Falls Road, Belfast

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Falls Road
Catholicbelfast.jpg
Falls Road looking towards Divis flats and the city centre
Falls Road, Belfast is located in Greater Belfast
Falls Road, Belfast
Shown within Greater Belfast
Native nameBóthar na bhFál  (Irish)
Maintained byBelfast City Council
Length1,600 m (5,200 ft)
LocationBelfast, Northern Ireland
Postal codeBT12
Coordinates54°35′36″N 5°57′30″W / 54.59347°N 5.95823°W / 54.59347; -5.95823Coordinates: 54°35′36″N 5°57′30″W / 54.59347°N 5.95823°W / 54.59347; -5.95823
Northeast endDivis Street
Southwest endAndersonstown Road
Other
Known forNumerous murals, Irish republican community

Falls Road (from Irish túath na bhFál, meaning 'territory of the enclosures'[1]) is the main road through west Belfast, Northern Ireland, running from Divis Street in Belfast city centre to Andersonstown in the suburbs. The name has been synonymous for at least a century and a half with the Catholic community in the city. The road is usually referred to as the Falls Road, rather than as Falls Road. It is known as the Faas Raa in Ulster-Scots.[2]

History[edit]

The view from the Falls Road to the city centre, 1981

The Falls Road derives its name from the Irish túath na bhFál, an Irish petty kingdom whose name means "territory of the enclosures".[1] This territory was roughly the same as that of the ecclesiastical parish of the Shankill, which spanned a large portion of modern-day Belfast.[1]

The Falls Road itself was originally a country lane leading from the city centre but the population of the area expanded rapidly in the 19th century with the construction of several large linen mills. All of these have now closed or have been repurposed. This original area, which was centred on the junction of modern-day Millfield and College Avenue on what is now Divis Street, was known as Falls and lent its name to the road.[3] which had previously been called The Pound.[4] The housing in the area developed in the 19th century and was organised in narrow streets of small terraced housing. The Westlink linking the M1 and M2 motorways now cuts through this area.

The short stretch of road linking Divis Street to the city centre is known as Castle Street after the original Belfast Castle which was built nearby by the Normans in the 12th century. Near the bottom of Castle Street is located Chapel Lane on which St. Mary's Church is situated. This is the oldest Catholic church in Belfast and dates from 1784. Nearby was located St. Mary's Hall, a popular social venue. It was constructed in 1875 but demolished in 1990.[5] The site is now occupied by a Tesco store[6] which opens out through a former Provincial Bank of Ireland branch onto Royal Avenue. Opposite the site of the hall is located Kelly's Cellars, a public house, which was established in 1720.

The Falls Road forms the first three miles of the A501 which starts in Belfast city centre and runs southwest through the city forking just after the Falls Park into the B102 which continues for a short distance to Andersonstown. The A501 continues as the Glen Road. The area is composed largely of residential housing, with more public sector housing in the lower sections of the road. There are lots of small shops lining the road as well as schools, churches, hospitals and leisure facilities. Employment in the area was originally dominated by the large linen mills but these have mostly closed. Today, local employment is in the service sector, health and education with additional employment in other parts of the city.

The Falls Road district can be roughly divided into three sections. The Lower Falls which includes Divis Street starts near the city centre and continues to the junction with the Grosvenor Road. The middle Falls district centres on Beechmount. The Upper Falls starts about the Donegall Road and continues into Andersonstown.

Lower Falls[edit]

This section of the road stretches from Millfield near the city centre to the Grosvenor Road/Springfield Road intersection. The lower part is named Divis Street as formally the Falls Road begins at the junction with Northumberland Street and Albert Street. This area was considered the heart of the Falls Road and was initially composed of rows of small terraced houses which were constructed in the mid to late nineteenth century. The area is detailed in the 1931 Ordnance Survey map of the area.[7]

Housing[edit]

Children playing near Falls Road, Belfast, 1981

The housing in the area developed in the 19th century and was organised in narrow streets of small terraced housing. Many of the streets were named after local mill owners. Alexander Street West was named after John Alexander who was a local mill owner. He also named Milford Street after Milford, Co. Carlow where he had a house.[8] Ardmoulin Street was named after Ardmoulin House, the residence of the Chartres family who owned a corn mill on Divis Street. Craig Street was called after the Craig family who owned the New Northern Mill at the corner of Northumberland Street.[9]

