Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Frederick I
Friedrich I of Baden.jpg
Grand Duke of Baden
Reign22 January 1858 – 28 September 1907
PredecessorLouis II
SuccessorFrederick II
Born(1826-09-09)9 September 1826
Died28 September 1907(1907-09-28) (aged 81)
Full name
Frederick William Louis
FatherLeopold, Grand Duke of Baden
MotherSophie of Sweden

Frederick I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig; 9 September 1826 – 28 September 1907) was the sovereign Grand Duke of Baden, reigning from 1856 to 1907.


Frederick was born in Karlsruhe on 9 September 1826. He was the third son of Grand Duke Leopold (1790–1852) and of his wife, Grand Duchess Sophie (1801–1865), who was born Princess of Sweden, daughter of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden.

He became the heir presumptive to the Grand Duchy upon the death of his father in 1852[1] and the accession of his brother as Grand Duke Louis II. Due to his brother's mental ill-health, he was regent ad interim of Baden in 1852–1855, and took the title of Grand Duke in 1856. His brother, Louis II, died in 1858. He was considered a relatively liberal supporter of a constitutional monarchy. During his reign the option of civil marriages was introduced in Baden as well as direct elections to the Lower House of the Parliament of Baden in 1904.[2]

In 1856, he married Princess Louise, daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia and his wife, Augusta of Saxe-Weimar.[2] The couple had three children.

The Grand Duke had a pivotal role in the history of the Zionist movement. In 1896 the Grand Duke met Theodor Herzl (the founder of political Zionism) via their mutual acquaintance the reverend William Hechler, and helped Herzl in obtaining an audience with his nephew, Wilhelm II, German Emperor. After some persuasion on the part of the Grand Duke, the Emperor accepted the appeal for an audience. It took place in Palestine on 2 November 1898, during the Kaiser's visit to inaugurate the Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem.

Frederick I was present at the proclamation of the German Empire at Versailles in 1871,[2] as he was the only son-in-law of the Emperor and one of the reigning sovereigns of Germany. He died at his summer residence at the island of Mainau in southern Germany on 28 September 1907. Today, Mainau is owned by the Lennart Bernadotte Foundation, created by Frederick's great-grandson Count Lennart Bernadotte, (1909–2004).


Titles, styles and honours[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]


German honours[3]
Foreign honours[3]



  1. ^ The Statesman's year-book. Palgrave. Harvard University. 1868. pp. 201–202.
  2. ^ a b c Engehausen, Frank (2012). "Herrscher im liberalen Musterland" [Ruler in a Liberal Model Country]. Damals (in German). Vol. 44 no. 7. pp. 64–69.
  3. ^ a b Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1902), "Großherzogliches Haus", pp. 26-27
  4. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch ... Baden (1850), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 31
  5. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch ... Baden (1850), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 38
  6. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch ... Baden (1850), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 73
  7. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch ... Baden (1880), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 70
  8. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Herzogtums Anhalt (1894), "Herzogliche Haus-Orden Albrecht des Bären" p. 17
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha 1907 (1907) page 13
  10. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Bayern (1906), "Königliche Orden" p. 7
  11. ^ Staatshandbücher für das Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1890), "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden" p. 44
  12. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Hannover (1865), "Königliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 38
  13. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Hessen (1879), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 10
  14. ^ Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau (1866), "Herzogliche Orden" p. 9
  15. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Oldenburg (1869/70), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 28
  16. ^ Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1900), "Großherzogliche Hausorden" p. 15
  17. ^ Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen (1867), "Königliche Ritter-Orden" p. 4
  18. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1907), "Königliche Orden" p. 27
  19. ^ "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer, Volume 1 /Ferdinand Veldekens
  21. ^ Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 463. ISBN 9788776744342.
  22. ^ Cibrario, Luigi (1869). Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata. Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri (in Italian). Eredi Botta. p. 120. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  23. ^ Militaire Willems-Orde: Baden, Friedrich Grossherzog von (in Dutch)
  24. ^ "Sveriges statskalender (1905) p. 440" (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 January 2018 – via
  25. ^ "Norges Statskalender (1890) pp. 595-596". (in Swedish). Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  26. ^ "Sveriges statskalender (1905) p. 525" (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 January 2018 – via
  27. ^ Boettger, T. F. "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or - Knights of the Golden Fleece". La Confrérie Amicale. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  28. ^ "The London Gazette, Issue: 27959 Page: 7015". The London Gazette. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden
Born: 9 September 1826 Died: 28 September 1907
German royalty
Preceded by
Louis II
Grand Duke of Baden
Succeeded by
Frederick II