Divorce in the United States
|Marriage and other
equivalent or similar unions and status
|Validity of marriages|
|Dissolution of marriages|
|Private international law|
|Family and criminal code
(or criminal law)
Like marriage, divorce in the United States is under the jurisdiction of state governments, not the federal government. Divorce or "dissolution of marriage" is a legal process in which a judge or other authority dissolves the bonds of matrimony existing between two persons, thus restoring them to the status of being single and permitting them to marry other individuals. The legal process for divorce may also involve issues of spousal support, child custody, child support, distribution of property and division of debt, though these matters are usually only ancillary or consequential to the dissolution of the marriage.
In all but one state, and even in that state in most cases, a divorce must be certified by a court of law to become effective. The terms of the divorce are usually determined by the court, though they may take into account prenuptial or postnuptial agreements, or simply ratify terms that the spouses may have agreed to privately. In the absence of agreement, a contested divorce may be stressful to the spouses and lead to expensive litigation. Less adversarial approaches to divorce settlements include mediation and collaborative divorce, which negotiate mutually acceptable resolution to conflicts.
- 1 History
- 2 Law
- 3 Statistics
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Prior to the latter decades of the 20th century, a spouse seeking divorce in most states had to show a "fault" such as abandonment, cruelty, incurable mental illness, or adultery. Even in such cases, a divorce was barred in cases such as the suing spouse's procurement or connivance (contributing to the fault, such as by arranging for adultery), condonation (forgiving the fault either explicitly or by continuing to cohabit after knowing of it), or recrimination (the suing spouse also being guilty).
Because divorce was considered to be against the public interest, civil courts refused to grant a divorce if evidence revealed any hint of complicity between the husband and wife to divorce, or if they attempted to manufacture grounds for a divorce. Divorce was granted only because one party to the marriage had violated a sacred vow to the "innocent spouse." If both husband and wife were guilty, "neither would be allowed to escape the bonds of marriage."
By the 1960s, however, the use of collusive or deceptive practices to bypass the fault system had become a widespread concern, if not actually a widespread practice, and there was widespread agreement that something had to change. The National Association of Women Lawyers was instrumental in convincing the American Bar Association to help create a Family Law section in many state courts, and pushed strongly for no-fault divorce law around 1960 (cf. Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act). In 1969, California became the first U.S. state to pass a no-fault divorce law.
The National Center for Health Statistics reports that from 1975 to 1988 in the US, in families with children present, wives file for divorce in approximately two-thirds of cases. In 1975, 71.4% of the cases were filed by women, and in 1988, 65% were filed by women.
Lenore Weitzman's 1985 book, The Divorce Revolution, reported a one-year post-divorce decline in standard of living for women of 73% compared with a 42% one-year post-divorce increase in standard of living for men. Richard Peterson later calculated a 27% decrease in standard of living for women and a 10% increase of standard of living for men, using the same data, which was gathered in California in 1977 and 1978.
The median length for a marriage in the US today is 11 years with 90% of all divorces being settled out of court. However, studies have shown that lower-income couples are currently more likely to get a divorce than higher-income couples. In fact, higher income couples' divorce rates are progressively decreasing since the 1980s.
In 2015, the Manhattan Supreme Court ruled that Ellanora Baidoo could serve her husband divorce papers through a Facebook message, and she became the first woman to legally serve her husband divorce papers via Facebook.
Divorce in the U.S. is governed by state rather than federal law. The laws of the state(s) of residence at the time of divorce govern, not those of the location where the couple was married. All states recognize divorces granted by any other state. All states impose a minimum time of residence, Nevada currently being the shortest at 6 weeks.
All states allow no-fault divorce on grounds such as irreconcilable differences, irremediable breakdown, and loss of affection. Some states mandate a separation period before no-fault divorce. Mississippi, South Dakota and Tennessee are the only states that require mutual consent for no-fault divorce. The rest of the states permit unilateral no-fault divorce. Some[who?] have argued that the lack of means to contest a no-fault divorce makes a marriage contract the easiest of all contracts to dissolve, and in very recent years[when?] some have begun to favor moderate divorce reforms such as requiring mutual consent for no-fault divorce.
