Hymenophyllaceae

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Filmy fern)
Jump to: navigation, search
Hymenophyllaceae
WP-Hymenophyllum-Exkursion nach Berdorf (Luxemburgexkursion) 011.jpg
Hymenophyllum tunbrigense in Luxembourg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida /
 Pteridopsida (disputed)
Order: Hymenophyllales
Family: Hymenophyllaceae
Link
Genera

See text

The Hymenophyllaceae (filmy ferns and bristle ferns) is a family of two to nine genera (depending on classification system)[1] and ca 650 known species[2] of ferns, with a subcosmopolitan distribution, but generally restricted to very damp places or to locations where they are wetted by spray from waterfalls or springs. A recent fossil find shows that ferns of Hymenophyllaceae have existed since at least the Upper Triassic.[3]

The great majority of the species are found in tropical rainforests, but some also occur in temperate rainforests (particularly New Zealand, with 25 species) and slightly drier forest regions. In Europe they are restricted to the Atlantic Ocean fringes of the continent, notably in the Azores, Ireland, and western Great Britain, but one species (Hymenophyllum tunbrigense) locally east to Luxembourg, another (H. wilsonii) so far north as West Norway, Faeroes and South Iceland, while in North America, they are restricted (often occurring solely as gametophytes) to the humid eastern third of the continent and the rainforests of the Pacific Northwest.

They often appear as very dark green or even black clumps and may be mistaken for a robust moss or liverwort. The stem is thin and wiry and the fronds variously pinnate with a single strand ("nerve") of vascular tissue. In most species, the frond, apart from the vascular tissue, is only a single cell thickness, and they do not have any stomata; this makes the plants very susceptible to desiccation where a reliable water supply is not present. The sori are borne at the leaf margins at the end of the nerve. Individual plants may persist for many years.

Classification[edit]

In the molecular phylogenetic classification of Smith et al. in 2006, the Hymenophyllales, containing the single family Hymenophyllaceae, were placed in class Polypodiopsida (the leptosporangiate ferns).[4] The linear sequence of Christenhusz et al. (2011), intended for compatibility with the classification of Chase and Reveal (2009)[5] which placed all land plants in Equisetopsida,[6] reclassified Smith's Polypodiopsida as subclass Polypodiidae and placed the Hymenophyllales there. The circumscription of the order and its families was not changed,[5] and that circumscription and placement in Polypodiidae has subsequently been followed in the classifications of Christenhusz and Chase (2014)[7] and PPG I (2016).[8]

Hymenophyllaceae


 Hymenophyllum









 Crepidomanes



 Vandenboschia




 Didymoglossum




 Polyphlebium




 Callistopteris




 Trichomanes





 Abrodictyum



 Cephalomanes





Phylogram of Hymenophyllaceae genera[9]

Traditionally, only two genera of Hymenophyllaceae have been recognized: (1) Hymenophyllum with bivalved involucres, and (2) Trichomanes with tubular involucres. Subsequent proposals have created 34 genera (Copeland 1938), 6 genera (Morton 1968), 47 genera (Sermolli 1977), and 8 genera (Iwatsuki 1984). But these classifications have all had only limited regional acceptance. Recent molecular phylogenic studies do show two distinct monophyletic clades of fairly equal size, but they are only roughly aligned with the two traditional genera. For example, the traditional Trichomanes subtaxa Pleuromanes and Cardiomanes were shown to belong to the "hymenophylloid" clade. To reflect these recent discoveries Atsushi Ebihara and Kunio Iwatsuki, in 2006, revised the taxonomy of Hymenophyllaceae to place all species of the "hymenophylloid" clade in a single Hymenophyllum genus, and to place the eight clear "trichomanoid" subclades in eight corresponding genera.[9]

