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A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains or mountain ranges. The term is a borrowing from Spanish, in which it has the same meaning. The Spanish word originates from cordilla, a diminutive of "cuerda", or "rope". It is most commonly used in the field of physical geography.
The term is particularly applied to the various ranges of the Andes of South America, and less frequently to other mountain ranges in the "ridge" which rims the Pacific Ocean. In Colombia and Venezuela the cordilleras are named according to their position: Cordillera Occidental, Central, and Oriental. Various local names identify the cordilleras in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.
Mountain ranges of this type have a complex structure, usually the result of folding and faulting accompanied by volcanic activity. In South America the ranges include numerous volcanic peaks. (Though not itself a volcano, Argentina's Mt. Aconcagua, at 22,834 feet (6,960 metres) high, is the highest point in the Western Hemisphere. The Andes cordillera has Ojos del Salado, the highest active volcano in the world, and second highest point in the Western Hemisphere.
A number of the volcanoes have been active in historic times. Aside from the volcanic peaks, the crests include many narrow ridges, some of which reach into the zone of permanent snow. Between the ranges there are numerous inhabited valleys, basins, and low plateaux with a wide range of elevations.
- Alborz Cordillera, Northwest-Northeast Iran (also written as Elburz)
- American Cordillera, the mountain ranges forming the western backbone of North America and South America
- Annamese Cordillera (Annamite Range), Laos and eastern Vietnam
- Arctic Cordillera, the mountain ranges along the northeastern edge of the Arctic Archipelago and the northeasternmost part of the Labrador Peninsula in Labrador and Quebec, Canada
- Baetic Cordillera, Spain
- Central Cordillera (New Guinea Highlands)
- Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), encompassing the Cordillera Central of the Philippines
- Cordillera Cantábrica and Cantabria (including the Picos de Europa)
- Cordillera Central, several mountain ranges share the name
- Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela
- Cordillera de los Andes, South America
- Cordillera de la Costa (Chilean Coast Range)
- Cordillera de la Costa (Venezuelan Coastal Range)
- Cordillera Occidental, Andes, Colombia and Ecuador
- Cordillera Occidental, Peru
- Cordillera Oriental, several mountain ranges share the name
- East Australian Cordillera, more commonly known as the Great Dividing Range
- Mexican Cordillera, consisting of the Juarez Segment, the Huayacocotla Segment, the Victoria Segment, and the Nuevoleones Cordillera
- North American Cordillera comprising the mountains of western North America
- Pacific Cordillera, an alternate name for the Western Cordillera in North America, usually used in Canada. Sometimes mis-used for the Pacific Coast Ranges.
- Southern Pacific Cordillera, Mindanao, Philippines
- Zagros Cordillera, Middle East, Southeast of Turkey, Northeast of Iraq, and Northwest to Southeast Iran
- The Encyclopedia Americana: a library of universal knowledge, page 687 (Encyclopedia Americana Corp., 1918): "It is used particularly in physical geography, although in geology also it is sometimes applied...."
- "Informe científico que estudia el Aconcagua, el Coloso de América mide 6960,8 metros" [Scientific Report on Aconcagua, the Colossus of America measures 6960,8m] (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. 2012. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012.