GLB1

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GLB1
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases GLB1, EBP, ELNR1, MPS4B, galactosidase beta 1
External IDs MGI: 88151 HomoloGene: 47922 GeneCards: 2720
Genetically Related Diseases
Disease Name References
atopic dermatitis
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GLB1 201576 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001135602
NM_000404
NM_001079811
NM_001317040

NM_009752

RefSeq (protein)

NP_000395.2
NP_001073279.1
NP_001129074.1
NP_001303969.1

NP_033882.1

Location (UCSC) Chr 3: 33 – 33.1 Mb Chr 9: 114.4 – 114.47 Mb
PubMed search [2] [3]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Galactosidase, beta 1, also known as GLB1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GLB1 gene.[4][5]

The GLB1 protein is a beta-galactosidase that cleaves the terminal beta-galactose from ganglioside substrates and other glycoconjugates.[6] The GLB1 gene also encodes an elastin binding protein.[7]

In corn (Zea mays), Glb1 is a gene coding for the storage protein globulin.

Clinical significance[edit]

GM1-gangliosidosis is a lysosomal storage disease that can be caused by a deficiency of β-galactosidase (GLB1). Some cases of Morquio syndrome B have been shown to be due to GLP1 mutations that cause patients to have abnormal elastic fibers.[8]

Elastin receptor[edit]

The RNA transcript of the GLB1 gene is alternatively spliced and produces 2 mRNAs. The 2.5-kilobase transcript encodes the beta-galactosidase enzyme of 677 amino acids. The alternative 2.0-kb mRNA encodes a beta-galactosidase-related protein (S-Gal) that is only 546 amino acids long and that has no enzymatic activity. The S-Gal protein does bind elastin and fragments of elastin that are generated by proteolysis.[9]

The S-Gal protein is a peripheral membrane protein that functions as part of an elastin receptor complex on the surface of cells.[10] The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal protein then the associated neuraminidase enzyme activity is activated and responding cells can have altered signal transduction involving extracellular signal-regulated kinases and regulated matrix metallopeptidase production. Elastin-derived peptides are chemotactic for some cell types[11] and can alter cell cycle progression.[12] The ability of the GLB1-derived elastin binding protein and the elastin receptor complex to influence cell proliferation appears to be indirect and involve removal of sialic acid from extracellular and cell surface proteins such as growth factor receptors.

