European route E45
|North end||Alta, Norway|
|South end||Gela, Italy|
|International E-road network|
The European route E 45 goes between Norway and Italy, through Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany and Austria. With a length of about 5,190 kilometres (3,225 mi), it is the longest north-south European route.
The route passes through Alta (Norway) – Kautokeino – Hetta (Finland) – Palojoensuu – Kaaresuvanto – Gällivare (Sweden) – Porjus – Jokkmokk – Arvidsjaur – Östersund – Mora – Säffle – Åmål – Brålanda – Gothenburg … Frederikshavn (Denmark) – Aalborg – Randers – Århus – Vejle – Kolding – Frøslev – Flensburg (Germany) – Hamburg – Hanover – Göttingen – Kassel – Fulda – Würzburg – Nuremberg – Munich – Rosenheim – Wörgl (Austria) – Innsbruck – Brenner – Fortezza (Italy) – Bolzano – Trento – Verona – Modena – Bologna – Cesena – Perugia – Fiano Romano – Naples – Salerno – Sicignano – Cosenza – Villa San Giovanni … Messina – Catania – Siracusa – Gela.
Norway and Finland
E45 is 172 km long in Norway and 101 km long in Finland. It has no other number in Norway, but follows routes 21 and 93 in Finland.
The E45 was not signposted in Finland after the 2006 extension, since the official document uses the Swedish version ("Karesuando") of the name of the village at the Finnish–Swedish border, hinting that it would start on the Swedish side. The Swedish government proposed the extension alone in 2005 and let the E45 end at the border, partly because of lack of interest from Finnish authorities. The gap between the end of E45 and the European route E8 was about 1 km along the existing Finnish regional road 959 Karesuvanto (FIN) – Karesuando (SWE)
In August 2016, after a political proposal in 2007, the governments of Norway and Finland applied for an extension of E45 Karesuando–Kaaresuvanto–Palojoensuu–Hetta–Kautokeino–Alta. This was approved by the work group, and became valid on 5 December 2017. E45 sign posts were mounted starting 9 February 2018,  replacing route 93 in Norway, and complementing road 959, 21 and 93 in Finland.
In November 2006, the E 45 was extended with the then existing Swedish national road 45, which makes it start from Karesuando at the Swedish–Finnish border (near the E 8), over Östersund–Mora–Grums, to Gothenburg and on. This extended the length of the route by about 1,690 km (1,050 mi). The signs of road 45 was changed to E 45 during the summer of 2007. The E 45 has now no other national number. In Sweden the road is called Inlandsvägen.
The E45 in Sweden is mostly an ordinary road. Between Karesuando and Torsby (1370 km) the road is usually 6–8 meters wide, and goes mostly through sparsely populated forests, with occasional villages and only two cities above 10,000 people, Östersund and Mora. The E45 is a motorway for 6 km together with the E18 south of Grums. Between Säffle and Trollhättan several parts of it is 2+1 road with a middle barrier, totally around 40 km. Between Trollhättan and Surte there is a 52 km long motorway, finished in 2012. Between Surte and Gothenburg there is a 17 km road designed equivalently to a motorway. The exception is that there are two gaps in the Trollhättan–Surte motorway and there are two traffic lights along the Surte–Gothenburg road. The speed limit is usually 100 km/h north of Mora and usually 90 km/h south thereof. There are 27 road crossings or intersections where the Swedish E45 does not follow the straight direction. There are 26 level crossings with railways. There are 19 motorway exits and 29 other motorway-like exits.
In Denmark the E 45 is a motorway (speed limit 110 km/h – 130 km/h) from the south of Frederikshavn to the Denmark–Germany border. The E 45 has no other national number. It connects to the E 39 and E 20 motorways.
In 1992 it was renamed from E 3 (which actually before 1985 ended in Lisbon, Portugal) and until 2006, with the extension in Sweden, the northern endpoint was Frederikshavn.
The total length in Denmark is 357 km.
Exits in Denmark
The road E 45 follows:
- Bundesautobahn 7, Danish border–Würzburg
- Bundesautobahn 3, Würzburg–Nuremberg
- Bundesautobahn 9, Nuremberg–Munich
- Bundesautobahn 99, Munich Beltway
- Bundesautobahn 8, Munich–Rosenheim
- Bundesautobahn 93, Rosenheim–Austrian border
The length in Germany is 1022 km.
