|Founded by||HaShomer HaTzair|
|Name meaning||Guard of the Valley|
Mishmar HaEmek (Hebrew: מִשְׁמַר הָעֵמֶק, lit. "Guard of the Valley") is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located in the western Jezreel Valley, it falls under the jurisdiction of Megiddo Regional Council. Mishmar HaEmek is one of the few kibbutzim that have not undergone privatization and still follow the traditional collectivist and socialist model. In 2017 it had a population of 1,254.
The kibbutz was established in 1926 by members of the Hashomer Hatzair movement, who moved to Mandatory Palestine during the Third Aliyah from Poland. It was the first Jewish settlement in the southern part of the Jezreel Valley. It quickly became a center of the Hashomer Hatzair, especially after the Kibbutz Arzi chose to build their first regional school in the kibbutz. In April 1948 the kibbutz was the epicenter of an important battle when it successfully repelled the first major offensive of the Arab Liberation Army commanded by Fawzi al-Qawuqji, during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine.
Throughout its years, the economy of the kibbutz was based on agriculture. Today it also operates a plastics factory in partnership with Kibbutz Gal'ed. The forest near the kibbutz was planted by its residents and is listed as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO.
At least six former members of the Knesset hail from Mishmar HaEmek.
Mishmar HaEmek is located in the southwestern part of the Jezreel Valley, between Highway 66 and the foot of the Menashe Heights. Next to the kibbutz is the manmade Mishmar HaEmek forest, planted by the Jewish National Fund and members of the kibbutz. It is a section of the Megiddo park (formerly named "Ramot Menashe park"), listed as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO.
During the Fourth Aliyah (1924–1928), the Jezreel Valley was the top priority of the Jewish National Fund (JNF). The JNF wanted to settle the valley in order to establish a significant Jewish agricultural community in the arable valley, and to create a contiguous bloc of Jewish settlements in the valley, connecting Haifa with the already existing bloc of Jewish settlements between Afula and Beit She'an. In 1924 the JNF bought some 30,175 dunams of land from Arab villages next to Nahalal in the western part of the valley. On this land, Sarid, Ramat David, Gvat, Kfar Baruch and Mishmar HaEmek were established.
The kibbutz started as a portable community (gar'in) called "Kibbutz Hashomer Hatzair Bet" (Bet is the second letter in Hebrew). It's pioneers gathered on 21 January 1922 in Neve Sha'anan, Haifa by Polish Jews, of Hashomer Hatzair movement from Galicia who arrived during the Third Aliyah. The members came from a group named "Dror" from Afula and from two other groups who worked near Jerusalem, as well as a few unaffiliated pioneers. At its formation the kibbutz had 80 members. During its first year, the number of members shrank to 65. In the summer of 1922 the members moved to Nahalal where they helped with swamp drying and road paving. At Nahalal some members suffered from diseases and lack of livelihood. In early 1924 the number was at 60, as old members left and new ones joined. Most of the reasons for leaving were the difficulty adjusting to the kibbutz life. Others left because they wished to continue their academic career, others because of their families and some because of ideological opposition. In 1925 the kibbutz, which consisted of 60 adults and six children, moved to Afula. In Afula, the kibbutz united with another HaShomer HaTzair kibbutz called "Kibbutz HaShomer HaTzair Dalet" (the fourth letter in Hebrew), which was formed in Hadera in 1924. After the unification the number of members rose to 90. The members were given the land for settlement in November 1926 and 15 men and women left Afula and settled in a khan on Tell Abu Shusha next to the Arab village of Abu Shusha, where they worked the land. In the next year two mules were bought and 120 dunams of fields of wheat and barley were sowed until the kibbutz moved to its current location.
It was the first Jewish settlement in the southern part of the Jezreel Valley. After disagreements the members of the kibbutz accepted the proposal by Menachem Ussishkin to name the kibbutz "Mishmar HaEmek" in November 1928.
On 26 August 1929, during the 1929 Palestine riots the kibbutz was attacked by an Arab mob equipped with firearms. The villagers and Arab policemen managed to fend away the rioters. British policemen told the kibbutz to evacuate and promised to take care for their property and the kibbutz left the following day. On 28 August, Arab rioters burned the kibbutz's barn, uprooted trees, stole corn from the fields and vandalized two gravestones in the kibbutz's cemetery. It was the only time in the history of the kibbutz it was abandoned and during the riots 16 other Jewish communities were evacuated.