By the 1960s the buildings in the area had decayed considerably and the Belfast Corporation introduced a major development plan which involved wholescale demolition of much of the area. Many of the old street names were retained in the new housing development. In the Divis Street area, the housing was replaced with the Divis Flats complex which consisted of twelve blocks of flats built on top of the historic district formerly known as the Pound Loney.[10] The high point of this redevelopment was Divis Tower. Because of its rapid deterioration, the whole complex, except for Divis Tower, was demolished thirty years later and replaced with blocks of terraced housing.[11]

Past Albert Street, more mills were built on the northern side and more streets of small terraced houses on the southern side. The old streets were named after characters and events in the Crimean War (1853–1856) which was occurring at that time.[1] These include Raglan Street (named after Lord Raglan, commander of British forces in the Crimean War), Garnet Street (after Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley), Alma Street (after the Battle of Alma), Balaklava Street (after the Battle of Balaklava), Inkerman Street (after the Battle of Inkerman), Sevastopol Street (after the Siege of Sevastopol), Plevna Street (after the Siege of Plevna), and Varna Street (after the Siege of Varna). There were also streets named after Balkan places such as Bosnia Street, Balkan Street, Roumania Street and Servia Street, as well as Milan Street and Omar Street (possibly after common Slavic names). Other streets were named after contemporary political and royal figures such as Peel Street (after Robert Peel) and Albert Street (named after Prince Albert).[12]

These street names are recalled in the collection of poetry The Irish for No by Ciaran Carson. In one of the poems entitled The Exiles’ Club, Carson imagines a group of Belfast exiles:

After years they have reconstructed the whole of the Falls Road, and now
Are working on the back streets: Lemon, Peel and Omar, Balaclava, Alma.[13]

All of these houses have now been demolished and replaced with modern terraced houses.

Schools[edit]

At the foot of Divis Street is located the Millfield campus of Belfast Metropolitan College, the largest further and higher education college in Northern Ireland. Nearby was located the original St. Mary's Christian Brothers' Grammar School. In the 1960s, this school transferred to a greenfield site on the Glen Road in the upper Falls.[14] The original school building is now the home of the Edmund Rice Schools Trust. Opposite is St. Mary's Primary School. Nearby is the location of the Árd Scoil which was historically the centre for Irish language and culture in the area. Just past it was located the Hastings Street RUC station.

There are currently two other primary schools in the Lower Falls district. These are St. Peter's[15] on Ross Road and St. Joseph's[16] on Slate Street. In addition, there is the Irish language Gaelscoil an Lonnáin at the top end of Leeson Street. Several older schools closed in the late twentieth century due to declining student numbers. These include St Finian's and St Gall's primary schools which were run by the De La Salle Christian Brothers. St Comgall's Public Elementary School, in Divis Street, opened in 1932 but closed in 1988.[17] St. Brendan's Primary School on nearby Milford Street closed in the 1960s but for two years housed some pupils from St. Mary's Christian Brothers' Grammar School which at that time had exceeded its capacity in its Barrack Street premises.

The Dunlewey Centre[18] is located near Gaelscoil an Lonnáin. The building was originally the home of the Bon Secours Sisters and also housed St. Vincent’s Primary School for Girls. It is a now the home of a community education centre.[19] Dunlewey Street on which it is located is named after the residence of a local mill owner, William Ross, who owned a house in Dunlewey, County Donegal. The nearby Ross Street is also named after William Ross.[20]

Churches[edit]

St Peter's Cathedral

Historically, the Falls Road district has had a strong Roman Catholic tradition. This is reflected in the number of Catholic churches in the area. These include St Peter's Cathedral in the Lower Falls area just off Albert Street. This was originally a parish church built for the expanding Catholic population in the area in the 1860s. It was designed by Fr Jeremiah Ryan McAulay,[21] who had trained as an architect before he became a priest, and built on a site donated by a local baker, Bernard Hughes. It became the cathedral church for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Down and Connor and the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Down and Connor in 1986. It is home to St Peter's Schola Cantorum (Choir).[22][23]

Clonard monastery,[24] the home of the Redemptorist religious order, is located nearby. Father Alec Reid who played an important role in the Northern Ireland peace process was based here.

