Gun laws in Colorado

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Location of Colorado in the United States

Gun laws in Colorado regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the state of Colorado in the United States.[1][2]

Summary table[edit]

Subject/Law Long guns Handguns Relevant Statutes Notes
State permit required to purchase? No No Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 18-12-112, 18-12-113
Firearm registration? No No Colo. Rev. Stat. § 29-11.7-102
Assault weapon law? No* No* DRMC § 38-130 No state law prohibiting sale or possession of assault weapons, but with the repeal of Colorado's statewide firearm preemption law in 2021, local restrictions or prohibitions on assault weapons may exist. Denver ordinance bans assault weapons. Vail banned assault weapons in 1994.[3] Boulder city passed such an ordinance in May 2018.[4][failed verification]
Magazine capacity restriction? Yes Yes Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 18-12-302, 18-12-303 After July 1, 2013, magazines holding more than 15 rounds may not be sold, transferred, or possessed unless they were lawfully owned prior to July 1, 2013. Firearms with a tubular magazine which are either chambered in .22 rimfire or operated by lever action are exempt from this regulation, as are magazines "permanently altered" to limit the capacity to 15 or fewer. Boulder city passed an ordinance in May 2018 banning magazines holding more than 10 rounds (15 for handguns).[4] [5] Vail town banned magazines holding 21 or more rounds in 1994.[6]

On June 29, 2020, the Colorado Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the magazine restrictions.[7]

Owner license required? No No
Permit required for concealed carry? N/A Yes Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-203 Colorado is a shall issue state for concealed carry. Permits are issued by local sheriff offices to county residents.
Permit required for open carry? No No Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12;
DRMC §§ 38-117(b), 38-118
Legal without permit requirements except in Denver and other posted areas.
Concealed within a vehicle? Yes Yes Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 18-12-105(2b), 33-6-125;
DRMC §§ 38-117(f), 38-118, 14-92
No permit is required. Pistols may be carried with chamber and magazine loaded. Rifles and shotguns must be carried with an empty chamber if the owner is in possession of a valid hunting license and that hunting season is in progress. Rounds in the magazine are permitted during that hunting season. A loaded weapon in a vehicle and a spotlight is prima facie evidence that one was attempting to illegally take game. Wildlife officers have full law enforcement powers.
State preemption of local restrictions? partial partial Colo. Rev. Stat. § 29-11.7-103 Local ordinances are not preempted by state law, and Denver bans assault weapons and open carry. However, holders of concealed carry permits are exempt from most, but not all, local restrictions.
NFA weapons restricted? No No CRS § 18-12-102 NFA items are defined as a "dangerous weapon". Subsection 5: "It shall be an affirmative defense to the charge of possessing a dangerous weapon...that said person has a valid permit and license for possession of such weapon."
Peaceable Journey laws? Yes Yes Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-105.6; DRMC §§ 38-117(f), 38-118 Denver's restrictions on transport/possession of firearms in vehicles do not apply to persons traveling to or from other jurisdictions; see Trinen v. City & County of Denver, 53 P.3d 754
Castle Doctrine? Yes Yes Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-1-704.5 A legal resident of a property has the right to use deadly force to defend themselves, other occupants, and property from armed or unarmed intruders.
Stand Your Ground Law? Yes Yes Common Law Doctrine “The common-law doctrine of retreat to the wall . . . is applicable in this jurisdiction only to such cases as where the defendant voluntarily enters into a fight or where the parties engage in mutual combat, or where the defendant, being the assailant, does not endeavor in good faith to decline any further struggle before firing the fatal shot, and possibly to other similar cases.” [8]
Red flag law? Yes Yes HB 19-1177 The police may temporarily confiscate firearms from people who are threatening to harm themselves or others or have been accused of the same by someone who resides at the same address of the subject, and then get a court order afterwards.

