|Emperor of Japan|
Emperor Takakura, Tenshi Sekkan Miei
|Born||September 20, 1161|
|Died||January 30, 1181 (aged 19)|
|Burial||Nochi no Seikanū-ji no Misasagi (Kyoto)|
Emperor Takakura (高倉天皇 Takakura-tennō) (September 20, 1161 – January 30, 1181) was the 80th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1168 through 1180.
Takakura was the fourth son of Emperor Go-Shirakawa, and thus uncle to his predecessor, Emperor Rokujō. His mother was Empress Dowager Taira no Shigeko, the younger sister of Taira no Tokiko, the wife of Taira no Kiyomori. His empress consort was Taira no Tokuko (later Empress Dowager Kenrei), the daughter of Taira no Kiyomori, and thus his first cousin (as his mother and Tokuko's mothers were sisters).
- Empress consort: Taira no Tokuko (平徳子) – later Kenrei-mon In
- Imperial Prince Tokihito (言仁親王) – later Emperor Antoku
- Shichijō-in (七条院), Bōmon Shokushi [or Fujiwara no Shokushi] (坊門殖子, 藤原殖子)
- Lady of Rokujō (六条局), Konoe Michiko/Tsūshi (近衛通子)
- Court Lady Azechi? (按察典侍), Horikawa Toyoko? (堀河豊子)
- Court Lady Shōshō (少将内侍), Taira no Noriko (平範子)
- Third son: Imperial Prince Koreaki (惟明親王) (1172–1121), later Imperial Prince and Monk Shōen (聖円入道親王)
- Lady of Sochi (帥局), daughter of Fujiwara no Kimishige (藤原公重) – former nanny of Takakura
- First daughter: Imperial Princess Isako (功子内親王) – Saigū of Ise
- Lady of Kogō (小督局), daughter of Fujiwara no Shigenori (藤原成範)
- Second daughter: Imperial Princess Hanshi/Noriko (範子内親王), Empress Dowager Bō (坊門院)
Events of Takakura's life
Although Takakura was formally enthroned, the reality was that government affairs were controlled by his father and his father-in-law.
- 1168 (Nin'an 3, 19th day of the 2nd month): In the 3rd year of Rokujō-tennō 's reign (六条天皇3年), the emperor was deposed by his grandfather, and the succession (‘‘senso’’) was received by his cousin, the third son of the retired-Emperor Go-Shirakawa.
- 1168 (Nin'an 3, 19th day of the 2nd month): Emperor Takakura is said to have acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’), and he is proclaimed emperor.
Takakura had his own views on the role of Emperor. He is said to have written:
- "The Emperor is a ship. His subjects are water. The water enables a ship to float well, but sometimes the vessel is capsized by it. His subjects can sustain an Emperor well, but sometimes they overthrow him."
- 1172 (Jōan 2, 10th day of the 2nd month): Taira Kiyomori’s daughter, Tokuko, becomes Takakura’s consort.
- May 27, 1177 (Jishō 1, 28th day of the 4th month): A great fire in the capital was spread by high winds; and the palace was reduced to cinders.
- 1178 (Jishō 2, 12th day of the 11th month): Takakura's consort, Taira-no Tokuko, gave birth to a son. Kiyomori rejoiced; and all the officers of the court congratulated the parents. In the next month, this infant was declared heir to Emperor Takakura.
- 1180 (Jisho 4, 21st day of the 2nd month): Emperor Takakura abdicated.
- 1180 (Jisho 4, 22nd day of the 4th month): Emperor Antoku’s coronation ceremony.
- 1180 (Jisho 4, 2nd day of the 6th month): Former-emperor Go-Shirakawa-in, former-emperor Takakura-in and Emperor Antoku leave Kyoto for Fukuhara-kyō.
- 1180 (Jisho 4, 26th day of the 11th month): The capital is moved back to Kyoto from Fukuhara.
- 1180 (Jisho 4): A devastating whirlwind causes havoc in Heian-kyo, the capital.
- 1181 (Jisho 5, 14th day of the 1st month): Emperor Takakura died.
Soon after the birth of Emperor Takakura's son, Prince Tokihito, he was pressured to abdicate. The one-year-old infant would become Emperor Antoku.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Takakura's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:
- Sesshō, Matsu Motofusa, 1144–1230.
- Kampaku, Konoe Motomichi, 1160–1233.
- Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara Tadamasa.
- Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara Moronaga, 1137–1192.
- Sadaijin, Ōimikado Tsunemune, 1119–1189.
- Udaijin, Kujō Kanezane, 1149–1207.
- Nadaijin, Konoe Motomichi.
- Nadaijin, Minamoto Masamichi, died 1175.
- Nadaijin, Taira Shigemori, 1138–1179.
Eras of Takakura's reign
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 195–200; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 330–333; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 212–214.
- Brown, pp. 264; n.b., up until the time of Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors (their imina) were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.
- Titsingh, p. 195; Varley, p. 212.
- Brown, p. 329.
- Brown, p. 330; Varley, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
- Titsingh, p. 195; Varley, p. 44.
- Kitagawa, Hiroshi et al. (1975). The Tale of the Heike, p. 220.
- Kitagawa, p. 783.
- Titsingh, p. 198.
- Titsingh, p. 199.
- Kitagawa, p. 784.
- Kamo no Chōmei. (1212). Hōjōki.
- Brown, p. 331.
- Brown, p. 332.
- Titsingh, p. 195; Brown, pp. 330–331.
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-03460-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Helmolt, Hans Ferdinand and James Bryce Bryce. (1907). The World's History: A Survey of Man's Progress. Vol. 2. London: William Heinemann.OCLC 20279012
- Kitagawa, Hiroshi and Burce T. Tsuchida, ed. (1975). The Tale of the Heike. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 0-86008-128-1 OCLC 164803926
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-04940-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
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