List of Atlantic City casinos that never opened

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Over the years there have been numerous planned casinos in Atlantic City that never opened. In November 1976, voters in New Jersey approved a referendum that legalized casino gambling in Atlantic City, and the Casino Control Act of New Jersey was signed by the governor on June 2, 1977. Atlantic City was the first place in the country to have legalized casino gambling outside Nevada. A rush of investors announced plans to build hotel-casinos. A lack of available financing along with legal issues, such as zoning, licensing, and environmental regulations ended the plans of most of these investors. Among the hotel-casinos that never opened, most stopped in the planning stage, with only a few, such as the Dunes and the Penthouse, even starting construction. Many of the proposed projects were announced with major publicity efforts but died quietly.

American Land Company[edit]

In July 1978, American Land Company, headed by Steven Silverberg, announced plans to build a hotel-casino in the marina area, named The Marina Casino. However, later that year, he faced charges by the Securities and Exchange Commission for misleading investors in the project. He later sold an option on the land for the project to MGM Grand Hotels.[1][2][3]

American Motor Inns and Great American Industries[edit]

In June 1979, a joint venture to construct a hotel-casino in the marina area was announced by American Motor Inns, Inc. and Great American Industries.[4][5][6]

Atlantic Beach Resort & Casino[edit]

In 2006, AC Gateway LLC, headed by Wally Barr and Curtis Bashaw, purchased a number of properties near Albany Avenue and the Boardwalk in order to build a hotel-casino. These properties included the former Dunes and Sahara projects, along with the former Atlantic City High School site.[7] A plan for a $1.5-billion mega-casino called the Atlantic Beach Resort & Casino was unveiled in 2008.[8] The project was suspended in 2009 due to the economic downturn.[9] The project was later revived in 2011 as the proposed Hard Rock Hotel and Casino.[10][11]

Atlantic Land Limited[edit]

Atlantic Land Limited opened an office near New York Avenue in 1979, proposing to build a 31-story hotel-casino. However, by the next year, the office was closed.[12]

Atlantis[edit]

In May 1977, Edward Sims announced that his investor group would develop a hotel-casino, called the Atlantis, in the marina area. (This was no relation to the Atlantis Hotel and Casino, which was renamed from the Playboy Hotel and Casino in 1984.) In 1978, a portion of the land they owned was sold to Harrahs, contingent on getting it rezoned. However, the rezoning was refused and the sale was cancelled. In 1980 the investor group announced that the property was to be sold to American Motor Inns.[6][13][14][15]

Benihana Hotel-Casino / Carnival (or Carousel) Club Hotel Casino[edit]

The Shelburne Hotel (Atlantic City) was leased to Japanese investors Rocky Aoki, owner of the Benihana restaurant chain, and Takashi Sasakawa, who planned to keep the existing hotel as well as add a 31-story tower and casino calling it the Benihana Hotel-Casino.[16] In 1983 work crews began to renovate the hotel, however, disagreements between the Malmut family (owners of the hotel), the New Jersey Casino Control Commission, and outside investors led Akoi and Sasakawa to abandon the project after investing over $25 million in construction and renovations.[17] Sasakawa was the son of noted Japanese fascist and philanthropist Ryoichi Sasakawa, who had links with the Yakuza.[18] Aoki and Sasakawa had also faced charges by the Securities and Exchange Commission for insider trading in the stock of Hardwicke Companies, which had planned to manage the hotel/casino.[19]

After the Benihana Hotel-Casino project stopped, the Shelburne Hotel (Atlantic City) was acquired in 1984 by Blumenfeld Development Corp. and the hotel was demolished. The company applied for a casino license on July 23, 1985. In 1986 a groundbreaking was held for the intended construction of the Carousel Club Hotel Casino. (It was originally called the Carnival Club Hotel Casino, but the name was changed after Carnival Cruise Lines sued them.) However, the company did not obtain sufficient financing and after foreclosure the property was sold to Bally's Manufacturing Corp., which built Bally's Wild Wild West Casino in 1997.[20][21][22][23]

Caesars Palace Atlantic City[edit]

In June 1977, Caesars World Inc. leased the site where the Traymore Hotel had once stood. (The hotel was imploded in 1972.) They planned to build Caesars Palace Atlantic City on the site. However, when the opportunity came about in June 1978 to lease the Howard Johnson's Regency Motor Hotel and use the existing facilities to more quickly build a hotel-casino complex, the Traymore site project was put on hold. The Boardwalk Regency opened in June 1979. The company applied for a license on January 8, 1980 for the Caesars Palace Atlantic City project but never built anything on the site. The land was later sold to Pinnacle Atlantic City for a proposed hotel-casino. However, that project also fell through.[24]

Camelot Hotel/Casino[edit]

See entry for Camelot Hotel/Casino.