Right to keep and bear arms in Colorado[edit]

United States Constitution, Second Amendment

An individual's right to keep and bear arms in Colorado is protected by both the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution[9] and Article II, Section 13 of the Constitution of Colorado.[10] The Second Amendment provides:

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.[11]

Colorado Constitution, Article II, Section 13

And Article II, Section 13 provides:

That the right of no person to keep and bear arms in defense of his home, person and property, or in aid of the civil power when thereto legally summoned, shall be called in question; but nothing herein contained shall be construed to justify the practice of carrying concealed weapons.[12]

Colorado is one of only seven states which has a clause excluding concealed carry from its state right to bear arms provision.[13] Two other states previously had an analogous clause in their constitution but have since removed it.[14]

The government may regulate the exercise of the right to keep and bear arms protected by Article II, Section 13 under its inherent police power as long as the exercise of that power is "reasonable".[15] However, Article II, Section 13 “does not tolerate government enactments that have either a purpose or effect of rendering the right to bear arms in self-defense a nullity.”[16]

Open carry[edit]

Article II, Section 13 explicitly exempts the practice of carrying concealed weapons from its protection.[17] Legal scholar David B. Kopel has observed, "[e]xpressly giving the government power over concealed bearing of arms means that the government does not have a similar power over openly bearing arms, or over keeping arms."[18] As such, open carry is generally permitted in the state. However, local governments may prohibit open carry to a limited extent only in areas that are directly under the jurisdiction of the municipality such as municipal buildings, police stations, etc. If such an ordinance is written all locations affected must be posted per C.R.S 29-11.7-104. The exception is the city and county of Denver has done so in a broad sense banning open carry in all areas of the city and county. The Colorado Supreme Court ruled that Denver's pre-existing ban may remain in force, despite the Colorado legislature's enactment of a statewide pre-emption law designed to establish uniform firearms policies across the state.[19][20] When a rifle or shotgun is transported in a vehicle, there may not be a round in the chamber.[21]

Concealed carry[edit]

The right to bear arms protected by Article II, Section 13 of the state constitution does not extend to concealed carry.[22] However, the Colorado General Assembly has created a statutory right to concealed carry for legal residents who meet certain objective criteria.[23] As such, Colorado is considered a "shall-issue" state.

Knowingly carrying a concealed firearm on or about one's person without a permit is a crime.[24] A firearm is considered "concealed" when it is “placed out of sight so as not to be discernible or apparent by ordinary observation.”[25] A firearm is considered "about the person" when it is “sufficiently close to the person to be readily accessible for immediate use.”[26]

A concealed handgun permit is issued by the sheriff of the county where the applicant resides,[27] and is valid for five years.[28] Applicants must demonstrate competence with a handgun, either by passing a training class or by other means.[29] The Concealed Carry Act allows a person with a permit to carry a concealed weapon "in all areas of the state" with the exception of some federal properties, K-12 schools, and buildings with fixed security checkpoints such as courthouses, and also disallows a local government from enforcing an ordinance or resolution that conflicts with the law.[30]

In March 2012, the Colorado Supreme Court struck down the University of Colorado's campus gun ban, saying it violated the Concealed Carry Act, which allows permit holders to carry on public property, including carrying on public colleges.[30][31]

Criteria for obtaining a concealed handgun permit[edit]

To obtain a concealed handgun permit in Colorado, an applicant must:

  • Be a legal resident of Colorado;
  • Be at least 21 years old;
  • Not be prohibited from possessing a firearm under state or federal law;
  • Not have been convicted of perjury related to an application for a concealed handgun permit;
  • Not be an alcoholic unless determined to be a recovering alcoholic by a licensed counselor and have not used alcohol for at least 3 years;
  • Not be an unlawful user of or be addicted to a controlled substance;
  • Not be subject to a protection order; and
  • Have demonstrated competence with a handgun.[32]

Even if an applicant meets all of these criteria, a sheriff may still deny the application, "if the sheriff has a reasonable belief that documented previous behavior by the applicant makes it likely the applicant will present a danger to self or others if the applicant receives a permit to carry."[33] In practice, these discretionary denials are quite rare (e.g., there were 71 discretionary denials out of 75,504 applications in 2021). Nevertheless, giving sheriffs this kind of open-ended discretion to deny permits likely violates the Second Amendment.[34]

Reciprocity with other states[edit]

Colorado will honor a valid concealed carry permit issued by another state if:

  • The issuing state recognizes permits issued by Colorado;
  • The permit holder is at least 21 years old; and
  • The permit holder is a resident of the issuing state or has been a resident of Colorado for less than 90 days.[35]

Colorado has established concealed carry reciprocity with 33 other states, namely: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.[36] This includes every state that shares a border with Colorado.

Colorado has not established concealed carry reciprocity with 17 other states, namely: California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont and Washington.[37] The lack of reciprocity with these states is due to the fact that they do not honor Colorado permits. Minnesota,[38] Nevada,[39] and South Carolina[40] do not honor Colorado permits because Colorado does not require live-fire training. In Maine and Vermont it is legal to carry a concealed weapon without a permit. The remaining 12 states do not honor permits from any other state.

