2013 Lampedusa migrant shipwreck
|Date||3, 11 October 2013|
|Deaths||(over 360 estimated; 359 confirmed)|
On 3 October 2013, a boat carrying migrants from Libya to Italy sank off the Italian island of Lampedusa. It was reported that the boat had sailed from Misrata, Libya, but that many of the migrants were originally from Eritrea, Somalia and Ghana. An emergency response involving the Italian Coast Guard resulted in the rescue of 155 survivors. On 12 October it was reported that the confirmed death toll after searching the boat was 359, but that further bodies were still missing; a figure of "more than 360" deaths was later reported.
A second shipwreck occurred 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Lampedusa on 11 October, within the Maltese search and rescue zone, but closer to Lampedusa. The boat was reportedly carrying migrants from Syria, and at least 34 individuals were later confirmed dead.
3 October incident
It was initially reported that over five hundred people were on board the 20-metre-long (66 ft) fishing boat when it began to have engine trouble less than a quarter-mile from Lampedusa, causing the ship to begin sinking. In an attempt to contact nearby boats, a blanket on the ship was lit on fire. However, this fire grew worse when it ignited some gasoline and began to engulf the boat before it sank. To avoid the flames, many people threw themselves into the water or moved away from the fire to the same part of the ship, which then capsized. At least 350 people were initially declared missing.
On 7 October, it was reported that 194 bodies had been recovered, and that the final death toll could rise to between 325 and 363 individuals. A total of 155 people had been rescued. A further 108 bodies were reported retrieved by 9 October, after access was gained to the inside of the boat's hull, resting some 47 metres (154 ft) beneath the surface of the water. On 11 October, it was reported that all bodies had been recovered from the boat, and the confirmed death toll had reached 339. About 50 were believed to be still missing, and searches for further bodies in the area would continue using aircraft and robotic devices. A further 20 bodies had been found by 12 October, bringing the total to 359. The total number of dead was later reported as "more than 360".
On 8 November, it was reported that the migrants had each paid at least $3,000 (£1,866) to the Libyan, Somali and Sudanese trafficking group before making the sea crossing from Libya. Women who were unable to pay were said to have been raped, and men who rebelled were tied up and tortured. The alleged captain of the boat, a 35-year-old Tunisian named as Khaled Bensalam, who was reported to have been deported from Italy in April 2013, was arrested under suspicion of being responsible for the sinking. It was reported that he could be charged with manslaughter. On 8 November, a 34-year-old Somali national, Mouhamud Elmi Muhidin, and a Palestinian man, Attour Abdalmenem, were also arrested under suspicion of having been among the traffickers that organized the voyage. Police indicated that Muhidin was facing a series of charges, including people trafficking, kidnapping, sexual assault, and criminal association with the aim of abetting illicit immigration. The two men were detained by the Italian police after a number of the shipwreck survivors spotted and began attacking them.
Pope Francis of the Roman Catholic Church tweeted "pray [to] God for the victims of the shipwreck off Lampedusa," while Italian Prime Minister Enrico Letta tweeted that it was "an immense tragedy". António Guterres, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, commended the Italian Coast Guard for their quick reaction to the disaster. The Italian Government launched Operation Mare Nostrum in order to avoid new tragedies.
Italian Deputy Prime Minister Angelino Alfano stated that the incident highlighted the need for European assistance to handle the continuing influx of refugees, declaring the shipwreck "a European tragedy, not just an Italian one[...] The toll is unfortunately a tragic one". A national day of mourning was also announced in Italy.
In response to the deaths, Cecilia Malmström, European Commissioner for Home Affairs, called for the European Union to increase their Mediterranean-wide search and rescue patrols to intercept migrant boats, through the Frontex border agency. She said: "Let's make sure that what happened in Lampedusa will be a wakeup call to increase solidarity and mutual support and to prevent similar tragedies in the future." José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, and Italian Prime Minister Letta visited Lampedusa on 9 October. Letta announced that a state funeral would be held for the migrants who died, and Barroso said that 30 million euros would be used to help refugees in Italy.