There were also several Protestant churches in the area. These have either been demolished or converted into other uses as their congregations dwindled with the building of the peace lines. These churches included the Methodist church in Divis Street (1850-1966)[25] which was designed by Charles Lanyon and was the original home of the Falls Road Orange Lodge. Nearby was the Hungarian Flour Mill owned by Bernard Hughes. It burned down in a fire in 1966.[26] There was also a Presbyterian church in Albert Street (1852-1972) where one of the ministers was the Rev. Henry Montgomery who helped establish the Shankill Road Mission in 1896.[27] St. Luke’s Church (1863-2006) on Northumberland Street, was the Church of Ireland church for the Lower Falls. It amalgamated with St. Stephen’s Church on Millfield.[28] St Philip's Church of Ireland Church (Drew Memorial) (1870-1994) on the Grosvenor Road merged with St. Simon's Church on the Donegall Road.[29]

Leisure and entertainment facilities[edit]

The Falls Leisure Centre is located in the lower Falls district. It currently offers a range of leisure facilities including a swimming pool, sauna and steam rooms, a gym, and a badminton court.[30] It was originally the location of the Falls Public Baths where local residents could avail of washing and swimming facilities.[31] On 16 April 1941, it was the site of a temporary morgue following the Belfast Blitz.[32] This is described in the novel The Emperor of Ice-Cream by the novelist Brian Moore.

Falls Road Library, opened in 1908.

The Lower Falls area previously had many linen mills. These have either been demolished or converted for other purposes. One of these is Conway Mill, in Conway Street (named after the Conway family, a noted generous family of the Clonard area). Originally a flax spinning mill, it now houses a community enterprise of small businesses, art studios, retail space and education floor.[33] It also houses the Irish Republican History Museum.

One of three Carnegie libraries built in Belfast is situated in the lower Falls Road. It opened on 1 January 1908 and is the last Carnegie library in Belfast still functioning as a library.[34] Opposite was located the Clonard Picture House which closed in 1966.[35] The Diamond Picture House at the corner of Cupar Street closed in 1959.[36]

At the junction with Grosvenor Road is located Dunville Park[37] which was first opened in 1893. It was funded by Robert G Dunville, the owner of the nearby Dunville Whiskey distillery.[38] who also funded the large fountain at the centre of the park which was designed by the Scottish designer Arthur Ernest Pearce.[39] The park has recently been refurbished and includes football pitches. Robert Dunville not only gave his name to the park and the adjacent street but named another street after his daughter Sorella.[40]

A strong working class community, the Lower Falls has a history of storytelling, music and song which was often enjoyed in the many public houses in the area.[41] These included such establishments as the Old House, McGeowns, the West End Bar, the Laurel Leaf, the Centre Half and Haughey's. Gerry Conlon, who grew up in Peel Street, recalled in his autobiography Proved Innocent how he could see several pubs just a few yards from his front door: I’d watch the men off to the pubs. There were three pubs, Paddy Gilmartin’s which was called the Laurel Leaf, Peter Murray’s [the West End Bar] directly opposite, or further down on the right-hand side was Charlie Gormley’s, across from Finnegan’s the butcher shop.[42] The Centre Half Bar which was located at the corner of Panton Street and the Falls Road was named by the licensee Mickey Hamill who played for both Belfast Celtic and Glasgow Celtic as well as Manchester United and Manchester City. He captained the Ireland team to their first Home International championship win in 1914.[43] Most of these bars were demolished as part of the redevelopment of the area which occurred in the 1970s and 1980s.

Bobby Sands mural, Falls Road
Frederick Douglass mural on the 'Solidarity Wall', subsequently repainted.

Murals[edit]

On some walls along the main road have been painted large murals. These are representations of local and national political issues and figures. One of the most famous is the large mural of Bobby Sands on the side wall of Sinn Féin's offices at the corner of Sevastopol Street. Further down the road on the corner of Northumberland Street is a series of murals which has come to be called the International or Solidarity Wall. This is a series of images of international figures who have been involved in various liberation struggles. These murals have become a popular attraction for visiting tourists.[44]

Middle Falls[edit]

Rise Belfast

This section of the road centres on the Beechmount district and stretches from the intersection with the Grosvenor Road/Springfield Road to the Whiterock Road. The district takes its name from Beechmount House which was located at the top of a nearby hill surrounded by beech trees.[45] It was the former home of Eliza and Isabella Riddel. It is now the site of an Irish Language school.