Since the mid-1990s, a few states have enacted covenant marriage laws, which allow couples to voluntarily make a divorce more difficult for themselves to obtain than. For example, couples who choose to undertake a covenant marriage may be required to undergo counseling before a divorce can be granted, or to submit their conflicts to mediation. In states lacking such provisions, some couples sign contracts undertaking the same obligations.
A summary (or simple) divorce, available in some jurisdictions, is used when spouses meet certain eligibility requirements, or can agree on key issues beforehand. For example, in order to qualify for summary divorce in California, a couple must meet all of the following requirements:
- Have been married less than five years,
- Have no children together,
- Do not own any real property,
- Do not rent any real property other than current dwelling,
- Do not owe more $6,000 for debts since date of marriage,
- Own less than $41,000 in community property (property acquired during marriage), not counting vehicles,
- Do not own more than $41,000 in separate property (property acquired before marriage), not counting vehicles,
- Agree to forgo spousal support,
- Have a signed agreement which divides property (including cars) and debts, and
- Meet residency requirement, if applicable.
Grounds for divorce
Though divorce laws vary between jurisdiction, there are two basic approaches to divorce: fault-based and no-fault. Fault grounds, when available, are sometimes still sought. This may be done where it reduces the waiting period otherwise required, or possibly in hopes of affecting decisions related to a divorce, such as child custody, child support, alimony, and so on. A court may still take into account the behavior of the parties when dividing property, debts, evaluating custody, and support. States vary in the admissibility of such evidence for those decisions.
Under a no-fault divorce system the dissolution of a marriage does not require an allegation or proof of fault of either party. Only three states (Mississippi, South Dakota and Tennessee) require mutual consent (in Tennessee it is needed only in certain circumstances) for a no-fault divorce to be granted. No-fault grounds for divorce include incompatibility, irreconcilable differences, and irremediable breakdown of the marriage.
Fault divorces used to be the only way to break a marriage, and people who had differences, but did not qualify as "at fault", only had the option to separate (and were prevented from legally remarrying).
However, there are ways (defenses) to prevent a fault divorce:
A defense is expensive, and not usually practical as eventually most divorces are granted.
Comparative rectitude is a doctrine used to determine which spouse is more at fault when both spouses are guilty of breaches.
Property division & spousal support
States vary in their rules for division of assets in a divorce. The major difference is between states that use a community property system and states that do not. In community property states, community property belongs to the spouses equally. The following states use community property regimes: Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Alaskan law gives couples the option to create community property by written agreement.
Most community property states start with the presumption that community assets will be divided equally, whereas "equitable distribution" states presume fairness may dictate more or less than half of the assets will be awarded to one spouse or the other. Commonly, assets acquired before marriage are considered individual, and assets acquired after, marital. Depending on the state, an equitable or equal division of assets is then sought.
In some states, educational degrees earned during the marriage may be considered marital property. In such states, a resolution of the divorce will often entail payment from the educated spouse to the other spouse a share of their expected future earnings that are due to a degree they earned during the divorce, and may require the expertise of labor economists or other statistical and financial experts.
Alimony, also known as 'maintenance' or 'spousal support' is still being granted in many cases, especially in longer term marriages. Alimony is more likely in cases where a spouse has remedial needs that must be met in order for the spouse to become fully employable, for example that one spouse gave up career opportunities or development in order to devote themselves to the family.
Child support & custody
In cases involving children, governments have a pressing interest in ensuring that disputes between parents do not spill over into the family courts. All states now require parents to file a parenting plan, or to decide on custody and visitation either by reaching a written agreement or in a court hearing, when they legally separate or divorce.
The spouse given custody (or the spouse with the greater share of residence time in the case of joint custody), may receive assets to compensate their greater child-care expenses.
Alternatives to litigation
Collaborative divorce is becoming a popular method for divorcing couples to come to agreement on divorce issues. In a collaborative divorce, the parties negotiate an agreed resolution with the assistance of attorneys who are trained in the collaborative divorce process and in mediation, and often with the assistance of a neutral financial specialist and/or divorce coach(es). The parties are empowered to make their own decisions based on their own needs and interests, but with complete information and full professional support. Once the collaborative divorce starts, the lawyers are disqualified from representing the parties in a contested legal proceeding, should the collaborative law process end prematurely. Most attorneys who practice collaborative divorce claim that it can be substantially less expensive than other divorce methods (regular divorce or mediation). However, should the parties not reach any agreements, any documents or information exchanged during the collaborative process cannot later be used in further legal proceedings, as the collaborative process is confidential proceedings. Furthermore, there are no set enforceable time lines for completion of a divorce using collaborative divorce.
