterosaurs reported from the Cañadón Asfalto Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Allkaruen

A. koi

Canadón Carrizal

Las Chacritas Member

A braincase, as well as a mandible and cervical vertebrae.[10]

Crocodyliformes[edit]

Crocodyliformes reported from the Cañadón Asfalto Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Almadasuchus A. figarii Puesto Almada Puesto Almada Member "posterior half of the skull, further isolated elements of skull and lower jaws, fragmentary postcranium"[11]

Dinosaurs[edit]

Dinosaurs reported from the Cañadón Asfalto Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Condorraptor

C. currumili

Las Chacritas

Las Chacritas Member

Partial articulated skeleton.[12]

A relative of Piatnitzkysaurus from the same formation, and a possible junior synonym of it as well.[13]

Condorraptor.jpg

Eoabelisaurus

E. mefi

Jugo Luco

Las Chacritas Member

A nearly complete articulated skeleton.[14]

A primitive abelisaurian about 6 to 6.5 m (20 to 21 ft) long.

Eoabelisaurus life restoration.jpg

Manidens

M. condorensis

Queso Rallado

Las Chacritas Member

Partial articulated specimen.[15]

A primitive and small heterodontosaurid.

Manidens.jpg

Patagosaurus

P. fariasi

Cerro Condor

Las Chacritas Member

Many specimens, including a partial skull.[16]

A non-neosauropodan eusauropodan, one of three from the formation.

Patagosaurus.jpg

Piatnitzkysaurus

P. floresi

Cerro Cóndor South Las Chacritas Member

Two "fragmentary skulls with associated postcranium."[17]

Possible senior synonym of Condorraptor from the same formation.[13]

Piatnitzkysaurus floresi by Paleocolour.jpg

Volkheimeria

V. chubutensis

Cerro Cóndor South Las Chacritas Member

"Partial skeleton consisting of presacral and sacral vertebrae, pelvis, [and] hindlimb."[18]

A non-neosauropodan eusauropodan.

Mammals[edit]

Mammals reported from the Cañadón Asfalto Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Argentoconodon

A. fariasorum

Queso Rallado

Las Chacritas Member

Jaws and several post-cranial elements.[19]

A volaticotherian.

Asfaltomylos

A. patagonicus

Queso Rallado

Las Chacritas Member

Dental remains.[8]

Related to Henosferus in Henosferidae.

Henosferus

H. molus

Queso Rallado

Las Chacritas Member

Dental remains.[8]

Related to Asfaltomylos in Henosferidae.

Condorodon

C. spanios

Queso Rallado

Las Chacritas Member

Dental remains.

An "amphilestid".[20]

Plant remains[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Baculatisporites

B. comaumensis

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Spores.[21]

Spores from the family Osmundaceae.

Dictyophyllidites

D. sp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Spores.[21]

Spores of the family Osmundaceae.

Nevesisporites

N. cf. radiatus

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Spores.[21]

Spores of the group Bryophyta.

cf. Rugulatisporites

cf. R. sp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Spores.[21]

Spores of the family Osmundaceae.

Alisporites

A. similis

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Caytoniaceae.

A. sp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Caytoniaceae.

Araucariacites

A. australis

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Araucariaceae.

A. fissus

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Araucariaceae.

Callialasporites

C. dampieri

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Araucariaceae.

C. microvelatus

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Araucariaceae.

C. turbatus

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Araucariaceae.

Cerebropollenites

C. macroverrucosus

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Taxodiaceae.

Classopollis

C. classoides

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Cheirolepidiaceae.

C. intrareticulatus

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Cheirolepidiaceae.

C. simplex

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Cheirolepidiaceae.

Exesipollenites

E. sp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Cheirolepidiaceae.

Perinopollenites

P. elatoides

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Podocarpaceae.

Phrixipollenites

P. sp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Podocarpaceae.

Podocarpadites

P. verrucosus

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Podocarpaceae.

P. sp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Podocarpaceae.

Microcachryidites

M. castellanosii

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Pollen.[21]

Pollen of the family Podocarpaceae.

Botryococcus

B. sp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Algae.[21]

Algae of the family Botryococcaceae.

Botryococcus braunii.jpg

Ovoidites

O. spp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Algae.[21]

Algae of the family Zygnemataceae.

Leiosphaeridia

L. sp.

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Algae.[21]

Algae of the family Prasinophyceae.

Equisetites

E. approximatus

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the group Equisetales.

Cladophlebis

C. grahami

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the family Osmundaceae.

Cladophlebis nebbensis - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo - DSC07005.JPG

Sphenopteris

S. patagonica

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the group Filicales.

Sphenopteris schumannii.jpg

S. hallei

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the group Filicales.

Scleropteris

S. furcata

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the group Pteridospermata.

Araucaritites

A. chuchensis

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the family Araucariaceae.

Pagiophyllum

P. divaricatum

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the family Araucariaceae.

P. fiestmantelli

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the family Araucariaceae.

Elatoclaudus

E. conferta

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the family Podocarpaceae.

E. jabalpurensis

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the family Podocarpaceae.