Captain Starn's Restaurant[edit]

Captain Starn's Restaurant was a popular restaurant located at Maine Avenue, Caspian Avenue and the Boardwalk, by the Absecon Inlet. The owners were approached twice by potential investors to buy the land for a hotel-casino, the first time by Meister Associates and the second time by Edward Wong. Caesars later took an option on the site and tried to swap it with the United States government for the site of the United States Coast Guard station in the marina area, but were turned down.[25][26]

Casino by the Sea / Royale Vista[edit]

In June 1978, Levin Computer Corporation, along with Hotel Associates, announced plans to develop a hotel-casino in the marina area named Casino by the Sea. Levin Computer had briefly owned the Bonanza Casino in Las Vegas. Levin later offered a leasehold interest in the property to Cavanaugh Communities Corp.[27][28][29]

In 1979, Cavanaugh Communities Corporation, a Florida land sales company, planned to develop a hotel-casino in the marina area called the Royale Vista. However, the land was sold to Resorts Casino Hotel in 1983, after a Cavanaugh subsidiary filed bankruptcy.[30][31]

Chalfonte Hotel – Holiday Inns[edit]

Holiday Inns purchased the Chalfonte Hotel from Resorts Casino Hotel in 1979, intending to demolish the hotel and develop a new hotel-casino. However, in 1981, they announced that the development was postponed and eventually the project was cancelled.[32][33]

Colonial Commercial Corp. / King International Corp.[edit]

Colonial Commercial Corp. was a company that made cement and blue jeans. In 1979, King International Corp., which operated a hotel-casino in Aruba, acquired an option to purchase some land from Trans-Expo Inc. Colonial Commercial then acquired the option from King International, with which it planned to merge, and later exercised the option. Colonial filed bankruptcy in 1982 and gave the land back to Trans-Expo, which held the mortgage.[34][35][36][37]

Context Industries and Terminal Industries[edit]

In June 1979, Context Industries, Inc. announced that it had entered into a memorandum of understanding with Terminal Industries, Inc. to develop a hotel-casino.[38]

Dunes Hotel and Casino (Atlantic City)[edit]

See entry for Dunes Hotel and Casino (Atlantic City).

First Artists Production Company[edit]

In October 1977, First Artists Production Company confirmed reports that they were negotiating for potential hotel-casino properties in Atlantic City. The company was partly owned by entertainers Paul Newman, Barbra Streisand, Steve McQueen, Sidney Poitier and Dustin Hoffman. The property mentioned was the Holiday Inn, which was sold a few months later to Penthouse for its Penthouse Boardwalk Hotel and Casino project.[39][40]

Hard Rock Hotel and Casino (Atlantic City)[edit]

Hard Rock International announced plans in 2010 to build a $300-million casino in partnership with Och-Ziff Real Estate on the Boardwalk at Albany Avenue, at the site previously proposed for the Atlantic Beach Resort & Casino.[11][41] It was proposed under the state's recently enacted "boutique casino" law, which allowed up to two casinos to be opened with a minimum of 200 hotel rooms, instead of the usual 500 rooms.[42] The first phase of construction would have included 208 hotel rooms and 54,800 square feet (5,090 m2) of gaming space; a second phase would follow with an additional 642 rooms and 27,500 square feet (2,550 m2) of gaming space.[43] Other features would have included a beachfront Hard Rock Cafe, other upscale restaurants, bars, a rock-and-roll museum, a spa, and beach cabanas.[41]

Construction was planned to begin by July 2012, with an opening date in 2014, but the schedule was pushed back because of delays in the permitting process.[42][44] Hard Rock dropped the project in September 2012 because market conditions in Atlantic City, including poor results at the newly opened Revel casino, made it very difficult to secure financing.[45] The company would later return to the city in 2017 with its purchase of the shuttered Trump Taj Mahal and planned renovation of the property as a Hard Rock casino.[46]

Kissane-Leddy[edit]

In 1977, William Kissane and John Leddy, announced that they were seeking to lease land in the marina area to develop a hotel-casino. In 1980, they had their land surveying licenses suspended.[47][48]

Le Jardin[edit]

After the original Golden Nugget Hotel & Casino opened in 1980, the Mirage Resorts explored sites for another hotel-casino. In 1982, they looked at acquiring a site on Great Island from Vornado, Inc., but the site required rezoning. In the mid-1990s, the company proposed to build the Le Jardin hotel-casino in the marina area if the state of New Jersey built a road that connected to the hotel-casino. The company had also agreed to allow Circus Circus Enterprises and Boyd Gaming to build casinos on the site, but later reneged on the agreement. While the road, called the Atlantic City-Brigantine Connector, was eventually built, Le Jardin was cancelled after the company was acquired in 2000 by MGM Grand Inc., which later built the Borgata, in a joint venture with Boyd Gaming, on the site.[49][50][51]

Loews Corp.[edit]

Loews Corporation is a large conglomerate with interests in hotels, movie theaters, insurance, and cigarettes. In 1977, they conducted a feasibility study to determine whether they should re-enter the Atlantic City market and develop a hotel-casino. The company had formerly owned the Traymore Hotel and the Ambassador Hotel, but sold them before gambling was legalized in the city. [52][53]

Lucky Lady (or Lady Luck) Casino[edit]

