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Falangism (Spanish: Falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and, afterwards, of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange"), as well as derivatives of it in other countries. Falangism is widely considered a fascist ideology. Under the leadership of Francisco Franco, many of the radical elements of Falangism considered to be fascist were diluted and it largely became an authoritarian, conservative ideology connected with Francoist Spain. Opponents of Franco's changes to the party include former Falange leader Manuel Hedilla. Falangism places a strong emphasis on Catholic religious identity, though it has held some secular views on the Church's direct influence in society, as it believed that the state should have the supreme authority over the nation. Falangism emphasized the need for authority, hierarchy, and order in society. Falangism is anti-communist, anti-capitalist, anti-democratic, and anti-liberal, although under Franco, the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.
The Falange's original manifesto, the "Twenty-Seven Points", declared Falangism to support: the unity of Spain and the elimination of regional separatism; the establishment of a dictatorship led by the Falange; utilizing violence to regenerate Spain; promoted the revival and development of the Spanish Empire; a social revolution to create: a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion, respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury. It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts. Falangism supports the state to have jurisdiction of setting wages. The Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation, because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain during his rule.
The Spanish Falange and its affiliates in Hispanic states across the world promoted a form of panhispanism known as Hispanidad that advocated both cultural and economic union of Hispanic societies around the world.
Falangism has attacked both the political left and the right as its "enemies", declaring itself to be neither left nor right, but a syncretic third position. However, scholarly sources reviewing Falangism place it on the political right.
Nationalism and racialism
During the Spanish Civil War, the Falange and the Carlists prior to the two parties' unification in 1937 both promoted the incorporation of Portugal into Spain. The Falange, both prior to and after its merger with the Carlists, supported the unification of Gibraltar and Portugal into Spain, during its early years of existence the Falange produced maps of Spain that included Portugal as a province of Spain. The Carlists stated that a Carlist Spain would retake Gibraltar and Portugal. After the civil war, some radical members of the Falange called for a reunification with Portugal and annexation of former Spanish territories in the French Pyrenees. During World War II, Franco in a communiqué with Germany on 26 May 1942 declared that Portugal should be made part of a Spain.
Some of the Falangists in Spain had supported racialism and racialist policies, viewing races as both real and existing with differing strengths, weaknesses, and accompanying cultures inextricably obtained with them. But unlike other racialists such the Nazis, Falangism is unconcerned about racial purity and does not denounce other races for being inferior, claiming "that every race has a particular cultural significance" and claiming that the intermixing of the Spanish race and other races has produced a "Hispanic supercaste" that is "ethically improved, morally robust, spiritually vigorous". It is less concerned about biological Spanish racial regeneration than it was in advocating the necessity of Spanish Catholic spiritual regeneration. Some, have, however, promoted eugenics designed to eliminate physical and psychological damage caused by pathogenic agents; and it did and still does supports natality policies to stimulate increased fertility rate among ideal physically and morally fit citizens.
Franco praised Spain's Visigothic heritage, saying that the Germanic tribe of the Visigoths gave Spaniards their "national love for law and order". During early years of the Falangist regime of Franco, the regime admired Nazi Germany and had Spanish archaeologists seek to demonstrate that Spaniards were part of the Aryan race particularly through their Visigothic heritage.
Primo de Rivera had little interest in addressing the "Jewish problem" outside areas of political issues. The Falange's position was influenced by the fact of the smallness of the Jewish community in Spain at the time that did not favour the development of strong anti-Semitism. Primo de Rivera saw the solution to the Jewish problem in Spain as simple, the conversion of Jews to Catholicism. However, on the issue of perceived political tendencies amongst Jews, he warned about Jewish-Marxist influences over the working classes. The Falangist daily newspaper Arriba claimed that "the Judeo-Masonic International is the creator of two great evils that have afflicted humanity: capitalism and Marxism". Primo de Rivera approved of attacks by Falangists on the Jewish-owned SEPU department stores in 1935.
The Spanish Falange and its Hispanic affiliates have promoted the cultural, economic, and racial unity of Hispanic peoples across the world in "Hispanidad". It has sought to unite Hispanic peoples through proposals to create a commonwealth or federation of Spanish-speaking states headed by Spain.
National Syndicalist economics
Falangism supports a national, trans-class society while opposing individual-class-based societies, such as bourgeois or proletarian societies. Falangism opposes class conflict, José Antonio Primo de Rivera declared that "The State is founded on two principles—service to the united nation and the cooperation of classes".
Originally Falangism in Spain as promoted by Primo de Rivera, advocated a "National Syndicalist" economy that rejected both capitalism and communism. Primo de Rivera denounced capitalism for being an individualist economy at the hands of the bourgeoisie that turned workers "into a dehumanized cog in the machinery of bourgeois production" while state socialist economies enslaved the individual by handing control of production to the state.
Falange's original manifesto, the Twenty-Seven Points called for a social revolution to create: a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion, respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury. Under Franco, the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.
Falangism is staunchly anti-communist. The Spanish Falange supported Spanish intervention during World War II against the Soviet Union in the name of anti-communism, resulting in Spain supporting the Anti-Comintern Pact and sending volunteers to join Nazi Germany's foreign legions on the Eastern Front to support the German war effort against the Soviet Union.
Age and gender roles
The Spanish Falange supported conservative ideas about women and supported rigid gender roles that stipulated that women's main duties in life were to be a loving mother and a submissive wife. This policy was set against that of the Second Spanish Republic that provided universal suffrage to women.
- Nimio de Anquin
- Álvaro Cunqueiro
- Ernesto Giménez Caballero
- Carlos Ibarguren
- Pedro Laín Entralgo
- Ramiro Ledesma Ramos
- Leopoldo Lugones
- Eugenio d'Ors
- Leopoldo Panero
- José María Pemán
- Onésimo Redondo
- Dionisio Ridruejo
- Luis Rosales
- Pedro Sainz Rodríguez
- Rafael Sánchez Mazas
- Gonzalo Torrente Ballester
- Antonio Tovar
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