In early 1930 the rest of the kibbutz, which consisted of 85 adults and 16 children, left Afula and joined the members in Mishmar HaEmek. In the next years the members planted 50,000 trees, built a cowshed, planted a vineyard and various fruit trees, dug wells and built the first two permanent buildings: A double story children's house made of concrete and a water tower. The children's house was the educational institution of the kibbutz and was planned in 1931 but only built in 1937 after the needed funds were raised. It was built by the kibbutz members to reduce the costs, on a small hill near the Kibbutz. At the it was completed, it was among the biggest structures in the region and was nicknamed "the Big House". In 1936 graduates of Hashomer Hatzair established a gar'in and settled in the kibbutz until they moved to Rishon LeZion in 1937 and in 1946 they established the kibbutz of Hatzor. In 1931 the kibbutz absorbed a group of Hashomer Hatzair members from the United States, who numbered 17 and in 1933 their number grew to 30. In 1934 the Americans moved to a plot of land near Hadera.
During the early days of the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine the kibbutz was subjected to almost daily attacks, usually shootings and burning of forests. The Arabs in the region were under the command of Ahmad Attiyah Awad and after his death in March 1938, the commend was transferred to Yusuf Abu Durra. British High Commissioner Arthur Grenfell Wauchope visited the kibbutz and appointed 15 members as guards and gave them firearms but in August 1936 the situation worsened. The British government sent 60 soldiers to guard the kibbutz and in October the attacks on the kibbutz ended. During the attacks, tens of thousands of trees were burnt. Israeli poet and later member of the Knesset, Uri Zvi Greenberg, criticized the residents of Mishmar HaEmek for not taking the law into their hands after the attacks on their fields and in a poem he wrote on the events he changed the name of the kibbutz from "Mishmar HaEmek" (Guard of the Valley) to "Hefker HaEmek" (Abandonment of the Valley). On 2 February 1938 a member of the kibbutz named Abraham Goldschleger who was a guide for Ein HaShofet was ambushed and murdered by residents of Al-Kafrayn. Two residents of Ein HaShofet who accompanied him were also killed in the attack. One of the shooters was caught and executed. The Palmach (an elite force of the Jewish Haganah underground organization) used the trees in the nearby forest as cover for their main training camp and its fighters worked in the kibbutz.
In the fall of 1942, when there were fears of a German victory in the Middle East, Mishmar HaEmek was used as a training camp by the British army. 160 Jewish volunteers, who would later become members of the Palmach branch of the Haganah, were trained by Royal Engineers in sabotage and wireless operation. Several tons of explosives were hidden in caches in case the area came under German occupation. This program was terminated immediately upon the training of the volunteers, and orders issued for the collection of all equipment and explosives to be returned to the British.
In 1947, Mishmar HaEmek had a population of 550. The Jewish National Fund and Worton Hall Studios made a 1947 movie called The Great Promise (Dim'at Ha'Nehamah Ha'Gedolah), and a number of the scenes were filmed here.
Battle of Mishmar HaEmek
During the 1947–48 civil war, on 4 April 1948, the kibbutz came under full-scale attack by the Arab Liberation Army (ALA). The leader of the ALA, Fawzi al-Qawuqji, planned to seize Mishmar HaEmek to clear the way between Jenin and Haifa. The attack began with an artillery barrage from seven artillery pieces supplied by the Syrian army. During the shelling of the kibbutz, houses were destroyed, civilians and soldiers were killed as well as livestock and the prominent white school building was heavily damaged; a bomb shelter was later built at the school. On April 6th, 1948, the women and children of the kibbutz were evacuated with the aid of the British to other kibbutzim in the Jezreel Valley and a British-brokered ceasefire began. During this period, Jewish forces fortified the kibbutz and dug trenches around its perimeter. Qawuqji reported that the kibbutz was captured by the Arab forces and the "conquest of Mishmar HaEmek" was celebrated in Arab newspapers, which also reported heavy casualties among the Jewish forces, despite the Arab forces had yet to enter the kibbutz. The ALA sent terms to the Haganah, saying they would raise the siege of the kibbutz, regroup and move toward Haifa, if in return the Jewish forces would accept not to retaliate against the nearby Arab villages. The Jews declined the offer and the Arab offensive resumed on 8 April. In the night between 8–9 April, the Jewish forces launched a counter-attack under the commend of Yitzhak Sadeh and captured Al-Ghubayya al-Fawqa in a fierce battle. In the next days, forces of the Carmeli Brigade and the Palmach captured several other villages near Mishmar HaEmek and nearby Ein HaShofet, and all of them were destroyed.