Between Nuremberg and Verona, Italy the E45 corresponds with the route of the old imperial road, the Via Imperii, though the Autobahns are newer roads.
The road E 45 follows:
- Inn Valley Autobahn A12, German border–Innsbruck
- Brenner Autobahn A13, Innsbruck–Italian border (at Brenner Pass)
The length in Austria is 109 km.
- Vt 93 Norway/ Finland border – Hetta – Palojoensuu
- Vt 21 Palojoensuu – Kaaresuvanto
- Regional road 959: Kaaresuvanto – Finland/ Sweden border
- Karesuando – Svappavaara (Start of Concurrency with ) – Gällivare (End of Concurrency with ) – Arvidsjaur – Storuman (Start of Concurrency with ) – Stensele (End of Concurrency with ) – Håxås – Östersund (Start of Concurrency with ) – Brunflo (End of Concurrency with ) – Sveg – Mora – Malung (Start of Concurrency with ) – Stöllet – Önneby – Torsby (End of Concurrency with – Vålberg – Åmål – Trollhättan – Gothenburg
- Fredrikshavn – Aalborg – Randers – Aarhus – Horsens – Vejle – Kolding – Haderslev – Aabenraa – / border
- / border – Flensburg – Neumünster – Hamburg – Hanover – Hildesheim - Göttingen – Kassel – Fulda – Würzburg
- Würzburg – Nuremberg
- Nuremberg – Ingolstadt – Munich
- Munich – Rosenheim
- Rosenheim – / border
- / border – Kufstein – Wörgl (Start of Concurrency with ) – Wiesing – Innsbruck (End of Concurrency with )
- Innsbruck – Matrei am Brenner – / border
- / border – Brennero – Vipiteno – Bolzano – Trento – Rovereto – Verona – Mantua – Modena (Start of Concurrency with )
- Modena – La Stanga (End of Concurrency with )
- La Stanga – Bologna – Cesena
- Cesena – San Piero in Bagno – Sansepolcro – Umbertide – Perugia – Todi – Terni
- Terni – Narni – Orte
- Orte – Nazzano – Monterodonto – Frosinone – Caserta – Afragola – Casalnuovo di Napoli – Casoria – Naples
- Naples – Pompeii – Salerno
- Salerno – Battipaglia – Cosenza – Vibo Valentia – Villa San Giovanni
- Messina – Taormina – Giarre – Catania
- Catania – Mungina – Augusta
- Augusta – Melilli – Syracuse
- Syracuse – Noto – Rosolini
- – Rosolini – Modica – Ragusa – Comiso – Gela
The road E 45 follows:
- Italian Autostrada A22 (Brennero–Modena)
- Italian Autostrada A1 (Modena–Bologna)
- Italian Autostrada A14 (Bologna–Cesena)
- Italian state road 3 bis (Cesena–Terni)
- Italian state road 675 Umbro-Laziale (Terni–Orte)
- Italian Autostrada A1 (Orte–Napoli)
- Italian Autostrada A3 (Napoli–Salerno centro)
- Italian Autostrada A2 dir. Napoli (Salerno centro–Salerno Fratte)
- Italian Autostrada A2 (Salerno Fratte–Villa San Giovanni)
- Villa San Giovanni-Messina (Strait of Messina)
- Italian Autostrada A18 (Messina–Catania)
- RA15 (Catania's bypass)
- Italian Autostrada Catania-Siracusa (Catania–Augusta)
- Strada statale 114 Orientale Sicula (Augusta–Siracusa)
- Italian Autostrada A18 (Siracusa–Rosolini)
- Strada statale 115 Sud Occidentale Sicula (Rosolini–Gela)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to E45.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for E45 through Europe.|
- Vägverket "Nya hastighetsgränser på nationella vägar"[permanent dead link]
- United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Inland Transport Committee (2005-07-19). "Road Transport Infrastructure. European Agreement on Main International Traffic Arteries (AGR). Consideration of new proposals for amendments to Annex I to the AGR (TRANS/SC.1/2005/3)" (PDF). United Nations Economic and Social Council. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- Karesuando och Karesuvanto... (Bilder) and SV: Skyltning efter vägarna !!
- ECE/TRANS/SC.1/2016/2 Amendments to the Agreement Submitted by the Governments Finland and Norway
- Report of the Working Party on Road Transport on its 112th session
- Klart for E45 (NRK 9 February 2018, in Norwegian)