The S-Gal protein functions during the normal assembly of elastin into extracellular elastic fibers. Elastin is initially present as newly synthesized tropoelastin which can be found in association with S-Gal. The enzymatic activity of neuraminidase in the elastin receptor complex is involved in the release of tropoelastin molecules from the S-Gal chaperone.[13] Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "chibi.ubc.ca/Gemma/phenotypes.html?phenotypeUrlId=DOID_3310&geneId=53951". 
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ Shows TB, Scrafford-Wolff L, Brown JA, Meisler M (1978). "Assignment of a beta-galactosidase gene (beta GALA) to chromosome 3 in man". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 22 (1-6): 219–22. doi:10.1159/000130940. PMID 110522. 
  5. ^ Oshima A, Tsuji A, Nagao Y, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y (Nov 1988). "Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human beta-galactosidase". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 157 (1): 238–44. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80038-X. PMID 3143362. 
  6. ^ Yoshida K, Oshima A, Shimmoto M, Fukuhara Y, Sakuraba H, Yanagisawa N, Suzuki Y (Aug 1991). "Human beta-galactosidase gene mutations in GM1-gangliosidosis: a common mutation among Japanese adult/chronic cases". American Journal of Human Genetics. 49 (2): 435–42. PMC 1683306free to read. PMID 1907800. 
  7. ^ Caciotti A, Donati MA, Boneh A, d'Azzo A, Federico A, Parini R, Antuzzi D, Bardelli T, Nosi D, Kimonis V, Zammarchi E, Morrone A (Mar 2005). "Role of beta-galactosidase and elastin binding protein in lysosomal and nonlysosomal complexes of patients with GM1-gangliosidosis". Human Mutation. 25 (3): 285–92. doi:10.1002/humu.20147. PMID 15714521. 
  8. ^ Hinek A, Zhang S, Smith AC, Callahan JW (Jul 2000). "Impaired elastic-fiber assembly by fibroblasts from patients with either Morquio B disease or infantile GM1-gangliosidosis is linked to deficiency in the 67-kD spliced variant of beta-galactosidase". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (1): 23–36. doi:10.1086/302968. PMC 1287082free to read. PMID 10841810. 
  9. ^ Privitera S, Prody CA, Callahan JW, Hinek A (Mar 1998). "The 67-kDa enzymatically inactive alternatively spliced variant of beta-galactosidase is identical to the elastin/laminin-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (11): 6319–26. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.11.6319. PMID 9497360. 
  10. ^ Duca L, Blanchevoye C, Cantarelli B, Ghoneim C, Dedieu S, Delacoux F, Hornebeck W, Hinek A, Martiny L, Debelle L (Apr 2007). "The elastin receptor complex transduces signals through the catalytic activity of its Neu-1 subunit". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (17): 12484–91. doi:10.1074/jbc.M609505200. PMID 17327233. 
  11. ^ Adair-Kirk TL, Senior RM (December 2008). "Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 40 (6-7): 1101–10. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2007.12.005. PMC 2478752free to read. PMID 18243041. 
  12. ^ Hinek A, Bodnaruk TD, Bunda S, Wang Y, Liu K (Oct 2008). "Neuraminidase-1, a subunit of the cell surface elastin receptor, desialylates and functionally inactivates adjacent receptors interacting with the mitogenic growth factors PDGF-BB and IGF-2". The American Journal of Pathology. 173 (4): 1042–56. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2008.071081. PMC 2543072free to read. PMID 18772331. 
  13. ^ Hinek A, Pshezhetsky AV, von Itzstein M, Starcher B (Feb 2006). "Lysosomal sialidase (neuraminidase-1) is targeted to the cell surface in a multiprotein complex that facilitates elastic fiber assembly". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (6): 3698–710. doi:10.1074/jbc.M508736200. PMID 16314420. 
  14. ^ Seyrantepe V, Hinek A, Peng J, Fedjaev M, Ernest S, Kadota Y, Canuel M, Itoh K, Morales CR, Lavoie J, Tremblay J, Pshezhetsky AV (Apr 2008). "Enzymatic activity of lysosomal carboxypeptidase (cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973–81. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.733212. PMID 18391110. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hinek A (1997). "Biological roles of the non-integrin elastin/laminin receptor". Biological Chemistry. 377 (7-8): 471–80. doi:10.1515/bchm3.1996.377.7-8.411. PMID 8922281. 
  • Kaye EM, Shalish C, Livermore J, Taylor HA, Stevenson RE, Breakefield XO (Jun 1997). "beta-Galactosidase gene mutations in patients with slowly progressive GM1 gangliosidosis". Journal of Child Neurology. 12 (4): 242–7. doi:10.1177/088307389701200404. PMID 9203065. 
  • Callahan JW (Oct 1999). "Molecular basis of GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio disease, type B. Structure-function studies of lysosomal beta-galactosidase and the non-lysosomal beta-galactosidase-like protein". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1455 (2-3): 85–103. doi:10.1016/S0925-4439(99)00075-7. PMID 10571006. 