During the second phase of the war, on 24 December 1948, Iraqi planes bombed the kibbutz, hitting the children's house, killing four children and injuring another four. Historian Yoav Gelber thinks the Iraqis wanted to attack Ramat David Airbase but hit the kibbutz instead.
After the establishment of Israel
In 1950, a factory called "Tama" (Mishmar HaEmek Industries) was established which became a central part of the kibbutz' economy. In the 1980s the kibbutz suffered an economic crisis that ended in the late 1980s when Tama began to manufacture harvesting tools for export.
In 1950 a village and ma'abara (immigrant transit camp) called Keren Yesha was established by the Jewish Agency for Yemeni Jews next to Mishmar HaEmek. It was located atop the hill of Abu Shusha where the members of the kibbutz first settled in 1926. The kibbutz helped the new community by providing various services. In 1953 the village was abandoned and the residents moved to Midrakh Oz.
In the 1980s the kibbutz suffered from the bank stock crisis. The end of the crisis began in the end of the decade, and Tama began manufacturing plastic netting used for bundling crops. Several successful business moves by Tama in the early 1990s led the kibbutz to an era of economic prosperity and high quality of life. At that time, education in the kibbutz was reformed and the children societies were abolished and the students were moved to schools outside of the kibbutz. This led the kibbutz to extend existing houses and set up new neighborhoods. The prosperity has led the kibbutz to increase the salaries of its members, to create personal funds for families and to institutionalize culture and recreation activities, as the number of work days per week was reduced to five.
In 2010 the kibbutz decided after four gatherings to appoint a team of members to discuss the privatization of electricity, food, mail, barbershop and cosmetics. Other services were to be kept under the responsibility of the kibbutz, these include: healthcare, education and welfare. The dispute mainly concerned the privatization of the dining room. At the end of the discussions, most privatization initiatives were rejected, and only a few minor changes that had no practical effect on the collective lifestyle were accepted.
Mishmar HaEmek is one of the richest of the kibbutzim in Israel. It is based on a socialist structure where all assets are communally owned and all residents earn the same amount of money. The economy is also based on intensive farming, including field crops, orchards, dairy cattle and poultry.
The kibbutz owns 75% of Tama (Mishmar HaEmek Industries). It operates a factory on its grounds in partnership with Kibbutz Gal'ed, which owns 25% of the company. In 2015 it was estimated that the company had an annual sales revenue of 1.5 Billion NIS. The factory has about 250 workers, over a quarter are residents of the kibbutz, and manufactures plastic netting used for bundling crops. Tama is one of the world's biggest players for this product and works companies such as John Deere. It has factories in three countries with a total number of 900 workers. In the factory the employees and executives who are residents of the kibbutz all earn the same while the non-kibbutz residents who are employed in the factory earn according to their work.
The agriculture, which was the early base of the kibbutz's economy continues to exist and keep the character of the kibbutz. Since the 2000s, the main focus of the agriculture in the kibbutz is chickens, milk, almond and olive trees, and various field crops.
Various services have developed in the kibbutz, some of them are operated privately by the kibbutz members. These include IDEA Information System, which provides softwares for 70% of the museums in Israel, including Yad Vashem.
Early childhood education is provided at Mishmar HaEmek. The children of the kibbutz study in an elementary school in HaZore'a and then move on to Megiddo secondary school near Ein HaShofet. Until the 1990s, students in grades 7-12 attended Shomeria secondary school.
