A graben is a valley with a distinct escarpment on each side caused by the displacement of a block of land downward. Graben often occur side-by-side with horsts. Horst and graben structures indicate tensional forces and crustal stretching.
Graben are produced from parallel normal faults, where the displacement of the hanging wall is downward, while that of the footwall is upward. The faults typically dip toward the center of the graben from both sides. Horsts are parallel blocks that remain between graben; the bounding faults of a horst typically dip away from the center line of the horst. Single or multiple graben can produce a rift valley.
In many rifts, the graben are asymmetric, with a major fault along only one of the boundaries, and these are known as half-graben. The polarity (throw direction) of the main bounding faults typically alternates along the length of the rift. The asymmetry of a half-graben strongly affects syntectonic deposition. Comparatively little sediment enters the half-graben across the main bounding fault because of footwall uplift on the drainage systems. The exception is at any major offset in the bounding fault, where a relay ramp may provide an important sediment input point. Most of the sediment will enter the half-graben down the unfaulted hanging wall side (e.g. Lake Baikal).
- Basin and Range Province of southwestern North America is an example of multiple horst/graben structures, including Death Valley, with Salt Lake Valley being the easternmost and Owens Valley being the westernmost.
- Rio Grande Rift Valley in Colorado/New Mexico/Texas of the United States
- Rhine valley, border area of west Germany and northeast France
- Oslo graben around Oslo, Norway
- East African Rift Valley
- Saguenay Graben, Quebec, Canada
- Narmada River Valley, central India
- lower Godavari River Valley, southern India
- Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, Ontario and Quebec, Canada
- Lambert Graben, Antarctica
- Gulf St Vincent, South Australia
- Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- Central Lowlands, Scotland
- Baikal Rift Zone, Siberia, Russia
- Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, U.S.
- Lake George (New York), U.S.
- Santa Clara Valley, California, U.S.
- Guatemala City valley, Guatemala
- Büyük Menderes Graben, Turkey
- Unzen Graben, Japan
- Republic Graben, Republic, Washington, U.S.
- Worcester Basin, England
- Moma Graben, Sakha Republic, Russia
- Rough Creek Graben, Kentucky, U.S.
- Central Graben, North Sea
- Viking Graben, North Sea
- Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary
- "horst and graben". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
- Hans Nelson, C.; Karabanov, Evgeny B.; Colman, Steven M.; Escutia, Carlota (1999). "Tectonic and sediment supply control of deep rift lake turbidite systems: Lake Baikal, Russia". Geology. 27 (2): 163–166. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0163:TASSCO>2.3.CO;2.