Concealed handgun permit statistics[edit]

Sheriffs are required to prepare an annual report specifying the number applications received, the number of permits issued, the number of permits denied, the reasons for denial, the number of revocations, and the reasons for the revocations.[41] As of 2022, a total of 294,359 individuals hold a valid concealed handgun permit,[42] which is about 6.41% of the adult population.[43] The average monthly crime rate for the general population in 2022 was 530.3 per 100,000[44] whereas the rate for permit holders was 5.7 per 100,000.[45] These data consistently show that permit holders are one of the most law abiding segments of society.

Year Total Applications Permits Issued Permits Denied Permits Revoked
Total Application Type Total Reason Total Reason
New Renewals Arrest Record Discretionary Residency Restraining Order Mental Illness/ Addiction Arrest Record Discretionary Residency Restraining Order Mental Illness/ Addiction
2022[46] 54,683 53,653 27,031 26,622 355 145 87 13 69 41 416 202 14 34 144 22
2021[47] 75,504 74,114 41,660 32,454 484 255 71 24 82 52 289 168 11 3 90 17
2020[48] 63,043 61,050 37,909 23,141 402 167 124 16 52 43 348 196 49 9 73 21
2019[49] 50,039 47,723 23,250 24,473 382 169 113 20 45 35 377 237 17 4 91 28
2018[50] 61,064 59,786 26,290 33,496 391 174 86 9 71 51 537 266 29 133 68 41
2017[51] 46,888 46,394 27,122 19,272 372 130 111 33 57 41 508 281 35 94 64 34
2016[52] 52,975 51,806 38,955 12,851 464 191 156 14 46 57 422 222 27 89 58 26
2015[53] 39,485 37,436 25,906 11,530 278 140 74 8 35 21 373 228 26 56 47 16
2014[54] 40,896 39,191 21,874 17,317 306 112 127 17 27 23 270 195 22 0 33 20
2013[55] 58,012 59,091 46,053 13,038 462 205 166 11 44 36 329 202 37 36 42 12
2012[56] 33,977 31,663 23,357 8,306 254 157 59 7 7 24 286 194 22 12 41 17
2011[57] 20,197 18,948 238 143 57 15 15 8 291 208 30 16 29 8
2010[58] 19,372 18,088 262 133 71 8 37 13 250 167 22 15 30 16
2009[59] 27,402 26,644 374 202 115 12 35 10 234 160 21 20 20 13
2008[60] 20,998 17,695 221 138 41 12 25 5 138 93 16 6 16 7
2007[61] 9,880 9,370 141 77 39 4 12 9 184 140 16 2 19 7
2006[62] 6,649 6,241 102 48 39 7 4 4 131 95 5 12 15 4

Magazine capacity limits[edit]

As of July 1, 2013, it is illegal to sell, transfer, or possess a magazine that is "capable of accepting, or that is designed to be readily converted to accept, more than fifteen rounds of ammunition."[63] However, magazines owned before that date were grandfathered as long the owner has maintained continuous possession.[64] This law is silent on non-residents visiting Colorado while in possession of large capacity magazines, provided they are for personal use, and the individual had lawfully obtained them according to the laws of his or her home state.[65]

The enforceability of these restrictions is questionable, given that Colorado did not require grandfathered magazines to be registered with the state. Complicating matters, magazine manufacturers generally do not print serial numbers or a date of manufacture on the magazines they produce. Therefore, it would be virtually impossible to prove at trial that one illegally possessed an LCM unless someone witnessed that person obtaining or importing the illegal magazine. Gun stores have effectively found a way around this law by selling disassembled magazine parts kits.[66][dead link]

Colorado Outfitters Ass'n v. Hickenlooper (2016)[edit]

A lawsuit over the legality of the magazine ban and background check laws was filed by 54 of the 64 elected county Sheriffs and 21 sporting and outdoor groups and Colorado companies. The suit alleged that the large-capacity magazine ban violated the Second and Fourteenth Amendments, and argued that the law would be impossible to enforce.[67][68][69][70]

In Colorado Outfitters Ass'n v. Hickenlooper, 823 F.3d 537 (10th Cir. 2016), the Tenth Circuit held that the plaintiffs lacked standing to challenge the constitutionality of the state law banning magazines capable of holding more than 15 rounds on Second Amendment grounds.

