Congregationalist polity, or congregational polity, often known as congregationalism, is a system of ecclesiastical polity in which every local church (congregation) is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign, or "autonomous". Its first articulation in writing is the Cambridge Platform of 1648 in New England.
Major Protestant Christian traditions that employ congregationalism include Quakerism, the Baptist churches, the Congregational Methodist Church, and Congregational churches known by the Congregationalist name and having descended from the Independent Reformed wing of the Anglo-American Puritan movement of the 17th century. More recent generations have witnessed a growing number of nondenominational churches, which are often congregationalist in their governance.
Congregationalism is distinguished from episcopal polity which is governance by a hierarchy of bishops, and is distinct from presbyterian polity in which higher assemblies of congregational representatives can exercise considerable authority over individual congregations.
Congregationalism is not limited only to organization of Christian church congregations. The principles of congregationalism have been inherited by the Unitarian Universalist Association and the Canadian Unitarian Council. Most Jewish synagogues, many Sikh Gurdwaras, and most Islamic mosques in the US operate under congregational government, with no hierarchies.
The term congregationalist polity describes a form of church governance that is based on the local congregation. Each local congregation is independent and self-supporting, governed by its own members. Some band into loose voluntary associations with other congregations that share similar beliefs (e.g., the Willow Creek Association and the Unitarian Universalist Association). Others join "conventions", such as the Southern Baptist Convention, the National Baptist Convention or the American Baptist Churches USA (formerly the Northern Baptist Convention). In Quaker Congregationalism, monthly meetings, which are the most basic unit of administration, may be organized into larger Quarterly meetings or Yearly Meetings. Monthly, quarterly, or yearly meetings may also be associated with large "umbrella" associations such as Friends General Conference or Friends United Meeting. These conventions generally provide stronger ties between congregations, including some doctrinal direction and pooling of financial resources. Congregations that belong to associations and conventions are still independently governed. Most non-denominational churches are organized along congregationalist lines. Many do not see these voluntary associations as "denominations", because they "believe that there is no church other than the local church, and denominations are in variance to Scripture."
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Most Baptists hold that no denominational or ecclesiastical organization has inherent authority over an individual Baptist church. Churches can properly relate to each other under this polity only through voluntary cooperation, never by any sort of coercion. Furthermore, this Baptist polity calls for freedom from governmental control. Exceptions to this local form of local governance include the Episcopal Baptists that have an episcopal system.
Independent Baptist churches have no formal organizational structure above the level of the local congregation. More generally among Baptists, a variety of parachurch agencies and evangelical educational institutions may be supported generously or not at all, depending entirely upon the local congregation's customs and predilections. Usually doctrinal conformity is held as a first consideration when a church makes a decision to grant or decline financial contributions to such agencies, which are legally external and separate from the congregations they serve. These practices also find currency among non-denominational fundamentalist or charismatic fellowships, many of which derive from Baptist origins, culturally if not theologically.
Most Southern Baptist and National Baptist congregations, by contrast, generally relate more closely to external groups such as mission agencies and educational institutions than do those of independent persuasion. However, they adhere to a very similar ecclesiology, refusing to permit outside control or oversight of the affairs of the local church.
Churches of Christ
Ecclesiastical government is congregational rather than denominational. Churches of Christ purposefully have no central headquarters, councils, or other organizational structure above the local church level.[a] Rather, the independent congregations are a network with each congregation participating at its own discretion in various means of service and fellowship with other congregations.[b] Churches of Christ are linked by their shared commitment to restoration principles.
Congregations are generally overseen by a plurality of elders (also known in some congregations as shepherds, bishops, or pastors) who are sometimes assisted in the administration of various works by deacons. Elders are generally seen as responsible for the spiritual welfare of the congregation, while deacons are seen as responsible for the non-spiritual needs of the church. Deacons serve under the supervision of the elders, and are often assigned to direct specific ministries. Successful service as a deacon is often seen as preparation for the eldership. Elders and deacons are chosen by the congregation based on the qualifications found in Timothy 3 and Titus 1. Congregations look for elders who have a mature enough understanding of scripture to enable them to supervise the minister and to teach, as well as to perform governance functions. In lieu of willing men who meet these qualifications, congregations are sometimes overseen by an unelected committee of the congregation's men.
While the early Restoration Movement had a tradition of itinerant preachers rather than "located Preachers", during the 20th century a long-term, formally trained congregational minister became the norm among Churches of Christ. Ministers are understood to serve under the oversight of the elders. While the presence of a long-term professional minister has sometimes created "significant de facto ministerial authority" and led to conflict between the minister and the elders, the eldership has remained the "ultimate locus of authority in the congregation". There is a small group within the Churches of Christ which oppose a single preacher and, instead, rotate preaching duties among qualified elders (this group tends to overlap with groups which oppose Sunday School and also have only one cup to serve the Lord's Supper).
Churches of Christ hold to the priesthood of all believers. No special titles are used for preachers or ministers that would identify them as clergy. Churches of Christ emphasize that there is no distinction between "clergy" and "laity" and that every member has a gift and a role to play in accomplishing the work of the church.
Congregational Methodist Church
Methodists who disagreed with the episcopal polity of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South left their mother church to form the Congregational Methodist Church, which retains Wesleyan-Arminian theology but adopts congregationalist polity as a distinctive.