This subdivision was recognized by Smith et al. in 2006[4] and Christenhusz et al. in 2011,[5] but Christenhusz and Chase, in 2014, reverted to combining the trichomanoid clades in Trichomanes.[7] The PPG I classification of 2016 again recognizes the segregate genera,[8] although they are not always accepted by contemporary floras; e.g., as of 2016, Flora of New Zealand prefers to recognize Trichomanes sensu lato due to the difficulty of morphologically distinguishing the segregate genera.[10]

The genera and subgenera assigned by the system of Ebihara et al. are:

  • The "hymenophylloid" clade:
    • Hymenophyllum Sm. 1793 – about 250 species
      • subg. Hymenophyllum – about 100 species
      • subg. Sphaerocionium (C.Presl) C.Chr. 1934 – about 70 species
      • subg. Mecodium C.Presl ex Copel. 1937 – more than 35 species
      • subg. Globosa (Prantl) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – about 25 species
      • subg. Pleuromanes (C.Presl) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – 5 species
      • subg. Myrmecostylum (C.Presl) Ebihara & K. Iwats. 2006 – at least 8 species
      • subg. Hymenoglossum (C.Presl) R.M.Tryon & A.F.Tryon 1981 – at least 3 species
      • subg. Fuciformia Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – 2 species
      • subg. Diploöphyllum (Bosch) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – 1 species
      • subg. Cardiomanes (C. Presl) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – 1 species
  • The "trichomanoid" clade: (usually all included in a single broad genus Trichomanes with about 400 species)
    • Didymoglossum Desv. 1827 – more than 30 species
      • subg. Didymoglossum – more than 20 species
      • subg. Microgonium (C.Presl) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – more than 10 species
    • Crepidomanes (C.Presl) C.Presl 1849 – more than 30 species
      • subg. Crepidomanes
      • subg. Nesopteris (Copel.) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006
    • Polyphlebium Copel. 1938 – about 15 species
    • Vandenboschia Copel. 1938 – more than 15 species
      • subg. Vandenboschia – more than 15 species
      • subg. Lacosteopsis (Prantl) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – at least 2 species
    • Abrodictyum C.Presl 1843 – about 25 species
      • subg. Abrodictyum – about 15 species
      • subg. Pachychaetum (C.Presl) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – more than 10 species
    • Trichomanes L. 1753 – more than 60 species
      • subg. Trichomanes – more than 30 species
      • subg. Feea (Bory) Hook. 1844 – more than 5 species
      • subg. Davalliopsis (Bosch) Ebihara & K.Iwats. 2006 – at least 1 species
      • subg. Lacostea (Bosch) C. Chr. 1906 – more than 4 species
    • Cephalomanes C.Presl 1843 – about 4 species
    • Callistopteris Copel. 1938 – about 5 species

References[edit]

  1. ^ Christenhusz et al.: A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns Phytotaxa 19: 7-54. (18 Feb. 2011)
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. 
  3. ^ A filmy fern from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina (USA) - Axsmith et al. 88 (9): 1558 - American Journal of Botany
  4. ^ a b Smith, Alan R.; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Schuettpelz, Eric; Korall, Petra; Schneider, Harald; Wolf, Paul G. (August 2006). "A classification for extant ferns" (PDF). Taxon. 55 (3): 705–731. doi:10.2307/25065646. 
  5. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Schneider, Harald (18 February 2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 7–54. 
  6. ^ Chase, Mark W.; Reveal, James L. (October 2009). "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society. 161 (2). doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x. 
  7. ^ a b Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Chase, Mark W. (13 February 2014). "Trends and concepts in fern classification". Annals of Botany. 113 (4): 571–594. doi:10.1093/aob/mct299. 
  8. ^ a b The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (November 2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229. 
  9. ^ a b Ebihara, Atsushi; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Iwatsuki, Kunio; Hennequin, Sabine; Ito, Motomi (July 2006). "A Taxonomic Revision of Hymenophyllaceae". Blumea. 51 (2): 221–280. 
  10. ^ "Hymenophyllaceae Mart.". Flora of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 December 2016.