The Whiterock Road leads to the Ballymurphy and to Turf Lodge districts. It also leads to the Black Mountain which forms part of the range of hills overlooking Belfast. Across the Falls Road from the Whiterock Road is the Donegall Road. This road leads down to the junction with Broadway and WestlinkM1 motorway and then on down to Shaftesbury Square in the city centre. At the junction with Westlink is located the large public sculpture formally called RISE but informally known as the balls on the Falls.

Through the area flowed the Clowney Water or River (Irish An Chluain)[46] which is a tributary of the larger Blackstaff River. Both have largely been covered over and piped in.[47]

Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast

Hospitals[edit]

There are several large hospitals in the area including the Royal Victoria Hospital, the Royal Jubilee Maternity Service, the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children (Children's Hospital), and the Royal Dental Hospital[48] These four linked hospitals make up Northern Ireland's biggest hospitals complex. The Royal Victoria Hospital treats over 80,000 people as inpatients and 350,000 people as outpatients every year. The complex is a major training site for medical, dental, nursing and other health students from Queen's University Belfast.[49] The original hospital opened in 1797 and moved to its present site in 1903.[50] The hospital was designed by Henman and Cooper of Birmingham in 1899, completed in 1906. It was claimed to be the first air-conditioned public building in the world.[51]

Opposite the Children's Hospital is Mulholland Terrace, a row of terraced houses which were built in the nineteenth century by David Mulholland. He also owned several bars in the area.[52]

Schools[edit]

There are also a number of educational institutions in the immediate area. At the senior level, there is St Dominic's Grammar School for Girls. Beside it was located St. Catherine's Primary School which was also run by the Dominican nuns but closed in 2005. At the rear was located St Rose's High School in the Beechmount district which in 2019 was amalgamated with the Christian Brothers School, Glen Road and Corpus Christi College to form All Saints College / Coláiste na Naomh Uile.[53]

There were several boys secondary schools in the area which have gone through a process of merging over the past forty years. St. Thomas’s Boys Secondary School on the Whiterock Road opened in 1957. St. Peter’s Boys Secondary School on Brittons Parade opened in the 1960s. In 1988, both of these schools amalgamated with Gort na Móna Secondary School to become Corpus Christi College which in turn merged (see above). St. Thomas's had a strong literary heritage. For a period, its headteacher was the writer Michael McLaverty. In addition, Seamus Heaney taught here for a while in the 1960s.[54] [55] He references the area in one of his poems:

Is there life before death? That's chalked up
In Ballymurphy. Competence with pain,
Coherent miseries, a bite and a sup,
We hug our little destiny again.[56]

Brendan Hamill, another writer, who attended the school in the 1960s recalled later: While on teaching practice, Seamus Heaney came to St Thomas’ about October that year (1962). I remember him, his voice grave and resonant, his big, brown shoes, reading from Carrickfergus by Louis MacNeice. He was an enormously decent man with extraordinary antennae.[57] Joe Graham, the writer and historian, was also a student at the school when McLaverty was the headteacher. For several years, after the school closed, this building was used by Belfast Metropolitan College for further education courses. After the new Springvale campus of the college was opened the building was demolished.[58] Coláiste Feirste is an Irish language school situated in the Beechmount district. .

St Mary's University College

St. Paul's Primary School is also located in the Beechmount area.[59] There are two Irish language primary schools. These are Gaelscoil na bhFal and Bunscoil an tSléibhe Dhuibh.[60]

At the higher education level, there is St Mary's University College which is part of Queen's University Belfast. This was established in 1909 as St Mary's Training College to train women as teachers. It amalgamated with St Joseph's Training College (for male trainee teachers) in 1985. Besides teacher training it now offers a range of degree courses.[61] The college has a substantial programme of community engagement playing host to many local events including many organised by Féile an Phobail.[62]

Churches[edit]

St Paul's Church is located opposite the hospitals on the corner of Cavendish Street. It was built as a chapel of ease to St Peter's Cathedral and celebrated its first Mass in July 1887.[63] St.Paul's was raised from "a district of St Peters" to the status of a parish in 1905.[64]

Recreation and culture[edit]