  • Shows TB, Scrafford-Wolff L, Brown JA, Meisler M (1979). "Assignment of a beta-galactosidase gene (beta GALA) to chromosome 3 in man". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 22 (1-6): 219–22. doi:10.1159/000130940. PMID 110522. 
  • Shows TB, Scrafford-Wolff LR, Brown JA, Meisler MH (Mar 1979). "GM1-gangliosidosis: chromosome 3 assignment of the beta-galactosidase-A gene (beta GALA)". Somatic Cell Genetics. 5 (2): 147–58. doi:10.1007/BF01539157. PMID 113895. 
  • Yoshida K, Oshima A, Sakuraba H, Nakano T, Yanagisawa N, Inui K, Okada S, Uyama E, Namba R, Kondo K (Mar 1992). "GM1 gangliosidosis in adults: clinical and molecular analysis of 16 Japanese patients". Annals of Neurology. 31 (3): 328–32. doi:10.1002/ana.410310316. PMID 1353343. 
  • Mosna G, Fattore S, Tubiello G, Brocca S, Trubia M, Gianazza E, Gatti R, Danesino C, Minelli A, Piantanida M (Nov 1992). "A homozygous missense arginine to histidine substitution at position 482 of the beta-galactosidase in an Italian infantile GM1-gangliosidosis patient". Human Genetics. 90 (3): 247–50. doi:10.1007/bf00220071. PMID 1487238. 
  • Oshima A, Yoshida K, Ishizaki A, Shimmoto M, Fukuhara Y, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y (May 1992). "GM1-gangliosidosis: tandem duplication within exon 3 of beta-galactosidase gene in an infantile patient". Clinical Genetics. 41 (5): 235–8. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.1992.tb03672.x. PMID 1606711. 
  • Yoshida K, Oshima A, Shimmoto M, Fukuhara Y, Sakuraba H, Yanagisawa N, Suzuki Y (Aug 1991). "Human beta-galactosidase gene mutations in GM1-gangliosidosis: a common mutation among Japanese adult/chronic cases". American Journal of Human Genetics. 49 (2): 435–42. PMC 1683306free to read. PMID 1907800. 
  • Nishimoto J, Nanba E, Inui K, Okada S, Suzuki K (Sep 1991). "GM1-gangliosidosis (genetic beta-galactosidase deficiency): identification of four mutations in different clinical phenotypes among Japanese patients". American Journal of Human Genetics. 49 (3): 566–74. PMC 1683129free to read. PMID 1909089. 
  • Morreau H, Bonten E, Zhou XY, D'Azzo A (Sep 1991). "Organization of the gene encoding human lysosomal beta-galactosidase". DNA and Cell Biology. 10 (7): 495–504. doi:10.1089/dna.1991.10.495. PMID 1909871. 
  • Oshima A, Yoshida K, Shimmoto M, Fukuhara Y, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y (Nov 1991). "Human beta-galactosidase gene mutations in morquio B disease". American Journal of Human Genetics. 49 (5): 1091–3. PMC 1683264free to read. PMID 1928092. 
  • Yamamoto Y, Hake CA, Martin BM, Kretz KA, Ahern-Rindell AJ, Naylor SL, Mudd M, O'Brien JS (Mar 1990). "Isolation, characterization, and mapping of a human acid beta-galactosidase cDNA". DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (2): 119–27. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.119. PMID 2111707. 
  • Morreau H, Galjart NJ, Gillemans N, Willemsen R, van der Horst GT, d'Azzo A (Dec 1989). "Alternative splicing of beta-galactosidase mRNA generates the classic lysosomal enzyme and a beta-galactosidase-related protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (34): 20655–63. PMID 2511208. 
  • Hoogeveen AT, Reuser AJ, Kroos M, Galjaard H (May 1986). "GM1-gangliosidosis. Defective recognition site on beta-galactosidase precursor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261 (13): 5702–4. PMID 3084469. 
  • Verheijen FW, Palmeri S, Galjaard H (Jan 1987). "Purification and partial characterization of lysosomal neuraminidase from human placenta". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 162 (1): 63–7. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb10542.x. PMID 3102233. 
  • Oshima A, Tsuji A, Nagao Y, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y (Nov 1988). "Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human beta-galactosidase". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 157 (1): 238–44. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80038-X. PMID 3143362. 
  • Sips HJ, de Wit-Verbeek HA, de Wit J, Westerveld A, Galjaard H (1985). "The chromosomal localization of human beta-galactosidase revisited: a locus for beta-galactosidase on human chromosome 3 and for its protective protein on human chromosome 22". Human Genetics. 69 (4): 340–4. doi:10.1007/BF00291653. PMID 3921454. 
  • Verheijen FW, Palmeri S, Hoogeveen AT, Galjaard H (Jun 1985). "Human placental neuraminidase. Activation, stabilization and association with beta-galactosidase and its protective protein". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 149 (2): 315–21. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1985.tb08928.x. PMID 3922758. 
  • Goldman JE, Katz D, Rapin I, Purpura DP, Suzuki K (May 1981). "Chronic GM1 gangliosidosis presenting as dystonia: I. Clinical and pathological features". Annals of Neurology. 9 (5): 465–75. doi:10.1002/ana.410090509. PMID 6791574.