- According to The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement:
Churches of Christ from the beginning have maintained no formal organization structures larger than the local congregations and no official journals or vehicles declaring sanctioned positions. Consensus views do, however, often emerge through the influence of opinion leaders who express themselves in journals, at lectureships, or at area preacher meetings and other gatherings.
- Everett Ferguson wrote, "Churches of Christ adhere to a strict congregationalism that cooperates in various projects overseen by one congregation or organized as parachurch enterprises, but many congregations hold themselves apart from such cooperative projects."
- Doe 2013, p. 118.
- Berry 2003, p. 49.
- Pinson, William M., Jr. (2005). "Trends in Baptist Polity". Baptist History and Heritage Society. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
- Ferguson 2004, p. 206.
- Ferguson 2004, p. 206; Rhodes 2005, p. 124; Garrett 2002, p. 449.
- Baxter, Batsell Barrett. "Who Are the Churches of Christ and What Do They Believe in?". Nashville, Tennessee: Woodson Chapel Church of Christ. Archived from the original on 16 June 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- Magida & Matlins 1999, p. 106.
- Howard 1971, pp. 47, 54–55; Rhodes 2005, p. 124.
- Ferguson 1975; Ferguson 1996, pp. 323, 335; Howard 1971, pp. 48–53.
- Morgan 2004, p. 298.
- Roberts 1979, pp. 53–56.
- Magida & Matlins 1999, p. 106; Wharton 1997, pp. 112–113.
- Sweet 2003, pp. 38–40.
- Matthews 2007, p. 95.
- Berry, Carmen Renee (2003). The Unauthorized Guide to Choosing a Church. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Brazos Press. ISBN 978-1-58743-036-7.
- Doe, Norman (2013). Christian Law: Contemporary Principles. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-00692-8.
- Dusing, Michael L. (2007). "The New Testament Church". In Horton, Stanley M. (ed.). Systematic Theology (rev. ed.). Springfield, Michigan: Logion Press. pp. 525–566.
- Ferguson, Everett (1975). "Authority and Tenure of Elders". Restoration Quarterly. 18 (3): 142–150. ISSN 0486-5642. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- Ferguson, Everett (1996). The Church of Christ: A Biblical Ecclesiology for Today. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-4189-6.
- Ferguson, Everett (2004). "Church, Doctrine of the". In Foster, Douglas A.; Blowers, Paul M.; Dunnavant, Anthony L.; Williams, D. Newell (eds.). The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 206–209. ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8.
- Fiddes, Paul (1986). A Leading Question: The Structure and Authority of Leadership in the Local Church. London: Baptist Publications.
- Fiddes, Paul (2003). Tracks and Traces: Baptist Identity in Church and Theology. Carlisle, England: Paternoster Press.
- Foster, Douglas A.; Blowers, Paul M.; Dunnavant, Anthony L.; Williams, D. Newell, eds. (2004a). "Churches of Christ". The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 212ff. ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8.
- Foster, Douglas A.; Blowers, Paul M.; Dunnavant, Anthony L.; Williams, D. Newell, eds. (2004b). "Ministry". The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8.
- Garrett, Leroy (2002). The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement. Joplin, Missouri: College Press. ISBN 978-0-89900-909-4.
- Grudem, Wayne (2000). Electronic Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Whitefish, Montana: Bits & Bytes Computer Resources.
- Howard, V. E. (1971). What Is the Church of Christ? (rev. 4th ed.). West Monroe, Louisiana: Central Printers & Publishers.
- Hughes, Richard T. (2005). "Churches of Christ". In Hill, Samuel S.; Lippy, Charles H. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Religion in the South (2nd ed.). Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press. pp. 209–215. ISBN 978-0-86554-758-2.
- Klaus, Byron D. (2007). "The Mission of the Church". In Horton, Stanley M. (ed.). Systematic Theology (rev. ed.). Springfield, Michigan: Logion Press. pp. 567–596.
- Magida, Arthur J.; Matlins, Stuart M., eds. (1999). How to Be a Perfect Stranger: A Guide to Etiquette in Other People's Religious Ceremonies. Vol. 1. Kelowna, British Columbia: Northstone Publishing. ISBN 978-1-896836-28-7.
- Matthews, Rex Dale (2007). Timetables of History for Students of Methodism. Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press. ISBN 978-0-687-33387-5.
- Morgan, Peter M. (2004). "Elders, Eldership". In Foster, Douglas A.; Blowers, Paul M.; Dunnavant, Anthony L.; Williams, D. Newell (eds.). The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 297–299. ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8.
- Rhodes, Ron (2005). The Complete Guide to Christian Denominations. Eugene, Oregon: Harvest House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7369-1289-1.
- Roberts, Price (1979). Studies for New Converts. Cincinnati, Ohio: Standard Publishing Company.
- Sweet, R. B. (2003) . Now That I'm a Christian. Austin, Texas: Sweet Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8344-0129-7.
- Wharton, Edward C. (1997). The Church of Christ: The Distinctive Nature of the New Testament Church. Nashville, Tennessee: Gospel Advocate Company. ISBN 978-0-89225-464-4.