Rocky Mountain Gun Owners v. Polis (2020)[edit]

In Rocky Mountain Gun Owners v. Polis, 467 P.3d 314 (Colo. 2020), the Colorado Supreme Court held that the state law banning magazines capable of holding more than 15 rounds did not violate Article II, Section 13 of the Colorado Constitution. The plaintiffs did not challenge the law on Second Amendment grounds.

Universal background checks[edit]

Effective July 1, 2013, Colorado requires background checks for all firearm sales at the buyer's expense. Without exception, all transferees must complete a background check before they can obtain a firearm from a licensed gun dealer.[71] Transferees must also complete a background check in order to obtain a firearm from a private individual.[72] However, this does not apply to bona fide gifts or loans between immediate family members,[73] transfers that occur by operation of law,[74] temporary transfers that occur while in the home of a transferee who is not a prohibited person and reasonably fears imminent death or serious bodily injury,[75] temporary transfers for target shooting or hunting,[76] temporary transfers for repair or maintenance,[77] temporary transfers that occur in the continuous presence of the owner,[78] and temporary transfers for not more than seventy-two hours.[79]

Restricted weapon types[edit]

Colorado imposes criminal penalties only when individuals manufacture, possess, or sell machine guns in violation of federal law. [80][81]

Second Amendment sanctuaries[edit]

As of 2020, 39 of Colorado's 64 counties (60%) have passed resolutions declaring themselves to be "Second Amendment sanctuaries", namely: Alamosa, Archuleta, Baca, Bent, Cheyenne, Conejos, Crowley, Custer, Delta, Dolores, Douglas, El Paso, Elbert, Fremont, Garfield, Huerfano, Jackson, Kiowa, Kit Carson, Lincoln, Logan, Mesa, Mineral, Moffat, Montezuma, Montrose, Otero, Park, Phillips, Prowers, Rio Blanco, Rio Grande, Sedgwick, Teller, Washington, Weld, and Yuma.[82] Most of these counties did so in response to the red flag law that was adopted on April 12, 2019 and went into effect on January 1, 2020.


From 2003 to 2021, Colorado had state preemption of local firearm laws, except for certain ordinances enacted by the City and County of Denver.[20] The statewide firearm preemption law was repealed in 2021, allowing cities and counties to enact firearms ordinances that are more restrictive than state law. Denver has enacted local firearms ordinances that are more restrictive than state law, and other cities (notably Boulder) are considering additional local firearm restrictions. Meanwhile, a growing number of rural counties are using the repeal of Colorado's statewide firearm pre-emption law as the basis for their refusal to enforce portions of the state's firearm laws (notably Colorado's red flag law) within their jurisdictions.[83]

Concealed carry permits remain valid statewide, despite the repeal of statewide pre-emption. In other words, local jurisdictions cannot completely ban concealed carry by permit-holders within their jurisdictions, although they may restrict concealed carry by permit holders in public buildings and parks, or in designated areas when special events or large public gatherings are held. However, local jurisdictions may enact ordinances restricting or outlawing open carry (which requires no permit in Colorado) within their boundaries, and the City and County of Denver has done so.


The City of Boulder unanimously passed 6 new gun control ordinances in June 2022.[84] These measures were drafted with the assistance of the Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence and Everytown for Gun Safety.[85]

Boulder County[edit]

Boulder County adopted new gun control measures on August 2, 2022.[86]


Denver law bans assault weapons[87] and the open carry of firearms.[88][20] In 2003, the Colorado General Assembly passed laws preempting these and several other pre-existing Denver laws, which Denver successfully challenged in Denver District Court in 2004.[20] In 2006, the Colorado Supreme Court let stand the District Court order upholding the Denver laws.[89] In 2022, Denver City Council bans concealed carry guns in all city's properties.[90]


The City of Louisville adopted new gun control measures on July 7, 2022.[91]