Near Beechmount is located Willowfield Park which has a number of playing fields.[65] It is located on the site of the Willowbank Huts which in the late nineteenth century housed a small British Army barracks. When the huts were vacated they were used by various groups including Fianna Éireann.[66] A smaller facility for various sporting activities is McCrory Park, located on the Whiterock Road.[67] It was named after Cardinal Joseph MacRory who was Bishop of Down and Connor and then Primate of All Ireland in the early part of the twentieth century. The Whiterock Leisure Centre is located off the upper Whiterock Road. It has a community garden and allotment site. Developments include a playground and multi-use games area.[68]

The Beehive Bar, Falls Road

Historically, there has been a continuing interest in the Irish language and culture in the area. In 1936 the Cluain Árd centre was established in the Beechmount area and became a centre for Irish language enthusiasts.[69] In the 1960s, there was a resurgence of interest in the Irish language reflected in the development of the Shaw's Road Gaeltacht in Andersonstown. Since then, interest has grown, with the approval by Belfast City Council of a Gaeltacht Quarter around the Falls Road in 2002. The Cultúrlann McAdam Ó Fiaich, known colloquially as the Cultúrlann, is an Irish language and arts centre based in the middle Falls area which opened in 1991. It was originally the home of Broadway Presbyterian church.[70] The centre also houses the Irish language bookshop An Ceathrú Póilí.[71] The Féile an Phobail, an annual festival of Irish culture, which was established in 1988 provides a showcase for Irish culture.[72] Nearby, at the corner with Broadway, is the new Áras na bhFál, the home of Iontaobhas na Gaelscolaíochta - the Trust Fund for Irish-Medium Education.[73][74]

The Áras Uí Chonghaile/James Connolly Visitor Centre is located near the top of the Donegall Road. This centre is dedicated to the life and work of James Connolly who lived nearby for a period in the early years of the twentieth century.[75]

There are some large bars in the middle Falls area. These include the Beehive and the Rock Bar.

The Broadway Cinema which was situated near Beechmount was the largest of Belfast's suburban cinemas when it opened in 1936. It closed in 1972 after a bombing.[76] On the Donegall Road, is the former site of Celtic Park. This was originally a football stadium and the home of Belfast Celtic F.C.. It was also the first greyhound racing track to open in Ireland.[77] The stadium closed in 1983 and is now the site of a shopping centre.

Upper Falls[edit]

This section stretches from the Whiterock Road to the Andersonstown Road. As its name implies, the Andersonstown Road leads to the Andersonstown district and the on out of the city. At the junction with the Glen Road was located the Andersonstown RUC station which was the most attacked police station in Northern Ireland. It was closed and demolished in 2005.[78] The Glen Road runs for almost three miles passing the junction with Monagh By Pass/Kennedy Way, then Shaw's Road and Suffolk Road until it changes name to Colinglen Road. For much of the route in forms the northern boundary of Andersonstown and then Lenadoon.

Schools[edit]

St. Louise's Comprehensive College which was one of the largest girls schools in Europe with over 2,000 pupils is located in this area.[79] In 2019, it was decided to admit boys and to reduce the overall student numbers to 1500.[80] Nearby is located St. Kevin's Primary School which was established in 1933.[81] There is also the St. Maria Goretti Nursery School on the Whiterock Road.[82]

Churches[edit]

The St. John’s RC Church is located near the foot of the Whiterock Road.[83] It was originally established in 1928 as the population of the area increased. St. Matthias's Church is located on the Glen Road not far from Milltown Cemetery. It was originally a Church of Ireland church from 1892 - 1969.[84] The church is now part of the parish of St Teresa of Ávila, the main church of which is located further up the Glen Road..

The Falls Park

Recreation[edit]

In the Upper Falls area is located the Falls Park which was established in 1873.[85] The park has many mature trees, flower beds, horticultural displays and grassland areas. The park contains playing fields for Gaelic games and soccer. It has a 3G pitch, a bowling green and other facilities. Developments include an outdoor gym, a dedicated youth area suitable for a range of uses and a refurbished play park with modern play equipment.[86] In 1924, an outdoor swimming pool, known locally as The Cooler, was added to the park. The pool closed in 1979 for public health reasons.[87] The Féile an Phobail has its closing concert here each year.