Divorce mediation is an alternative to traditional divorce litigation. In a divorce mediation session, a mediator facilitates the discussion between the husband and wife by assisting with communication and providing information and suggestions to help resolve differences. At the end of the mediation process, the separating parties have typically developed a tailored divorce agreement that can be submitted to the court. Parties to mediation do not need to retain attorneys. However, if the parties choose to retain attorneys their attorneys may be included in the mediation session. The mediator can provide both parties with information but will not offer advice to either. Divorce mediators may be attorneys, mental health professionals, or financial experts who have experience in divorce cases. Divorce mediation can be significantly less expensive than litigation. The adherence rate to mediated agreements is much higher than that of adherence to court orders.
Federal laws relating to divorce
Since the 1980s, federal legislation has been enacted affecting the rights and responsibilities of divorcing spouses. For example, federal welfare reform mandated the creation of child support guidelines in all 50 states in the 1980s. ERISA includes provisions for the division of qualified retirement accounts between divorcing spouses. The IRS established rules on ignoring alimony as a source of taxable income. Federal bankruptcy laws prohibit discharging in bankruptcy of alimony and child support obligations. COBRA allows a divorced spouse to obtain and maintain health insurance.
According to a study published in the American Law and Economics Review, women file slightly more than two-thirds of divorce cases in the US. There is some variation among states, and the numbers have also varied over time, with about 60% of filings by women in most of the 19th century, and over 70% by women in some states just after no-fault divorce was introduced, according to the paper.
In their study titled "Child Custody Policies and Divorce Rates in the US," Kuhn and Guidubaldi find it reasonable to conclude that women anticipate advantages to being single, rather than remaining married.
In their detailed analysis of divorce rates, Kuhn and Guidubaldi conclude that acceptance of joint physical custody may reduce divorce. States whose family law policies, statutes, or judicial practice encourage joint custody have shown a greater decline in their divorce rates than those that favor sole custody.
Rates of divorce
"Rate of divorce" usually refers to the number of divorces that occur in the population during a given period. However it is also used in common parlance to refer to the likelihood of a given marriage ending in divorce (as opposed to the death of a spouse).
In 2002 (latest survey data as of 2012), 29% of first marriages among women aged 15–44 were disrupted (ended in separation, divorce or annulment) within 10 years. Beyond the 10-year window, population survey data is lacking, but forecasts and estimates provide some understanding. It is commonly claimed that half of all marriages in the United States eventually end in divorce, an estimate possibly based on the fact that in any given year, the number of marriages is about twice the number of divorces. Using 1995 data, National Survey of Family Growth forecast in 2002 a 43% chance that first marriages among women aged 15–44 would be disrupted within 15 years. More recently, having spoken with academics and National Survey of Family Growth representatives, PolitiFact.com estimated in 2012 that the lifelong probability of a marriage ending in divorce is 40%–50%.
Divorce rates have been dropping during the last few decades. Data indicates that marriages have lasted longer in the 21st century than they did in the 1990s.
Variables that may affect rates of divorce include:
- importance of religion to the couple
- divorce in family of origin
- timing of the first birth of any children (before marriage, within 7 months, after 7 months, or never)
- if one spouse has Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A 2008 study by Jenifer L. Bratter and Rosalind B. King conducted on behalf of the Education Resources Information Center examined whether crossing racial boundaries increased the risk of divorce. Using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (Cycle VI), the likelihood of divorce for interracial couples to that of same-race couples was compared. Comparisons across marriage cohorts revealed that, overall, interracial couples have higher rates of divorce, particularly for those that married during the late 1980s. The authors found that gender plays a significant role in interracial divorce dynamics: According to the adjusted models predicting divorce as of the 10th year of marriage, interracial marriages that are the most vulnerable involve White females and non-White males (with the exception of White females/Hispanic White males) relative to White/White couples. White wife/Black husband marriages are twice as likely to divorce by the 10th year of marriage compared to White/White couples. Conversely, White men/non-White women couples show either very little or no differences in divorce rates. Asian wife/White husband marriages show only 4% greater likelihood of divorce by the 10th year of marriage than White/White couples. In the case of Black wife/White husband marriages, divorce by the 10th year of marriage is 44% less likely than among White/White unions. Intermarriages that did not cross a racial barrier, which was the case for White/Hispanic White couples, showed statistically similar likelihoods of divorcing as White/White marriages.