The Town of Superior adopted new gun control measures in June 2022.[92]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "State Gun Laws: Colorado", National Rifle Association – Institute for Legislative Action. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  2. ^ "Colorado State Law Summary", Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  3. ^ "Sterling Codifiers, Inc". Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Boulder City Council unanimously passes ban on assault weapons". Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  5. ^ "Boulder Municipal Code Chapter 8 - Weapons". Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  6. ^ "Sterling Codifiers, Inc". Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  7. ^ "Colorado Supreme Court upholds state's ban on large-capacity gun magazines". The Denver Post. June 29, 2020. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  8. ^ Babcock v. People, 32 Colo. 211, 218–19 (Colo. 1904).
  9. ^ District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570, 595 (2008) ("There seems to us no doubt, on the basis of both text and history, that the Second Amendment conferred an individual right to keep and bear arms."); McDonald v. City of Chicago, 561 U.S. 742, 750 (2010) ("[W]e hold that the Second Amendment right is fully applicable to the States.").
  10. ^ People v. Nakamura, 99 Colo. 262, 264 (1936) (holding the right to bear arms in Art. II, § 13 is a personal right not merely one of collective enjoyment for common defense).
  11. ^ U.S. Const. amend. II.
  12. ^ Colo. Const. art. II, § 13.
  13. ^ Idaho Const. art I., § 11 (“but this provision shall not prevent the passage of laws to govern the carrying of weapons concealed on the person”); Ky. Const. bill of rights, § 1, subdiv. 7 (“subject to the power of the General Assembly to enact laws to prevent persons from carrying concealed weapons”); Miss. Const. art. III, § 12 (“but the legislature may regulate or forbid carrying concealed weapons”); Mont. Const. art. II, § 12 (“but nothing herein contained shall be held to permit the carrying of concealed weapons”); N. M. Const. art. II, § 6 (“but nothing herein shall be held to permit the carrying of concealed weapons”); N. C. Const. art. I, § 30 (“Nothing herein shall justify the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or prevent the General Assembly from enacting penal statutes against that practice.”).
  14. ^ La. Const. of 1879 bill of rights, art. III (“This shall not prevent the passage of laws to punish those who carry weapons concealed.”); Mo. Const. of 1945 art. I, § 23 (“but this shall not justify the wearing of concealed weapons”).
  15. ^ Robertson v. City & County of Denver, 874 P.2d 325, 328 (Colo. 1994).
  16. ^ Rocky Mountain Gun Owners v. Polis, 467 P.3d 314, 328 (Colo. 2020).
  17. ^ Colo. Const. art. II, § 13
  18. ^ David B. Kopel, The Right to Arms in Nineteenth Century Colorado, 95 Denv. L. Rev. 329, 439 (2018) (applying the canon of expressio unius est exclusio alterius to interpret art. II, § 13).
  19. ^ "Colorado", Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c d Denver v. Colorado, 03 CV 3809, Order on Cross Motions for Summary Judgment, 5 November 2004
  21. ^ "Guns in Vehicles in Colorado", Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  22. ^ Douglass v. Kelton, 199 Colo. 446, 449 (1980) ("Article II, Section 13 of the Colorado Constitution specifically excludes the carrying of concealed firearms from this right.").
  23. ^ Act of Mar. 18, 2003, ch. 44, 2003 Colo. Sess. Laws 635 (creating the current concealed carry permit scheme).
  24. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 18-12-105(1)(b) (first offense is a class 1 misdemeanor), 18-12-107 (second offense is a class 5 felony).
  25. ^ People ex rel. O.R., 220 P.3d 949, 952 (Colo. App. 2008) (finding pistol in defendant's left back pocket held down with defendant's hand on outside of pocket was not concealed because officer could see end of pistol above pocket and never lost sight of it).
  26. ^ People ex rel. R.J.A., 556 P.2d 491, 493 (Colo. App. 1976) (citing People v. Niemoth, 322 Ill. 51, 52 (1926)) (finding pistol in car tucked under edge of defendant's seat was about his person because it was within easy reach).
  27. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-203(1) (2022).
  28. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-204(1)(b) (2022).
  29. ^ "Colorado Concealed Carry Permit Information", USA Carry. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  30. ^ a b Whaley, Monte (March 5, 2012). "Colorado Supreme Court affirms that CU students with permits can carry concealed guns on campus". The Denver Post.
  31. ^ "Regents of the University of Colorado v. Students for Concealed Carry on Campus" (PDF). Colorado Supreme Court. March 5, 2012.
  32. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-203(1) (2022).
  33. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-203(2) (2022).
  34. ^ New York State Rifle & Pistol Ass'n v. Bruen, 597 U.S. ___, ___ (2022) (Kavanaugh, J., concurring) ("New York’s outlier may-issue regime is constitutionally problematic because it grants open-ended discretion to licensing officials").
  35. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-213 (2022).
  36. ^ "Concealed Handgun Permit (CHP) Reciprocity". Colorado Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  37. ^ "Concealed Handgun Permit (CHP) Reciprocity". Colorado Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  38. ^ "Permit to Carry Reciprocity". Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
  39. ^ Nev. Rev. Stat. § 202.3657(3)