Opposite the Falls Park, on Milltown Row, are located the facilities of St. Gall's GAC. Further up the Falls Road is located The Felons, a large social club and restaurant. It is located on the site of a former Methodist meeting house.[88]

Cemeteries[edit]

Belfast City Cemetery
Belfast Milltown Cemetery

In the late 19th century, with the rapid increase in the city population, there was an increasing need for cemeteries. At that time, the Upper Falls was a rural area and the city council and the Catholic Church decided to buy large spaces in the area to create cemeteries. The Belfast City Cemetery which is located at the bottom of the Whiterock Road, is a municipal cemetery maintained by the Belfast City Council and is one of the largest burial sites in the city. It opened in 1869.[89] At the junction with the Glen Road, is located Milltown Cemetery, maintained by the Catholic Church, which opened in the same year.

At the bottom of Milltown Cemetery is the Bog Meadows, a large wild life preserve.

Transport[edit]

GliderBus-Belfast

Originally there was a tram service providing public transport on the Falls Road. This was introduced in the late 19th century and replaced by trolleybuses in 1938. There were three routes along the road: 11 for Falls Road-Whiterock Road, 12 for Falls Road-Andersonstown Road and 13 for Falls Road-Glen Road. These trolleybuses were replaced by diesel buses in the 1960s. With the outbreak of the troubles, the bus service was withdrawn. The gap in public transport was replaced by black taxis. Since the troubles ended, the public bus service has been re-introduced and expanded. Metro, a division of Translink now operates the bus service. The Falls Road is designated one of the quality bus corridors (QBCs) within the city with a variety of different routes.[90]

In 2018, the Glider bus service was introduced. It provides a service from Poleglass via the Falls Road-City Centre and Newtownards Road to Dundonald. It was the first cross-city bus service.

Politics[edit]

James Connolly statue, Belfast

A predominantly working-class community, the Falls Road has historically had a strong socialist tradition, and, prior to the 1970s, had been less Irish nationalist than other areas of Northern Ireland. James Connolly resided in the Upper Falls for a period in the early 20th century and was involved in organising the workers[91] but the area was generally seen as a bedrock of the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) at the time. Éamon de Valera standing for Sinn Féin lost heavily standing in the Falls constituency in the 1918 UK General Election to the IPP's Joe Devlin. Connolly's secretary Winifred Carney also lived on the Falls with her husband, George McBride, a Protestant and World War I veteran. She is buried in Milltown Cemetery.

The past century has seen an ongoing contest between various versions of labour/socialist and nationalist/Irish republican for electoral leadership in the area. In the 1929 election to the new Parliament of Northern Ireland, the Belfast, Falls constituency was won by the Nationalist Richard Byrne after a bitter contest with William McMullen, a supporter of Connolly.[92]

In the 1945 election, Harry Diamond won the seat standing for the Socialist Republican Party. He held the seat until 1969 when he was defeated by Paddy Devlin standing for the Northern Ireland Labour Party. Devlin, who had once been a member, alongside Diamond, of the Belfast branch of the Irish Labour Party, became a founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party in 1970 and remained a member until Parliament was prorogued in 1972.[93]

In 1964, Billy McMillen stood as a Republican Clubs candidate for the Belfast West constituency in the Westminster election. His office was in Divis Street and the Irish tricolour alongside the Starry Plough of Connolly's Irish Citizen Army was displayed in the window. The Flags and Emblems Act gave the Royal Ulster Constabulary the power to remove any flag or emblem from public or private property which was considered to be likely to cause a breach of the peace. This was generally interpreted as any Irish flag since the Union Jack was specifically excluded from the Act.

Ian Paisley insisted the Royal Ulster Constabulary remove the Irish tricolour or he would organise a march and remove it himself. The police feared a backlash from Loyalists, and removed it, causing unrest and rioting by local residents.[94]

The Falls district is now one of seven wards within the Black Mountain (District Electoral Area) which elects seven councillors to Belfast City Council. In 2014, five Sinn Féin, one SDLP and one People Before Profit councillors were elected. The Falls Road forms the centre of the Belfast West (UK Parliament constituency). The Westminster seat has been held by various nationalist politicians since the 1960s. Paul Maskey of Sinn Féin was elected MP in 2011, but in line with Sinn Féin's abstentionist policy he has not actually taken the seat at Westminster. In the 2017 Northern Ireland Assembly elections, a total of four Sinn Féin and the same People Before Profit representative (Gerry Carroll) were elected in the Assembly constituency.