The Shomeria school, established in 1930, was the first regional educational institution of the Kibbutz Artzi movement (later merged with other movements to the Kibbutz Movement). It operated as a boarding school and put into practice Hashomer Hatzair's socialist ideology, creating an independent "children's society". The pupils saw their parents on the holidays or special visiting days throughout the year. The children had a daily schedule, with the mornings devoted to education, the afternoons to labour, and the evenings to cultural activities. At first, the school consisted of makeshift cabins, but the Kibbutz Artzi movement soon commissioned a building for this purpose. It was designed by architect Joseph Neufeld and was built in 1937. Its location on a hill higher than the rest of the kibbutz symbolized the importance of education. Apart from Mishmar HaEmek, the institution provided education to four other kibbutz communities that were established in the Jezreel Valley: Beit Alfa, Sarid, Mizra and Merhavia, later joined by children from Kibbutz Gan Shmuel and youth from the Youth Aliyah. After the establishment of the State of Israel, similar schools were established in other kibbutzim.
Over the years, various additions were made to the complex, which continued to serve the kibbutz for informal education. The original building designed by Neufeld is no longer in use as a school, and following a renovation it now houses offices and a library.
In the 1931 census of Palestine, Mishmar HaEmek had a population of 122, all Jewish, in 59 occupied houses. In the 1945 survey the kibbutz had a population of 390 and had a total land area of 4,850 dunams, of which 114 are publicly owned and the rest (4,736) are owned by Jews. The population of Mishmar HaEmek was recorded in Israeli censuses: In 1948 the kibbutz had a population of 549; In 1961 the population was 704; In 1972 the population was 923; In 1983 the population was 822; In 1995 the population was 878; In 2008 the population was 956. In 31 December 2017 the population estimate was 1,254.
According to the 2008 census, 22% of the residents were aged below 17, 64% aged between 18 and 64, and 14% were aged above 65. The median age was 30. The number of residents born abroad decreased from 32.8% in 1972 to 20.9%. Out of these, 41.5% immigrated until 1960, 21.3% immigrated between 1961 and 1989, 24.7% between 1990 and 2001, and the remaining 12.5% after 2002. The average number of childs born per woman decreased from 2.5% in 1972 to 1.7%.
41.4% of the residents older than 15 worked in manufacturing, 16.4% in education, 11.6% in agriculture, 7.9% in community, social, personal and other services, and 5.4% in real estate, renting and business activities. 9.8% of the residents older than 15 worked outside of the locality.
The Palmach Cave is located in the outskirts of the kibbutz, near the forest. It was used by the Palmach unit of the Jewish militia during the Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine. The cave was chosen by the Palmach upon its establishment in 1941, as a training site for the Palmach's special undercover units. The cave was also used for meetings between the commanders of the Palmach. Before it was used by the Palmach it was used as a playground by the kibbutz' kids, and before that it was used as a shelter for Bedouin nomads during their voyages. Today the cave is a tourist attraction and educational site run by a member of the kibbutz.
Mishmar HaEmek's cemetery is located in the outskirts of the kibbutz, next to the Palmach Cave. Members of the kibbutz from its past are buried in the cemetery, including five members of the Knesset, many known personalities from the fields of culture and society and a few high ranked military officers. Some of the people buried in the cemetery are not from the kibbutz but have some connection to it.
Pinat HaGola ("Diaspora's Place) is a memorial site for the children who died in the Holocaust. The monument was built by the sculptor Zeev Ben-Zvi, between 1945 and 1947. He built it with the students of the kibbutz and it was the earliest memorial site for the Holocaust in Israel. During the battle of Mishmar HaEmek in 1948, the site was damaged by a shell, but Zeev Ben-Zvi refused to repair it.
In Mishmar HaEmek there is a prehistoric and protohistoric site called "el-Ghaba et-Tahta". The site covers about 40 dunams and contains a tell which can not be seen from the surface. Seven strata (layers) were found, which date between the early Neolithic period and the late Ottoman period. The excavation was conducted in July–September 2010 at an area that was designated for a new residential extension.
In the deepest layer, a plaster floor was found with flint tools dating it to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The remains of a large structure were uncovered, and within it pottery of the Yarmukian and Jericho IX (Lodian) cultures, dating to the Pottery Neolithic. Three rectangular shaped stone rows were found and their use is unclear. Pottery belonging to the Wadi Rabah culture were found and dated the site to the Early Chalcolithic period. A tomb and several round or eliptical buildings from the Bronze Age period with an abundance of pottery were found, some with resemblance to structures found near the city of Kiryat Ata. A structure from the Roman period was also found. In the highest layer a courtyard surrounded by several rooms, believed to be part of a large building was discovered. It is likely it was built in the 19th century and roof tiles found in it originated from the port of Marseilles in France. According to a resident of the kibbutz said the building wasn't standing when the kibbutz was established.
