Cardiomyopathy

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Cardiomyopathy
Idiopathic cardiomyopathy, gross pathology 20G0018 lores.jpg
Opened left ventricle of heart shows a thickened, dilated left ventricle with subendocardial fibrosis manifested as increased whiteness of endocardium.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Cardiology
ICD-10 I25.5, I42, I43
ICD-9-CM 425
DiseasesDB 2137
MedlinePlus 001105
Patient UK Cardiomyopathy
MeSH D009202

Cardiomyopathy (literally "heart muscle disease") is the measurable deterioration for any reason of the ability of the myocardium (the heart muscle) to contract, usually leading to heart failure. Common symptoms include dyspnea (breathlessness) and peripheral edema (swelling of the legs). Those with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of dangerous forms of irregular heart rate and sudden cardiac death.[1] The most common form of cardiomyopathy is dilated cardiomyopathy.[2][3] Although the term "cardiomyopathy" could theoretically apply to almost any disease affecting the heart, it is usually reserved for "severe myocardial disease leading to heart failure".Cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, resulted in 443,000 deaths in 2013 up from 294,000 in 1990.[4]

Differential diagnosis[edit]

Cardiomyopathies are either confined to the heart or are part of a generalized disorder, both often leading to death or progressive heart failure. Other diseases that cause heart muscle dysfunction are excluded, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, or abnormalities of the heart valves.[5]

Earlier, simpler, categories such as intrinsic, (defined as weakness of the heart muscle without an identifiable external cause), and extrinsic, (where the primary pathology arose outside the myocardium itself), became more difficult to sustain.[medical citation needed] For example, as more external causes were recognized, the intrinsic category became smaller. Alcoholism, for example, has been identified as a cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, as has drug toxicity, and certain infections (including Hepatitis C). On the other hand, molecular biology and genetics have given rise to the recognition of various genetic causes, increasing the intrinsic category. For example, mutations in the cardiac desmosomal genes as well as in the DES gene may cause arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).[6][7]

At the same time, a more clinical categorization of cardiomyopathy as 'hypertrophied', 'dilated', or 'restrictive',[8] became difficult to maintain when it became apparent that some of the conditions could fulfill more than one of those three categories at any particular stage of their development.The current American Heart Association definition divides cardiomyopathies into primary, which affect the heart alone, and secondary, which are the result of illness affecting other parts of the body. These categories are further broken down into subgroups which incorporate new genetic and molecular biology knowledge.[9]

Types[edit]

Cardiomyopathies can be classified using different criteria:[10]

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy HE stain
Structural categories of cardiomyopathy (constrictive cardiomyopathy is not pictured)

Mechanism[edit]

Symptoms may include a shortness of breath after physical exertion, fatigue (feeling tired) and swelling (feet,legs abdomen). also arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythm) and chest pain may be present.[15]

The pathophysiology of cardiomyopathies is better understood at the cellular level with advances in molecular techniques. Mutant proteins can disturb cardiac function in the contractile apparatus (or mechanosensitive complexes). Cardiomyocyte alterations and their persistent responses at the cellular level cause changes that are correlated with sudden cardiac death and other cardiac problems.[16]

Diagnosis[edit]

Among the diagnostic procedures done to determine a cardiomyopathy are:[17]

Treatment[edit]

Treatment may include suggestion of lifestyle changes to better manage the condition.Treatment depends on the type of cardiomyopathy and condition of disease, but may include medication (conservative treatment) or iatrogenic/implanted pacemakers for slow heart rates, defibrillators for those prone to fatal heart rhythms, ventricular assist devices (VADs) for severe heart failure, or ablation for recurring dysrhythmias that cannot be eliminated by medication or mechanical cardioversion. The goal of treatment is often symptom relief, and some patients may eventually require a heart transplant.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kasper, Denis Lh. et al. (2005). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th edn. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-139140-1. 
  2. ^ Cardiopulmonary Pharmacology for Respiratory Care, Jahangir Moini, Ch.2; page 24
  3. ^ http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cm/types.html
  4. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442. 
  5. ^ Lakdawala, NK; Stevenson, LW; Loscalzo, J (2015). "Chapter 287". In Kasper, DL; Fauci, AS; Hauser, SL; Longo, DL; Jameson, JL; Loscalzo, J. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 1553. ISBN 978-0-07-180215-4. 
  6. ^ Klauke B, Kossmann S, Gaertner A, Brand K, Stork I, Brodehl A, Dieding M, Walhorn V, Anselmetti D, Gerdes D, Bohms B, Schulz U, Zu Knyphausen E, Vorgerd M, Gummert J, Milting H (2010). "De novo desmin-mutation N116S is associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy". Hum. Mol. Genet. 19 (23): 4595–607. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq387. PMID 20829228. 
  7. ^ Brodehl A, Hedde PN, Dieding M, Fatima A, Walhorn V, Gayda S, Šarić T, Klauke B, Gummert J, Anselmetti D, Heilemann M, Nienhaus GU, Milting H (2012). "Dual color photoactivation localization microscopy of cardiomyopathy-associated desmin mutants". J. Biol. Chem. 287 (19): 16047–57. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.313841. PMC 3346104. PMID 22403400. 
  8. ^ Valentin Fuster; John Willis Hurst (2004). Hurst's the heart. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 1884–. ISBN 978-0-07-143225-2. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  9. ^ McCartan C, Maso R, Jayasinghe SR, Griffiths LR (2012). "Cardiomyopathy Classification: Ongoing Debate in the Genomics Era". Biochem Res Int. 2012 2012: 796926. doi:10.1155/2012/796926. PMC 3423823. PMID 22924131. 
  10. ^ Vinay, Kumar (2013). Robbins Basic Pathology. Elsevier. p. 396. ISBN 978-1-4377-1781-5. 
  11. ^ a b Maron, Barry (2015). "Contemporary Definitions and Classification of the Cardiomyopathies". AHA Scientific Statement/circulation. Retrieved August 2015. 
  12. ^ Improvement in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/457562_4
  13. ^ Elliott, P.; Andersson, B.; Arbustini, E.; Bilinska, Z.; Cecchi, F.; Charron, P.; Dubourg, O.; Kühl, U.; Maisch, B.; McKenna, W. J.; Monserrat, L.; Pankuweit, S.; Rapezzi, C.; Seferovic, P.; Tavazzi, L.; Keren, A. (2007). "Classification of the cardiomyopathies: a position statement from the european society of cardiology working group on myocardial and pericardial diseases". European Heart Journal 29 (2): 270–276. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm342. PMID 17916581. 
  14. ^ Maron, B. J.; Towbin, J. A.; Thiene, G.; Antzelevitch, C.; Corrado, D.; Arnett, D.; Moss, A. J.; Seidman, C. E.; Young, J. B.; American Heart, A. (2006). "Contemporary Definitions and Classification of the Cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention". Circulation 113 (14): 1807–1816. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.174287. PMID 16567565. 
  15. ^ "What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cardiomyopathy?". NIH.gov. NIH. 2014. Retrieved 2015. 
  16. ^ Harvey, Pamela A.; Leinwand, Leslie A. (2011-08-08). "Cellular mechanisms of cardiomyopathy". The Journal of Cell Biology 194 (3): 355–365. doi:10.1083/jcb.201101100. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC 3153638. PMID 21825071. 
  17. ^ "How Is Cardiomyopathy Diagnosed? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-08-18. 
  18. ^ "How Is Cardiomyopathy Treated?". NIH.gov. NIH. 2015. Retrieved 2015. 

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