Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden
|Grand Duke of Baden|
|Reign||22 January 1858 – 28 September 1907|
|Born||9 September 1826|
|Died||28 September 1907 (aged 81)|
Princess Louise of Prussia (m. 1856)
|Father||Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden|
|Mother||Sophie of Sweden|
Frederick was born in Karlsruhe on 9 September 1826. He was the third son of Grand Duke Leopold (1790–1852) and of his wife, Grand Duchess Sophie (1801–1865), who was born Princess of Sweden, daughter of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden.
He became the heir presumptive to the Grand Duchy upon the death of his father in 1852 and the accession of his brother as Grand Duke Louis II. Due to his brother's mental ill-health, he was regent ad interim of Baden in 1852–1855, and took the title of Grand Duke in 1856. His brother, Louis II, died in 1858. He was considered a relatively liberal supporter of a constitutional monarchy. During his reign the option of civil marriages was introduced in Baden as well as direct elections to the Lower House of the Parliament of Baden in 1904.
The Grand Duke had a pivotal role in the history of the Zionist movement. In 1896 the Grand Duke met Theodor Herzl (the founder of political Zionism) via their mutual acquaintance the reverend William Hechler, and helped Herzl in obtaining an audience with his nephew, Wilhelm II, German Emperor. After some persuasion on the part of the Grand Duke, the Emperor accepted the appeal for an audience. It took place in Palestine on 2 November 1898, during the Kaiser's visit to inaugurate the Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem.
Frederick I was present at the proclamation of the German Empire at Versailles in 1871, as he was the only son-in-law of the Emperor and one of the reigning sovereigns of Germany. He died at his summer residence at the island of Mainau in southern Germany on 28 September 1907. Today, Mainau is owned by the Lennart Bernadotte Foundation, created by Frederick's great-grandson Count Lennart Bernadotte, (1909–2004).
- Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden (9 July 1857 – 9 August 1928), married Princess Hilda of Luxembourg; no issue
- Queen Victoria of Sweden (7 August 1862 – 4 April 1930), married King Gustav V of Sweden; had issue
- Prince Louis of Baden (12 June 1865 – 23 February 1888), died unmarried; no issue
Titles, styles and honours
Titles and styles
- 9 September 1826: His Grand Ducal Highness Prince Frederick of Baden
- 24 April 1852: His Grand Ducal Highness The Prince Regent of Baden
- 22 January 1858: His Royal Highness The Grand Duke of Baden
- German honours
- Anhalt: Order of Albert the Bear, Grand Cross, 1889
- Bavaria: Order of St. Hubert, Knight, 1852
- Brunswick: Order of Henry the Lion, Grand Cross
- Ernestine duchies: Saxe-Ernestine House Order, Grand Cross, 1844
- Hanover: Order of St. George, Knight, 1855
- Hesse and by Rhine: Ludwig Order, Grand Cross, 24 September 1843
- Hohenzollern: Princely House Order of Hohenzollern, Cross of Honour 1st Class
- Nassau: Order of the Golden Lion of Nassau, Knight, June 1860
- Oldenburg: House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis, Grand Cross with Golden Crown, 17 May 1852
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Order of the White Falcon, Grand Cross, 1853
- Saxony: Order of the Rue Crown, Knight, 1853
- Schaumburg-Lippe: Military Merit Medal
- Württemberg: Order of the Württemberg Crown, Grand Cross, 1846
- Foreign honours
- Belgium: Royal Order of Leopold, Grand Cordon, 1845
- Brazil: Order of the Southern Cross, Grand Cross
- Denmark: Order of the Elephant, Knight, 24 April 1877
- France: Legion d'Honneur, Grand Cross
- Greece: Order of the Redeemer, Grand Cross
- Hawaii: Royal Order of Kamehameha I, Grand Cross
- Italy: Order of the Annunciation, Knight with Collar, 9 November 1864
- Monaco: Order of Saint-Charles, Grand Cross
- Montenegro: Order of Danilo I, Grand Cross
- Romania: Order of the Star of Romania, Grand Cross
- Siam: Order of the Royal House of Chakri, Knight with Collar, 1899
- Tunisia: Husainid House Order with Diamonds
- United Kingdom: Order of the Garter, Knight, 20 September 1906
- The Statesman's year-book. Palgrave. Harvard University. 1868. pp. 201–202.
- Engehausen, Frank (2012). "Herrscher im liberalen Musterland" [Ruler in a Liberal Model Country]. Damals (in German). Vol. 44 no. 7. pp. 64–69.
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1902), "Großherzogliches Haus", pp. 26-27
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch ... Baden (1850), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 31
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch ... Baden (1850), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 38
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch ... Baden (1850), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 73
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch ... Baden (1880), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 70
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Herzogtums Anhalt (1894), "Herzogliche Haus-Orden Albrecht des Bären" p. 17
- Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha 1907 (1907) page 13
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Bayern (1906), "Königliche Orden" p. 7
- Staatshandbücher für das Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1890), "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden" p. 44
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Hannover (1865), "Königliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 38
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Hessen (1879), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 10
- Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau (1866), "Herzogliche Orden" p. 9
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Oldenburg (1869/70), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 28
- Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1900), "Großherzogliche Hausorden" p. 15
- Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen (1867), "Königliche Ritter-Orden" p. 4
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1907), "Königliche Orden" p. 27
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer, Volume 1 /Ferdinand Veldekens
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 463. ISBN 9788776744342.
- Cibrario, Luigi (1869). Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata. Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri (in Italian). Eredi Botta. p. 120. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Militaire Willems-Orde: Baden, Friedrich Grossherzog von (in Dutch)
- "Sveriges statskalender (1905) p. 440" (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org.
- "Norges Statskalender (1890) pp. 595-596". runeberg.org (in Swedish). Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- "Sveriges statskalender (1905) p. 525" (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org.
- Boettger, T. F. "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or - Knights of the Golden Fleece". La Confrérie Amicale. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "The London Gazette, Issue: 27959 Page: 7015". The London Gazette. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
Frederick I, Grand Duke of BadenBorn: 9 September 1826 Died: 28 September 1907
| Grand Duke of Baden