Shipwreck of 11 October
|Date||11 October 2013|
|Outcome||Vessel sank, 147 rescued|
A second shipwreck occurred on 11 October, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Lampedusa within the territorial waters of Malta. Reports the following day stated that 34 were confirmed dead; initial unconfirmed reports of at least 50 bodies appeared to be exaggerated. The boat was carrying over 200 migrants, reportedly from Syria and Palestine, and capsized when people on board moved to one side of the vessel as they tried to get the attention of a passing aircraft. The rescue operation was coordinated by the Maltese authorities, with the assistance of some of the Italian vessels involved after 3 October shipwreck at Lampedusa. Some 147 survivors were taken to Malta, and a further 56 were taken to Italy. According to some of the Syrian migrants, the boat was fired upon by Libyan militiamen during a trafficking gang dispute.
After the second shipwreck, the Prime Minister of Malta, Joseph Muscat, complained of a lack of action from other European countries on the problem of migration across the sea, and said: "As things stand we are building a cemetery within our Mediterranean Sea." United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on the international community as a whole "to take action to prevent such tragedies in the future, including measures that address their root causes and that places the vulnerability and human rights of migrants at the centre of the response."
On 8 November, Italian police arrested a 47-year-old Palestinian man, Attour Abdalmenem, for having allegedly been among the traffickers that organized the voyage.
Two italian officers are accused of multiple manslaughter by delaying the rescue of the boat. Their trial is scheduled for 3 December 2019.
- Lampedusa immigrant reception center
- 2009 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
- 2011 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
- 2014 Libya migrant shipwreck
- Ghost boat investigation
- 2015 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
- "Lampedusa boat tragedy: Migrants 'raped and tortured'". BBC News. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- Pianigiani, Gaia (3 October 2013). "Scores of Migrants Dead After Boat Sinks Off Sicily". The New York Times. Siracusa. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Dozens of migrants die in Italy boat sinking near Lampedusa". BBC News. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Witness: Boat migrants used bottles to stay afloat". USA Today. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "Mediterranean 'a cemetery' – Maltese PM Muscat". BBC News. 12 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- "'Dozens feared dead' off Lampedusa as migrant boat capsizes". BBC News. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- "Italy sinking: Search resumes for missing migrants". BBC News. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Davies, Lizzy (3 October 2013). "Italy boat wreck: scores of migrants die as boat sinks off Lampedusa". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Lampedusa boat disaster: Death toll rises to 232". BBC News. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Italy to hold state funeral for shipwreck migrants". BBC News. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Prosecutors Detain Alleged 'Skipper' in Lampedusa Shipwreck". The Wall Street Journal. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Second migrant ship capsizes near Sicily where shipwreck left 339 dead last week". The National Post. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- "Italy shipwreck migrants raped, tortured". Agence France-Presse. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Bruno, Luca (6 October 2013). "Italian migrant death toll reaches at least 194". WDRB.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- "Lampedusa wreck: EU seeks Mediterranean migrant sea patrols". WDRB.com. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Police in Italy arrest Somalia national accused of organizing deadly migrant voyage". Deutsche Welle. 9 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- "Italy calls for European help on refugees as scores drown in Lampedusa shipwreck". Daily Telegraph. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Commissioner Malmström's intervention on Lampedusa during the Home Affairs Council press conference", European Commission, 8 October 2013
- "Malta shipwreck survivors: 'militiamen' fired at boat". Daily Star. 13 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Ban Ki-moon: "After latest Lampedusa tragedy, Ban calls for action to protect human rights of migrants", United Nations News Centre. 12 October 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- Neil Camilleri: December trial for Italian officers charged over 11 October 2013 migrant tragedy. Malta Independent 17. September 2019.