Members of Knesset
- Mordechai Bentov, the brother of Shulamit Bat-Dori, government minister and signatory of the Israeli declaration of independence. Member of the Mapam political party.
- Ya'akov Hazan, member of Knesset. (Mapam, Alignment)
- Amnon Linn, member of Knesset. (Mapai, Alignment, Likud). Born in 1924 to members of the kibbutz. Left the kibbutz to Haifa in 1950.
- Emry Ron, member of Knesset (Alignment). Born in the kibbutz in 1936 and stayed there until his death in 2013.
- Emma Talmi, member of Knesset (Mapam). Originally from Ein HaHoresh, she joined Kibbutz Dalet in 1927, which later united with Mishmar HaEmek. Died in 2004 and buried in the kibbutz.
- Moshe Shamir, author, playwright and a member of the knesset (Mapam). He was a member of the kibbutz between 1944 and 1946.
- Eli Amir, author. Moved to the kibbutz in 1950 from Iraq and lived there until he moved to Jerusalem in 1953. His novel Tarnegol Kaparot was inspired by his time in the kibbutz. It is considered one of the twenty books that are the foundations modern Hebrew literature.
- Shulamit Bat-Dori, producer and director of kibbutz theatre in Israel. Joined the pioneers of the kibbutz in 1923, when they stayed in Nahalal. In 1925 she was sent to Poland by the HaShomer HaTzair movement. She returned to the kibbutz in 1935, where she established the theater of the Kibbutz Artzi movement. She died in 1985 and is buried in the kibbutz.
- Hillel Omer, poet and writer. Born in the kibbutz in 1926. Served as a scout during the Battle of Mishmar HaEmek, and later served in the Palmach and fought in the south of the country with the Negev Brigade. Left the kibbutz in 1954 to Jerusalem. Died in 1990 and is buried in the kibbutz.
- Adin Talbar, athlete and sports official
- Zellig Harris, linguist
- Bruria Kaufman, physicist. Wife of Zelling Harris.
- Svein Sevje, Norwegian ambassador to Israel. Volunteered in the kibbutz after the Six-Day War during the late 60s and learned Hebrew in the kibbutz.
- Shneior Lifson, chemical physicist
- Irma Lindheim, Zionist fund-raiser and educator. Moved to the kibbutz in 1933 from the United States and was a member until her death in 1978. She is buried in the kibbutz's cemetery.
- "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- Jewish National Fund (1949). Jewish Villages in Israel. Jerusalem: Hamadpis Liphshitz Press. p. 122.
- "משמר העמק [Mishmar HaEmek]". Megido Regional Council website. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "משמר העמק - אירועים מרכזיים בהיסטוריית משמר העמק [Mishmar HaEmek - Key events in the history of Mishmar HaEmek]". Mishmar HaEmek website (in Hebrew). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Mishmar Ha-Emek". Jewish Virtual Library.
- "Megiddo". UNESCO's website.
- "Ramot Menashe Park - The first biosphere in Israel". Jewish National Fund. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
- "Owls Congregate in Mishmar HaEmek Forest". Jewish National Fund. Jerusalem Post. 4 March 2014.
- Haskin, Gili. "רכישת הקרקעות בעמק יזרעאל [Purchasing the lands in the Jezreel Valley]" (in Hebrew). Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Mishmar HaEmek". Israeli Labour Movement (in Hebrew). Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "HaShomer HaTzair Kibbuztim in Palestine: Kibbutz Bet" (in Hebrew). HaShomer HaTzair Warsaw. 1 December 1927.
- "משמר העמק - היסטוריה [Mishmar HaEmek - History]". Mishmar HaEmek website (in Hebrew). Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "אירועים ביטחוניים בתולדות משמר העמק [Security events in the history of Mishmar HaEmek]". Mishmar HaEmek website (in Hebrew). Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- Dvir, Noam (28 March 2008). "The Acropolis of Mishmar Ha'emek". Haaretz. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "Hatzor (Ahsdod)" (in Hebrew). Israeli Labour Movement. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- Reinharz, Shulamit; A. Raider, Mark (2005). American Jewish Women and the Zionist Enterprise. University Press of New England. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-58465-439-1.
