Jewish Palestinian Aramaic
|Jewish Palestinian Aramaic|
|Era||150 BCE - 1200 CE|
Jewish Palestinian Aramaic was a Western Aramaic language spoken by the Jews in Roman and Byzantine Palestine in the late first millennium BCE - early first millennium CE. A dialect of this language was spoken by Jesus (see Language of Jesus).
There were some differences in dialect between Judaea and Galilee, and most surviving texts are in the Galilean dialect: Michael Sokoloff has published separate dictionaries of the two dialects.
After the defeat of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 CE, the center of Jewish learning in the land of Israel moved to Galilee. With the Arab conquest of the country in the 7th century, Arabic gradually replaced this language.
The most notable text in this dialect's corpus is the Jerusalem Talmud, which is still studied in Jewish religious schools and academically, although not as widely as the Babylonian Talmud, most of which is written in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. There are some older texts in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, notably the Megillat Taanit: the Babylonian Talmud contains occasional quotations from these.
Many extant manuscripts in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic have been corrupted over the years of their transmission by Eastern Aramaic-speaking scribes freely correcting "errors" they came across (these "errors" actually being genuine Jewish Palestinian Aramaic features). To date, all formal grammars of the dialect fall victim to these corruptions, and there is still no published syntax.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Palestinian Jewish Aramaic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "'Passion' Stirs Interest in Aramaic". National Public Radio. 25 February 2004. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
Jesus would have spoken the local dialect, referred to by scholars as Palestinian Jewish Aramaic, which was the form common to that region, Amar says.
- Gustaf Dalman: Grammatik des jüdisch-palästinischen Aramäisch, 2nd ed. Leipzig 1905
- Sokoloff, Michael, A Dictionary of Judean Aramaic: Bar Ilan 2003 ISBN 9652262617
- Sokoloff, Michael, A Dictionary of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic of the Byzantine Period, 2nd ed.: Johns Hopkins 2002/3 and Ramat Gan 2002 ISBN 0801872340
- Caspar Levias (1986). A Grammar of Galilean Aramaic. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America. ISBN 0-87334-030-2.
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