Ceuta border fence
The Ceuta border fence forms part of the Morocco–Spain border at Ceuta, a city on the North African coast. Constructed by Spain, its purpose is to prevent smuggling and to stop migrants from entering Europe. Morocco objected to the construction of the barrier since it does not recognize Spanish sovereignty in Ceuta.
The fence consists of parallel 6 metre (20-foot) high fences topped with barbed wire, with regular watchposts and a road running between them to accommodate police patrols or ambulance service in case of need. Underground cables connect spotlights, noise and movement sensors, and video cameras to a central control booth; dozens of guard ships and patrol boats check the coast, while 621 Guardia Civil officers and 548 police officers control the shore.
In 1993 a 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) high and 8.4 km (5.2 mi) long fence was built around the exclave. As the first fence was too easy to cross the construction of a new system started in 1995 bringing it up to 3 metres (9.8 ft). In 2005 the height was further increased, from 3 to 6 m (9 ft 10 in to 19 ft 8 in) in height.
2005 attempted border breach
On 7 October 2005, the border fence was assaulted by hundreds of migrants, attracting international attention. Caught between Spanish rubber bullets and Moroccan gunfire, a number of migrants died (sources put the number of deaths between 13 and 18 people) and more than 50 were wounded. Some of the dead were wounded by live ammunition; of those, two died on the Spanish side of the fence, apparently shot from the Moroccan positions. The 2005 events at the Ceuta and Melilla border fences are the subject of a documentary film, Victimes de nos richesses.
The fence was breached by an organised group of 400 illegal entrants in December 2016. 
On 17 February 2017, an estimated 600 migrants, some armed with clubs and shears, broke through the security gates, and 300 of them are reported to have entered Ceuta, where police attempted to locate them.
- In June 2018, 400 migrants, the majority of whom were Moroccans, stormed the fence in Ceuta.
- In July 2018, 602 migrants forced their way across the border using shears, sticks and edged weapons. The migrants sprayed corrosive substances, excrement and urine on police officers, resulting in 22 Spanish police officers being wounded, four of whom suffered major burns. After this breach, the border was reinforced with more personnel, extra police vehicles and a helicopter equipped with night-vision equipment.
- In August 2018, of the hundreds who attempted to force their way into Ceuta, more than 100 people succeeded, bringing the overall total to 1,400. The migrants again threw excrement and corrosive substances at the Spanish police, wounding seven, some of whom suffered burns. The following day, 116 Africans were deported back across the border per a 1992 bilateral agreement between Spain and Morocco.
In August 2019, migrants stormed the fence using sticks and acid. Dozens were injured on the barbed wire and 11 border agents were wounded.
- Ferrer-Gallardo, Xavier; Albet-Mas, Abel (1 July 2016). "EU-Limboscapes: Ceuta and the proliferation of migrant detention spaces across the European Union". European Urban and Regional Studies. 23 (3): 527–530. doi:10.1177/0969776413508766. ISSN 0969-7764.[permanent dead link]
- Bilefsky, Dan (20 February 2017). "More Migrants Storm Fence to Enter Ceuta, Spanish Enclave in Africa". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- "Spain/Morocco: Protect Migrants, Asylum Seekers". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- Valsecchi, Riccardo (25 June 2009). "Ceuta, the border-fence of Europe". New York: WorldPress.
- Building Fortress Europe? Schengen and the Cases of Ceuta and Melilla
- EUROPA - Press Releases - Visit to Ceuta and Melilla – Mission Report Technical mission to Morocco on illegal immigration 7 October– 11 October 2005
- Migrants shot dead at the border fence, Spain deploys army
- Barlet, Olivier. "Victimes de nos richesses". Africultures (in French). Archived from the original on 1 January 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- "Spain: Accountability urged for 'appalling' migrant deaths in Ceuta". Amnesty International. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Migrants Break IN". Euronews. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Hundreds of migrants storm fence to reach Spanish enclave of Ceuta". BBC. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- "Unos 400 inmigrantes intentan saltar la frontera de Ceuta y tres resultan heridos". El Huffington Post (in Spanish). 6 June 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
- "Más de 600 inmigrantes entran en Ceuta tras saltar la valla: 22 guardias civiles heridos, varios por cal viva". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "El Gobierno usa un acuerdo de 1992 para expulsar a los 116 inmigrantes que saltaron ayer la valla de Ceuta". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "DFer kritiseres for opfordring til at skyde migranter: "Nu må det være nok"". www.b.dk (in Danish). 27 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Editorial, Reuters. "More than 100 migrants storm border of North African Spanish enclave". U.S. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Migranter udvist til Marokko efter at have stormet enklave". www.b.dk (in Danish). 23 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Rodero, Pablo. "Spain returns to Morocco migrants who stormed enclave fence". U.S. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Cañas, Jesús A. (30 August 2019). "Around 150 migrants jump border fence into Ceuta". El País. ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
Bibliography in English
- Ferrer-Gallardo, Xavier. 2008. "The Spanish-Moroccan Border Complex: Processes of Geopolitics, Functional and Symbolic Rebordering." Political Geography 27: 301-321.
- Gold, Peter. 2000. Europe or Africa: A Contemporary Study of the North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
- Moffette, David. 2013. "Muslim Ceutíes, Migrants and Porteadores: Race, Security and Tolerance at the Spanish-Moroccan Border." Canadian Journal of Sociology 38(4): 601-621.
- Valsecchi, Riccardo. 2009. "Ceuta, the border-fence of Europe" WorldPress, 25 June 2009.
- Media related to Ceuta border fence at Wikimedia Commons
- Spain: building border fence
- Ceuta, the border-fence of Europe
- Mustafa, the swimming fridge smuggler, and his macabre pact
- Attacking Europe's border fences
- Ceuta border fence photo gallery: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9