- Ozev, Amriam (2013). "chapter i". Mishmar HaEmek Will Stand (in Hebrew). Kinneret, Zmora-Bitan, Dvir. ISBN 978-965-552-557-1. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Swedenburg, Ted (2003). Memories of Revolt: 1936–1939 Rebellion in the Palestinian Past. The University of Arkensas Press. p. 118. ISBN 1-55728-763-5.
- Karper, Dalia (9 July 2016). "ממציא הפשיזם הישראלי [Inventor of Israeli Fascism]". Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- Naomi Shepherd, "Ploughing the sand - British rule in Palestine 1917–1948".ISBN 0-7195-5707-0. Pages 215–220.
- Benny Morris, "The Birth of the Palestinain Refugee Problem Revisited". ISBN 0-521-33028-9. p. 115.
- Gelber, p.114
- Larry Collins/Dominique Lapierre, O Jerusalem. History Book Club, London, (1972) (hb). p.281. They count seven 75 millimeter and three 105 millimeter guns.
- Gelber, p.122
- Gelber, p.279
- Rabi, Moshe (28 July 1950). "A Visit in Ma'abarot near Mishmar HaEmek". Hed Ha-Mizrach (in Hebrew).
- Landoi, Chayim (29 June 1950). "Keren Yesha - A New Work Village in the Valley". Al HaMishmar (in Hebrew).
- "List of all localities whose names have been changed over the years - including changes prior to the establishment of the state: Keren Yesha". sharedlist.org.il (in Hebrew).
- Am-Ad, Karni (17 February 2010). "Mishmar HaEmek: Discussion groups on first privatizations". Ynet (in Hebrew). Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- Am-Ad, Karni (24 August 2011). "קיבוץ משמר העמק חילק בונוס גדול לחברים [Kibbutz Mishmar HaEmek distributed a big bonus to the members]". Ynet (in Hebrew). Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Orni, Efraim (2008). "MISHMAR HA-EMEK". Jewish Virtual Library.
- Koren, Ora (25 January 2015). "Outrage in Mishmar HaEmek: The kibbutz lost 140 million shekels in foreign currency transactions". TheMarker (in Hebrew). Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- Dagan, David (14 July 2010). "Kibbutz Diary: Business savvy? These socialists have plenty". Huffington Post. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- "About IDEA Information Systems". IDEA Information Systems.
- The legendary "Big House" of Mishmar Haemek has become an office and library (in Hebrew)
- 1931 census of Palestine, as given in Mills, 1932, p. 94
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 48[permanent dead link]
- Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics List of localities, geographical character and population 1948, 1961, 1972, 1983, 1995
- Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, Localities file 2008
- "Population Census 2008: MISHMAR HAEMEQ" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics.
- Kibbutz's page in romgalil.org.il
- Pinkler, Kobi (15 November 2006). "Palmach Cave". Arutz Sheva (in Hebrew).
- Alon, Eli (15 May 2016). "Story of a Place: The Cemetery in Mishmar HaEmek". News1 (in Hebrew).
- "Pinat HaGola Mishmar HaEmek" (in Hebrew). Atnahta Tours.
- Getzov, Nimrod; Barzilai, Omry (12 November 2011). "Mishmar Ha-'Emeq (el-Ghaba et-Tahta)". Israel Antiquities Authority. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- Alon, Eli (24 July 2016). "Former MK Amnon Linn Died". News1 (in Hebrew).
- Rabad, Ahiya (10 November 2013). "Emri Ron Died, Holder of a World Record With an Artificial Heart". Ynet.
- Carmel-Hakim, Esther. "Emma Talmi Levine". Jewish Women's Archive.
- Alon, Eli (22 July 2015). "A Street Named after Mosha Shamir was Opened in Jerusalem". TheMarker (in Hebrew).
- "Eli Amir" (PDF). Bar Ilan University.
- "Shulamit Bat-Dori". Israel Labour Movement.
- "Ayin Hillel" (in Hebrew). Israel Labour Movement.
- Eldar, Akiva (16 September 2013). "Norwegian Diplomat Doubts Israel Settlements Can Be Stopped". Al Monitor.
- "Irma Lindheim". Davar. 27 September 1978.
- Yoav Gelber, Independence Versus Nakba; Kinneret–Zmora-Bitan–Dvir Publishing, 2004, ISBN 965-517-190-6
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