  40. ^ S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-210(4)(a)(iv).
  41. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-206(4) (2022).
  42. ^ Since permits are valid for 5 years, the total number of permits at any given time can be calculated as the total number of permits issued in the prior 5 years minus the total number of permits revoked in the prior 5 years.
  43. ^ The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the adult population of Colorado on July 1, 2022 was 4,590,182. "Colorado Quick Facts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2023.
  44. ^ "Crime in Colorado in 2022: The Data on Colorado's Increasing Crime Problem". Common Sense Institute. Retrieved May 16, 2023.
  45. ^ The crime rate for permit holders was calculated as the number of permits revoked due to an arrest record in 2022, divided by 12 to get the monthly average, divided by the total number of permit holders to get the raw crime rate, and multiplied by 100,000.
  46. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2022
  47. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2021
  48. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2020
  49. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2019
  50. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2018
  51. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2017
  52. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2016
  53. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2015
  54. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2014
  55. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2013
  56. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2012
  57. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2011
  58. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2010
  59. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2009
  60. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2008
  61. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2007
  62. ^ Concealed Handgun Permits Issued by Colorado Sheriffs in 2006
  63. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-302(1).
  64. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-302(2).
  65. ^ Bartels, Lynn and Lee, Kurtis (March 21, 2013). "Three New Gun Bills on the Books in Colorado Despite Its Wild West Image", Denver Post. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  66. ^ Marshall Zelinger; Anna Hewson; Zack Newman (November 11, 2019). "Overloaded: How Large-Capacity Gun Magazines are Still Being Sold in Colorado". 9News.
  67. ^ "Colorado sheriffs sue over new state gun restrictions". Fox News. Associated Press. May 18, 2013.
  68. ^ 54 Sheriffs v. Hickenlooper, Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief Archived 2013-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ "Majority of Colorado sheriffs file suit against new gun laws". NBC News. May 17, 2013.
  70. ^ "Colorado sheriffs file federal lawsuit challenging gun bills". The Denver Post. May 18, 2013.
  71. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112.5 (2022) (requiring background checks for firearms transfers by licensed dealers).
  72. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112 (2022) (requiring background checks for firearms transfers by private individuals).
  73. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112(6)(b) (2022) (spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, grandchildren, nieces, nephews, first cousins, aunts, and uncles).
  74. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112(6)(c) (2022).
  75. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112(6)(d) (2022).
  76. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112(6)(e) (2022).
  77. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112(6)(f) (2022).
  78. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112(6)(g) (2022).
  79. ^ Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-112(6)(h) (2022) (such a transferor may be jointly and severally liable for damages proximately caused by the transferee’s unlawful use of the firearm).
  80. ^ "Colorado Revised Statutes Title 18. Criminal Code § 18-12-102". Findlaw. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  81. ^ "Yes, a private citizen can legally purchase machine guns". Damage Factory. May 3, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  82. ^ Powell, Erin (January 3, 2020). "These Colorado Counties Have Declared Themselves '2nd Amendment Sanctuaries' in Response to Red Flag Law". 9News. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
  83. ^ Pushback on proposed Colorado gun laws gains steam among counties, sheriffs Denver Post, May 29, 2021
  84. ^ Huntley, Sarah (June 8, 2022). "City Council Unanimously Passes Six Gun Violence Prevention Measures". City of Boulder. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
  85. ^ Huntley, Sarah (June 8, 2022). "City Council Unanimously Passes Six Gun Violence Prevention Measures". City of Boulder. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
  86. ^ "Gun Violence Prevention Ordinances". Boulder County (Colo.). Retrieved October 5, 2022.
  87. ^ Denver Revised Municipal Code (DRMC) § 38-130
  88. ^ DRMC §§ 38-117(b), 38-118
  89. ^ Lindsay, Sue (June 6, 2006). "Denver gun laws stand, but issue left unresolved". Rocky Mountain News hosted at Conceal Carry HQ.
  90. ^ "Denver Bans Concealed Carry Guns". Damage Factory. May 21, 2022. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  91. ^ "Gun Violence Prevention Ordinances". City of Louisville. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
  92. ^ Cobb, Ella (June 8, 2022). "Superior Passes Gun Safety Measures". Daily Camera (Boulder, Colo.). Retrieved October 5, 2022.