Edwin Southern

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Sir Edwin Southern
Edwin Mellor Southern - journal.pgen.1003344.g001.png
Sir Edwin in 2012
Born Edwin Mellor Southern
(1938-06-07) 7 June 1938 (age 78)[1]
Burnley, United Kingdom
Nationality British
Fields Molecular Biology
Institutions
Alma mater
Thesis Studies on synthetic and naturally occurring enzyme metabolites (1964)
Known for Southern blot
Notable awards
Website
www.ogt.co.uk/about/company/management/board_members/professor_sir_edwin_southern

Sir Edwin Mellor Southern, FRS (born 7 June 1938)[3] is an English Lasker Award-winning molecular biologist, Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Oxford and a fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. He is most widely known for the invention of the Southern blot,[4] now a common laboratory procedure.[1][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Early life and Education[edit]

Southern was born in Burnley, Lancashire and educated at Burnley Grammar School.[1] He has a brother named John Southern and a sister Kay Monie. He went on to read Chemistry at the University of Manchester (BSc Hons., 1958). He continued as a graduate student (then Demonstrator, 1963) in the Department of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, where he was awarded his PhD in 1962.[12]

Career and Research[edit]

Southern is also the Founder, Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer of Oxford Gene Technology. He is also the founder and chairman of a Scottish charity, The Kirkhouse Trust, which aims to promote education and research in the Natural Sciences, particularly the biological and medical sciences. In addition the Edina Trust was founded to promote science in schools. These charities are financed using royalty income from licensing microarray technology.

Southern blot[edit]

The Southern blot is used for DNA analysis and was routinely used for genetic fingerprinting and paternity testing prior to the development of microsatellite markers for this purpose. The procedure is also frequently used to determine the number of copies of a gene in the genome. The concepts of the Southern blot were used in the development and creation of the modern microarray slide, which is an extensively used experimental tool. The northern blot is a similar procedure for RNA, playing off the Southern name. The western blot, an important research tool in protein detection, is a further play on the Southern blot.

DNA microarray[edit]

Southern founded Oxford Gene Technology (OGT) in 1995,[2] a company that developed DNA microarray technology. OGT won a 1999 patent infringement lawsuit against Affymetrix based on his patent holdings in microarray technology.[13]

Awards and honours[edit]

In 1990, Southern was one of the winners of the Gairdner Foundation International Award.[14] In 1998 he was awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society of London.[15] He was made a Knight Bachelor in the June 2003 Birthday Honours for services to the development of DNA microarray technologies. In 2005 he was awarded the prestigious Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research,[3][16] jointly with Alec Jeffreys of the University of Leicester for his invention of the Southern blot.[17] In 2005 he was also awarded the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Award for outstanding contributions to Biomolecular Technologies.[18] His nomination for the Royal Society reads:

Dr. Southern has done pioneering work on the organization of DNA sequences in chromosomes. Apart from studies on crab poly-AT carried out in the early 1960s, Southern was the first to determine the nucleotide sequence of a eukaryotic chromosomal DNA fraction, demonstrating that a guinea pig 'satellite' had an unexpectedly simple repetitive structure based on a sequence of six nucleotides. In mouse satellite DNA he showed both short and long range periodicities. These and other studies on repetitive DNA he showed both short and long range periodicities. These and other studies on repetitive DNA sequences enabled him to suggest how non-coding chromosomal DNA may have evolved. Southern has devised valuable methods for DNA analysis. His 'blot' technique, for the identification of specific sequences among large populations of fragments generated by endonucleases, has found extremely widespread and important applications. He has also made important observations on the differential transcription of DNA sequences into RNA, and on patterns of DNA methylation.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Edwin Southern CV" (PDF). Roche. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-02. 
  2. ^ a b "Professor Sir Edwin Southern — Founder, Chairman and Chief Science Advisor". Oxford Gene Technology. Archived from the original on 2015-04-17. 
  3. ^ a b Southern, E. (2005). "Tools for genomics". Nature Medicine. 11 (10): 1029–1034. doi:10.1038/nm1005-1029. PMID 16211028. 
  4. ^ Southern, E. M. (1975). "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis". Journal of Molecular Biology. 98 (3): 503–517. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(75)80083-0. PMID 1195397. 
  5. ^ Gitschier, Jane (2013). "Problem Solved: An Interview with Sir Edwin Southern". PLOS Genetics. 9 (3): e1003344. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003344. PMC 3597496Freely accessible. PMID 23516371. open access publication - free to read
  6. ^ Southern, E.; Mir, K.; Shchepinov, M. (1999). "Molecular interactions on microarrays". Nature Genetics. 21 (1 Suppl): 5–9. doi:10.1038/4429. PMID 9915493. 
  7. ^ Southern, E. (1979). "Gel electrophoresis of restriction fragments". Methods in enzymology. Methods in Enzymology. 68: 152–176. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(79)68011-4. ISBN 9780121819682. PMID 232210. 
  8. ^ Maskos, U.; Southern, E. M. (1992). "Oligonucleotide hybridisations on glass supports: A novel linker for oligonucleotide synthesis and hybridisation properties of oligonucleotides synthesised in situ". Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (7): 1679–1684. doi:10.1093/nar/20.7.1679. PMC 312256Freely accessible. PMID 1579459.  open access publication - free to read
  9. ^ Milner, N.; Mir, K. U.; Southern, E. M. (1997). "Selecting effective antisense reagents on combinatorial oligonucleotide arrays". Nature Biotechnology. 15 (6): 537–541. doi:10.1038/nbt0697-537. PMID 9181575. 
  10. ^ Bird, A. P.; Southern, E. M. (1978). "Use of restriction enzymes to study eukaryotic DNA methylation: I. The methylation pattern in ribosomal DNA from Xenopus laevis". Journal of Molecular Biology. 118 (1): 27–47. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(78)90242-5. PMID 625056. 
  11. ^ A web page on Southern blotting (with his photograph) Archived May 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Southern, Edwin Mellor (1964). Studies on synthetic and naturally occurring enzyme metabolites (PhD thesis). University of Glasgow. OCLC 181894527. 
  13. ^ Harding, A. (2005). "Sir Edwin Southern: Scientist as problem solver". The Lancet. 366 (9501): 1919–1913. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67775-6. 
  14. ^ "List of winners". The Gairdner Foundation. Archived from the original on December 30, 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
  15. ^ "Royal recent winners". The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 
  16. ^ "2005 Albert Lasker Award - Acceptance remarks by Edwin Southern". Lasker Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-06-10. 
  17. ^ "2005 Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research". Lasker Foundation. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
  18. ^ "ABRF Award". Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities. Archived from the original on 2007-11-22. 
  19. ^ "EC/1983/34: Southern, Edwin Mellor". London: The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-04-17.