Athrotaxis

A. ungeri

Central Patagonia

Cañadon Lahuincó

Plants.[21]

Plants of the family Taxodiaceae.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cúneo, Rubén; Ramezani, Jahandar; Scasso, Roberto; Pol, Diego; Escapa, Ignacio; Zavattieri, Ana M.; Bowring, Samuel A. (November 2013). "High-precision U–Pb geochronology and a new chronostratigraphy for the Cañadón Asfalto Basin, Chubut, central Patagonia: Implications for terrestrial faunal and floral evolution in Jurassic". Gondwana Research. 24 (3–4): 1267–1275. Bibcode:2013GondR..24.1267C. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2013.01.010. ISSN 1342-937X.
  2. ^ Hauser, N.; Cabaleri, N.G.; Gallego, O.F.; Monferran, M.D.; Silva Nieto, D.; Armella, C.; Matteini, M.; Aparicio González, P.A.; Pimentel, M.M.; Volkheimer, W.; Reimold, W.U. (October 2017). "U-Pb and Lu-Hf zircon geochronology of the Cañadón Asfalto Basin, Chubut, Argentina: Implications for the magmatic evolution in central Patagonia". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 78: 190–212. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2017.05.001. hdl:11336/36240.
  3. ^ a b Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A. (2013). "Sedimentology and paleoenvironments of the Las Chacritas carbonate paleolake, Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Jurassic), Patagonia, Argentina". Sedimentary Geology. 284-285: 91–105. Bibcode:2013SedG..284...91C. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.11.008.
  4. ^ Figari et al., 2015, p.142
  5. ^ Researchgate.net: "The palynology of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Jurassic), Cerro Cóndor depocentre, Cañadón Asfalto Basin, Patagonia, Argentina: Palaeoecology and palaeoclimate based on ecogroup analysis"
  6. ^ Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Pol, Diego (November 2017). "A Theropod Dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Central Patagonia, and the Evolution of the Theropod Tarsus". Ameghiniana. 54 (5): 539–566. doi:10.5710/amgh.12.10.2017.3105. ISSN 0002-7014.
  7. ^ Olivera, Daniela; Zavattieri, Ana; Quattrocchio, Mirta (2015-03-11). The palynology of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Jurassic), Cerro Cóndor depocentre, Cañadón Asfalto Basin, Patagonia, Argentina: Palaeoecology and palaeoclimate based on ecogroup analysis. 39.
  8. ^ a b c d e Escapa, I.H.; Sterli, J.; Pol, D.; Nicoli, L. (2008). "Jurassic Tetrapods and Flora of Cañadon Asfalto Formation in Cerro Cóndor Area, Chubut Province" (PDF). Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina. 63 (4): 613–624. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-24. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
  9. ^ Apesteguía, S. N.; Gómez, R. L. O.; Rougier, G. W. (2012). "A basal sphenodontian (Lepidosauria) from the Jurassic of Patagonia: New insights on the phylogeny and biogeography of Gondwanan rhynchocephalians". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 166 (2): 342. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00837.x.
  10. ^ Codorniú, L.; Carabajal, A.P.; Pol, D.; Unwin, D.; Rauhut, O.W.M (2016). "A Jurassic pterosaur from Patagonia and the origin of the pterodactyloid neurocranium". PeerJ. 4: e2311. doi:10.7717/peerj.2311. PMC 5012331. PMID 27635315.
  11. ^ Pol, D.; Rauhut, O. W. M.; Lecuona, A.; Leardi, J. M.; Xu, X.; Clark, J. M. (2013). "A new fossil from the Jurassic of Patagonia reveals the early basicranial evolution and the origins of Crocodyliformes". Biological Reviews. 88 (4): 862–872. doi:10.1111/brv.12030. PMID 23445256.
  12. ^ Rauhut, O.W.M. (2005). "Osteology and relationships of a new theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia". Palaeontology. 48 (1): 87–110. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2004.00436.x.
  13. ^ a b Novas, Fernando (2009). The Age of Dinosaurs in South America. Indiana University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0253352897.
  14. ^ Diego Pol & Oliver W. M. Rauhut (2012). "A Middle Jurassic abelisaurid from Patagonia and the early diversification of theropod dinosaurs". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1804): 3170–5. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0660. PMC 3385738. PMID 22628475.
  15. ^ Pol, D.; Rauhut, O.W.M.; Becerra, M. (2011). "A Middle Jurassic heterodontosaurid dinosaur from Patagonia and the evolution of heterodontosaurids". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (5): 369–379. Bibcode:2011NW.....98..369P. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0780-5. PMID 21452054.
  16. ^ Rahut, O.W.M. (2003). "A Dentary of Patagosaurus (Sauropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia". Ameghiniana. 40 (3): 425–432. ISSN 0002-7014.
  17. ^ "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 72.
  18. ^ "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 262.
  19. ^ Gaetano, L.C.; Rougier, G.W. (2011). "New materials of Argentoconodon fariasorum (Mammaliaformes, Triconodontidae) from the Jurassic of Argentina and its bearing on triconodont phylogeny". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (4): 829–843. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.589877.
  20. ^ L. C. Gaetano and G. W. Rougier. 2012. First amphilestid from South America: a molariform from the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Mammalian Evolution
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Volkheimer, W.; Quattrocchio, M.; Cabaleri, N.; García, V. (2011). "Palynology and paleoenvironment of the Jurassic lacustrine Cañadón Asfalto Formation at Cañadón Lahuincó locality, Chubut Province, Central Patagonia, Argentina". Revista Española de Micropaleontología. 40 (1–2): 77–96. ISSN 0556-655X.[permanent dead link]

Bibliography[edit]