|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The name 'flounder' is used for several only distantly related species, though all are in the suborder Pleuronectidae (families Achiropsettidae, Bothidae, Pleuronectidae, Paralichthyidae and Samaria). Some of the better known species that are important in fisheries are:
- Western Atlantic
- European waters
- European flounder – Platichthys flesus
- Northwestern Pacific
- Olive flounder – Paralichthys olivaceus
In its life cycle, an adult flounder has two eyes situated on one side of its head, while at hatching one eye is located on each side of its brain. One eye migrates to the other side of the body as a process of metamorphosis as it grows from larval to juvenile stage. As an adult, a flounder changes its habits and camouflages itself by lying on the bottom of the ocean floor as protection against predators. As a result, the eyes are then on the side which faces up. The side to which the eyes migrate is dependent on the species type.
Flounders ambush their prey, feeding at soft muddy areas of the sea bottom, near bridge piles, docks and coral reefs.
A flounder's diet consists mainly of fish spawn, crustaceans, polychaetes and small fish. Flounder typically grow to a length of 22–60 centimeters (8.7–23.6 in), and as large as 95 centimeters (37 in). Their width is about half their length. Male Platichthys are known to display a pioneering spirit, and have been found up to 80 miles off the coast of northern Sardinia, sometimes with heavy encrustations of various species of barnacle.
World stocks of large predatory fish and large ground fish, including sole and flounder, were estimated in 2003 to be only about 10% of pre-industrial levels, largely due to overfishing. Most overfishing is due to the extensive activities of the fishing industry. Current estimates suggest that approximately 30 million flounder (excluding sole) are alive in the world today.pollution. In the Gulf of Mexico, along the coast of Texas, research indicates the flounder population could be as low as 15 million due to heavy overfishing and industrial pollution.
- Fairchild, E.A. and Howell, W.H, E. A.; Howell, W. H. (2004). "Factors affecting the post-release survival of cultured juvenile Pseudopleuronectes americanus". Journal of Fish Biology. 65 (Supplementary A): 69–87. doi:10.1111/j.0022-1112.2004.00529.x.
- Charles Clover (2008). The End of the Line: How Overfishing is Changing the World and what We Eat. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25505-0. OCLC 67383509.
- Myers, R. A.; Worm, B. (2003). "Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities". Nature. 423 (6937): 280–283. doi:10.1038/nature01610. PMID 12748640.
- Dalton, Rex (2006). "Save the big fish: Targeting of larger fish makes populations prone to collapse". BioEd Online. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- Hsieh, Chih-hao; Reiss, Christian S.; Hunter, John R.; Beddington, John R.; May, Robert M.; Sugihara, George (2006). "Fishing elevates variability in the abundance of exploited species". Nature. 443 (7113): 859. doi:10.1038/nature05232. PMID 17051218.
- "Monterey Bay Aquarium: Seafood Watch Program – All Seafood List". Monterey Bay Aquarium. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
|Look up flounder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|