A 2011 study at the University of Iowa found that a woman's loss of virginity before age 18 was correlated with a greater number of occurrences of divorce within the first 10 years of marriage.
A 2012 study cited by Pew Research center found that an estimated 78% of women with bachelor's degrees, and 65% of men with bachelor's degrees who married between 2006-2010 can expect their marriages to last at least two decades. Women with a high school degree or less, on the other hand, face a meager 40% probability of their marriages surviving the same period.
Studies have shown that men who "earn high incomes have a decreased probability of getting a divorce". However, higher income makes a woman's chances of marriage less likely and it has no connection to possible divorces. In recent years, divorce rates have gone down due to education rates going up. This is because educated individuals make higher incomes in most cases, which result in less financial stress when couples set down to get married. Lower income couples value and respect marriage just as much as higher income couples, however lower income couples are more likely to get a divorce because of financial stains on their marriage. Having low income is not the only factor that can potentially lead to divorce. Religious beliefs, morals and compatibility all come into play when it comes to long term marital statuses.
Divorce rate by state
The following lists the number of divorces annually per 1,000 population in each state:
|State||Marriage rate||Divorce rate|
|District of Columbia||8.2||6.1||6.6||4.9||6.2||5.1||4.5||3.2||3.6||3.2||2.9||2.9||2.4|
- 1 Includes annulments. Includes divorce petitions filed or legal separations for some counties or States.
- 2 Marriage data includes nonlicensed marriages registered.
- Marriage in the United States
- Family structure in the United States
- Divorce demography
- Divorce of same-sex couples
- Divorce party
- Emancipation of minors
- Fear of commitment
- Implications of divorce
- Legal separation
- Men's rights movement
- Relationship counseling
- Religion and divorce
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- Kent's Commentaries on American Law, p. 401.
- Evans, Michelle L. (2009). "Wrongs Committed During a Marriage: The Child that No Area of the Law Wants to Adopt". Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 66. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Advance Report of Final Divorce Statistics, 1988" (PDF). Monthly Vital Statistice Report 39 (12 (supplement 2)). May 21, 1991.
- Lee, Felicia R. (May 9, 1996). "Influential Study on Divorce's Impact Is Said to Be Flawed". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Judge says Brooklyn woman can use Facebook to serve divorce papers". abc13.com. 2015-04-06. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Punchlines: I now pronounce you Facebook divorced". Usatoday.com. 2015-04-07. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "SD House Votes Down Unilateral No-Fault Divorce Proposal | KDLT.com South Dakota News - News, Sports, and Weather Sioux Falls South Dakota". Kdlt.com. 2015-03-10. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Do I Need a Reason to Get Divorced? - Lawyers.com". Family-law.lawyers.com. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
- "For Married Couples". California Courts: Judicial Branch of California. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Wex. "Community property". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Community Property". Nolo's Plain-English Law Dictionary. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Hollander, Sophia. "After Divorce, a Degree Is Costly". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-03-07.
- "Divorce Mediation". StraightDivorce.com. October 30, 2007. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
- Brinig, Margaret; Douglas W. Allen (2000). "These Boots Are Made for Walking: Why Most Divorce Filers are Women". American Law and Economics Review 2 (1): 126–129. doi:10.1093/aler/2.1.126.
- Kuhn, Richard; John Guidubaldi (October 23, 1997). "Child Custody Policies and Divorce Rates in the US". 11th Annual Conference of the Children's Rights Council. Retrieved 2006-09-18.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "D Listing, Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth". Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Chandra A; Martinez GM; Mosher WD; Abma JC; Jones J (November 2005). Fertility, Family Planning, and Reproductive Health of U.S.Women: Data From the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (PDF). Hyattsville, Maryland: US Department of Health and Human Services. pp. 17, 90. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- "Fifty Percent of American Marriages End in Divorce-Fiction!". Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- PolitiFact New Jersey. "Steve Sweeney claims two-thirds of marriages end in divorce". Truth-O-Meter. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Bindley, Katherine (December 22, 2011). "Marriage Rates: Divorce Fears To Blame For Low Rates?". Huffington Post.
- Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States. Hyattsville, Md.: Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, national Center for Health Statistics. 2002. pp. 17–18. ISBN 0-8406-0582-X.
- Bratter, Jenifer L. ""But Will It Last?": Marital Instability among Interracial and Same-Race Couples". Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
- Marcus, Stephanie (June 15, 2011). "Women Who Lost Virginity Early More Likely To Divorce: New Study". Huffington Post. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- "This subset of women has the best odds of making a marriage last". Quartz. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
- Aughinbaugh, Alison, Omar Robles, and Hugette Sun. "Marriage and divorce: patterns by gender, race, and educational attainment." Monthly Lab. Rev. 136 (2013): 1.
- Nakonezny, Paul A., Robert D. Shull, and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "The effect of no-fault divorce law on the divorce rate across the 50 states and its relation to income, education, and religiosity." Journal of Marriage and the Family(1995): 477-488.
- Greenwood, Jeremy, Nezih Guner, and John A. Knowles. "More on Marriage, Fertility, and the Distribution of Income*." International Economic Review 44.3 (2003): 827-862.
- Gibson‐Davis, Christina M., Kathryn Edin, and Sara McLanahan. "High hopes but even higher expectations: The retreat from marriage among low‐income couples." Journal of Marriage and Family 67.5 (2005): 1301-1312.
- "Divorce rates by State: 1990, 1995, and 1999-2011" (PDF). CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- Cherlin, Andrew J. (2009). The marriage-go-round : the state of marriage and the family in America today. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
- DiFonzo, Herbie (1997). Beneath the fault line : the popular and legal culture of divorce in twentieth-century America. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
- Glass, Jennifer; Levchak, Philip (January 2014). "Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rates". American Journal of Sociology (The University of Chicago Press) 119 (4). doi:10.1086/674703. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Heath, Melanie (2012). One marriage under God : the campaign to promote marriage in America. New York: New York University Press.
- Lester, David (1993). "Time-series versus regional correlates of rates of personal violence". Death Studies 17 (6). ISSN 0748-1187.
- McLanahan, Sara; Sandefur, Gary (1994). Growing up with a single parent : what hurts, what helps. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
- Mercer, Diana; Pruett, Marsha Kline (2001). Your Divorce Advisor : A Lawyer and a Psychologist Guide You Through the Legal and Emotional Landscape of Divorce. Touchstone. ISBN 978-0684870687.
- "Marriage and Divorce". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Morowitz, Harold J. "Hiding in the Hammond Report." Hospital Practice August 1975; 39.
- Porter, Portia (2016). Can You Stiff Your Divorce Lawyer: Tales of How Cunning Clients Can Get Free Legal Work, As Told by an Experienced Divorce Attorney. Portia Porter Books. ISBN 978-0997555523.
- Riessman, Catherine Kohler (1990). Divorce talk : women and men make sense of personal relationships. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813515025.
- Stacey, Judith (1990). Brave new families : stories of domestic upheaval in late twentieth century America. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465007465.
- Blake, Nelson Manfred. The road to Reno: A history of divorce in the United States (Greenwood Press, 1977)
- Chused, Richard H. Private acts in public places: A social history of divorce in the formative era of American family law (U of Pennsylvania Press, 1994)
- Griswold, Robert L. "The Evolution of the Doctrine of Mental Cruelty in Victorian American Divorce, 1790-1900." Journal of Social History (1986): 127-148. in JSTOR
- Griswold, Robert L. Family and Divorce in California, 1850-1890: Victorian Illusions and Everyday Realities (1982).
- May, Elaine Tyler. "The Pressure to Provide: Class, Consumerism, and Divorce in Urban America, 1880-1920." Journal of Social History (1978): 180-193. in JSTOR
- May, Elaine Tyler. Great expectations: Marriage and divorce in post-Victorian America (1980)
- Riley, Glenda. Divorce: an American tradition (U of Nebraska Press, 1991) online
- Schweninger, Loren. Families in Crisis in the Old South: Divorce, Slavery, and the Law. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2012. online
- "Marriage and Divorce". National Center for Health Statistics, CDC.
- "Marriage and divorce: patterns by gender, race, and educational attainment". Bureau of Labor Statistics.
- "Grounds for Divorce". Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Texas Divorce Law