|Grid position||160/222 PAL|
|Founded||5 July 1937|
|Founded by||Hashomer Hatzair|
|Name meaning||Spring of the Judge|
Ein HaShofet (Hebrew: עֵין הַשּׁוֹפֵט, lit. Spring of the Judge) is a kibbutz in northern Israel in the Hills of Ephraim. Located in the Menashe Heights region around 30 km from the city of Haifa, close to Yokneam, it falls under the jurisdiction of Megiddo Regional Council. In 2015 it had a population of 821.
"Ein HaShofet," literally, Judge's Spring, was named in honor of United States Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis (1856-1941), who played a leading role in the American Zionist movement. There is a flowing spring nearby the kibbutz.
During the Ottoman era a Muslim village called Jarah existed in the area. In 1596 the village appeared under the name of Ja'ara in tax registers, being part of the nahiya (subdistrict) of Sahil Atlit in the Sanjak (district) of Lajjun. It had a population of 4 households, all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 25% on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, summer crops, goats and beehives, in addition to occasional revenues; the taxes totalled 2,000 akçe.
In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Jarah as "a small village on the east side of the watershed, with four springs below it. There are rock-cut tombs, so that the place seems to be an ancient site." They further noted that the tombs were blocked up.
British Mandate era
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Jaara had a population of 94, all Muslims, decreasing in the 1931 census to 62, still all Muslims, in a total of 14 houses.
Ein HaShofet was first settled on 5 July 1937 with members living on the nearby hill of Ja'ara for one year before moving to the final and current location of the kibbutz. Prior to the settling at Juara, the kibbutz's founders stayed for five years in Hadera, where the group was created by joining two Hashomer Hatzair groups, one from Poland (including Aharon Efrat, later a member of the Knesset) and one from North America, consisting the first Hashomer Hatzair group from North America. The kibbutz's foundation was a part of the Tower and stockade settlement drive.
The area was used by Arab "gangs" and the kibbutz members had to defend themselves against armed attacks on a nightly basis. This was in the middle of the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, known to the Jews of the time as the "disturbances."
From 1938 onwards the hilltop site and stone house of Juara were used by the Haganah, the main Jewish underground militia, and later by the Israeli army and is now hosting a museum of the Haganah.
In 1945, Ein HaShofet had a population of 320, all Jews. It was noted that it was the village formerly named Ji'ara. Despite a lack of water and hilly difficult reclamation, in 1948, with a population of 450, they "were a successful mixed hill farm with orchards, dry cereals, dairy products, sheep herding and chicken farming."
State of Israel
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The main income source of Ein HaShofet today is its four factories, three of which are located in the kibbutz and one in the United States;
- Eltam, the kibbutz's largest employer; a company founded in 1967 as "Ein Hashofet Electric Industries" which today manufactures various components for electric devices, prominently light fixtures.
- Mivrag; founded in 1950 and manufactures various small metal objects, mainly screws, in cold forming processes.
- MAG EH; founded in 1999 and manufactures specific components for the automobile industry. It has an American division, MAG USA, which was founded in 2001 and is located in Knoxville, Tennessee.
- A dairy was created when Ein HaShofet was settled in its final location in 1938. Today it holds 270 cows which give around 3 million liters of milk per year.
- Beef cattle were first farmed at Ein HaShofet in the mid-1950s to exploit those surrounding lands which were unfit for crops. Today the branch is joined with that of neighboring kibbutz Mishmar HaEmek, with Ein HaShofet possessing 73% of the 750 cows.
- The kibbutz has an Avocado plantation which covers around approximate 360 dunams (360,000 m²) around the kibbutz.
- Chicken farms, which since 1971 serve solely for meat, today produce 2300 tons per year.
- A cattle fattening facility which fattens 1,500 cows per year services both the kibbutz's herd and imported cattle from Australia, Poland and those from within Israel itself.
- Arable farming encompasses approximately 4000 dunams (4 km²), with the crops changing according to market demands and weather conditions, though chiefly growing wheat and cotton.
- "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- About Ein HaShofet
- Dauphin, 1998, p. 702
- meaning hyena, according to Palmer, 1881, p. 146
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 158
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 42
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 54
- Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Haifa, p. 34
- Mills, 1932, p. 92
- Jewish National Fund (1949). Jewish Villages in Israel. Jerusalem: Hamadpis Liphshitz Press. p. 37.
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 13
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 47
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- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. ISBN 0-860549-05-4.
- Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945. Government of Palestine.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas (PDF). Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.