The Troubles[edit]

In the late 1960s, many Catholics from across Northern Ireland began to campaign, many with Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA), against discrimination in housing and jobs, under the banner of a civil rights campaign, in conscious imitation of the philosophy of, and tactics used by, the American Civil Rights Movement.[95]

Many Unionists saw NICRA as an Irish republican Trojan horse, designed to destabilize Northern Ireland, and force unionists into a united Ireland.[96][97] Several streets around the Falls Road were burnt out by loyalists in August 1969.[98] In response to the worsening situation, the British Government deployed the British Army on the Falls Road. The troops were initially welcomed by many but not all Falls residents to protect them, but heavy-handed tactics by the mostly British-born members of the Army who did not know, care or understand the situation would estrange most Catholics and nationalists.[99][100]

In 1970, the road was the scene of what became known as the Falls Curfew. 3,000 British troops sealed off the streets around the Falls Road, home to about 10,000 people, setting off 1,600 canisters of CS gas.[101] The British actions were opposed by the Official IRA (OIRA), who engaged them in a vicious gun battle. Over the course of the weekend, four Catholic civilians were killed by the British Army. Ninety rifles were recovered.[102] This is widely regarded as the end of the British Army's "honeymoon" period with nationalists in Belfast.[103]

During the Troubles there was repeated sectarian attacks by loyalists on residents of the Falls Road.[98] These attacks increased during the 1969 Northern Ireland riots when whole streets in the Falls Road area were destroyed by loyalists from the Shankill Road area. Loyalists paramilitaries killed many local residents. Temporary barricades were constructed to provide residents with some security. These developed into peace walls which today separate the Falls Road from the neighbouring Shankill Road. Although the troubles have now ceased, the peace walls still exists in this so-called Interface area.

For the following three decades, the British Army maintained a substantial presence on the Falls Road, with a base on top of the Divis Tower. This was removed in August 2005 as part of the British government's normalisation programme, following the Provisional Irish Republican Army's statement that it was ending its armed activities. In the intervening period, the Falls Road area saw some of the worst violence of "the Troubles". The last British soldier to be killed on the road itself was Private Nicholas Peacock, killed by a booby trap bomb left outside the Rock Bar, opposite the top of the Donegall Road.[104]

In 1991 IRA hit squads based in the Upper Falls and Beechmount were involved in attacks against loyalist paramilitaries in the nearby Village area. In September 1991, they shot dead 19-year-old UVF member John Hanna at his home on the Donegall Road, and in November the same year, they shot dead William Kingsberry and his stepson, Samuel Mehaffey, members of the UDA and RHC respectively, in their home on Lecale Street.[104]

Literary and musical references[edit]

There are many literary references to life on the Falls Road. These include:

  • Gerry Adams (1982). Falls Memories. Dingle:Brandon.
  • Ciaran Carson (1997). Star Factory. London: Granta Books.
  • Liam Carson (2010). Call Mother a Lonely Field. Bridgend: Seren.
  • Eimer O'Callaghan (2014). Belfast Days. A 1972 Teenage Diary. Sallins: Merrion Press.
  • Patricia Craig (2007). Asking for Trouble. Belfast: Blackstaff.

The American singer Nanci Griffith sings in her song It’s a hard life wherever you go which she wrote in 2002:

I am a backseat driver from America
They drive to the left on Falls Road
The man at the wheel's name is Seamus
We pass a child on the corner he knows
And Seamus says, Now, what chance has that kid got?'
And I say from the back, 'I don't know.'
He says, 'There's barbed wire at all of these exits
And there ain't no place in Belfast for that kid to go.'[105]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d PlaceNames NI: Falls
  2. ^ Language/Cultural Diversity – Irish Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, dcalni.gov.uk; accessed 30 March 2015.
  3. ^ Belfast History, rushlightmagazine.com; accessed 30 March 2015.
  4. ^ "Old Pound Loney". Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  5. ^ "S.Mary's Hall, Belfast". archiseek. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  6. ^ "10 of Britain's best listed supermarkets". the spaces. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  7. ^ Old Ordnance Survey Maps:The Falls 1931. Gateshead: Alan Godfrey. ISBN 0 85054 247 2.
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