Jean Savage, a Nutley NJ realtor and the president of HEJJ Inc. approached the 72 owners of properties bordered between Texas Ave., Bellevue Ave., Pacific Ave. and the Boardwalk. She offered them $100,000 each to sell their properties, contingent on all of them agreeing to sell. She reportedly represented some unnamed company that planned to build a hotel-casino. The effort failed.[54][55][56][57][58]

Metropole Hotel-Casino[edit]

Metropole Associates, Inc, of New York, in November 1978 announced plans to build a hotel-casino at the site of the Morton Hotel on Virginia Avenue.[59]

MGM Grand Atlantic City[edit]

MGM planned to enter the Atlantic City market in the late 1970s. However, a catastrophic fire, which killed 85 people, in 1980 at the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino (now Bally's Las Vegas) in Las Vegas, Nevada postponed those plans. The fire resulted in substantial litigation. In 1996, the company began buying parcels of land adjacent to the Showboat Atlantic City for a planned hotel-casino. The effort was delayed for several years due to a few land owners refusing to sell. After MGM acquired Mirage Resorts in 2000, the company switched its focus to developing the Borgata in the marina area and abandoned plans for the Boardwalk site. The land was then sold to North Beach Holdings, which in turn sold the land to a group that built the Revel. For plans by MGM to build a hotel-casino in the marina area in 2007 see the entry for MGM Grand Atlantic City.[60][61][62][63]

Nortek, Inc.[edit]

In 1978, Nortek, Inc, a textile and tombstone company, indicated it planned to invest in a casino. The following year, an investor lawsuit was filed against the company claiming it drove the stock price up by using false claims.[64]

Pagano / Triple Five[edit]

In 2008, realtor Robert Pagano and a representative from shopping mall owner Triple Five Group sought to get land they owned in the marina district rezoned for hotel-casino and retail use. The land consisted of 17 acres adjacent to The Borgata owned by Pagano, and a 13-acre site across the street owned by Marina Towers Association.[65][66]

Penn National Gaming[edit]

In 2008, Penn National Gaming had two proposals for new hotel-casinos. They offered to buy the recently closed Bader Field airport for $900 million. They planned to build one hotel-casino and sell up to three other parcels to other developers. Later that year, they planned to rezone a parcel of land on Route 30 at the city's gateway for development of a hotel-casino. Neither venture went through.[67][68]

Penthouse Boardwalk Hotel and Casino[edit]

See entry for Penthouse Boardwalk Hotel and Casino.

Pinnacle Atlantic City[edit]

See entry for Pinnacle Atlantic City.

Planet Hollywood[edit]

In 1996, Planet Hollywood International Inc., a theme restaurant chain, and ITT Corporation, which had recently acquired Caesars World, announced a joint venture to develop a hotel-casino. However, nothing became of it. After Planet Hollywood acquired the Aladdin Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, they announced plans in 2005 to open a hotel-casino in Atlantic City. However, the casino was never built, and after having financial problems, the company lost ownership of the hotel-casino in Las Vegas in 2010.[69][70]

Prime Motor Inns[edit]

Prime Motor Inns had announced in January 1980 that it had approval from lenders for financing for a hotel-casino. However, the company was denied permits from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. They later tried to do a joint venture with the Dunes Hotel and Casino (Atlantic City) project, but that fell through.[71][72][73]

Regency Hotel[edit]

In August 1977, Jerrold Polinsky, a cable television owner from Minnesota, announced an agreement to lease the Howard Johnson's Regency Motor Hotel and build a casino. His partners included former New York Jets owner Sonny Werblin, attorney Adrian Foley and local art dealer Reese Palley. Werblin and Foley were the Chairman and Treasurer, respectively, of the New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority. Palley had been appointed as Chairman of the New Jersey State Lottery Commission. Werblin and Foley soon dropped out of the partnership after the media and politicians noted the conflicts of interest. Polinsky sought additional investors, but could not meet the lease terms and the agreement was terminated in May 1978. Rocky Aoki had come in at the last minute to try to save the project, but the court rejected his claim. (Aoki would later try to develop the Benihana Hotel-Casino.) The property was subsequently leased to Caesars World in June 1978 and they developed the Boardwalk Regency . Polinsky went on to other ventures in the gambling industry, but was convicted in the mid-1990s of bribery, tax evasion, and securities fraud.[74][75]

Ritz-Carlton[edit]

In 1978, an investor group purchased the Ritz-Carlton Atlantic City intending to convert it to a hotel and casino. However, unfavorable publicity linking it to the Abscam investigation ended that plan.[76] Senator Harrison A. Williams (D-N.J.) told an undercover FBI agent that he could help save the investors $30 million by allowing them to renovate the existing property, rather than building a new one. Williams' wife was a paid consultant and shareholder in Hardwicke Companies, the majority investor in the project, and Williams expected to receive a $1 million finder's fee for helping arrange financing for the project. Williams was later convicted on other charges relating to the Abscam scandal.[77][78]

Route 1 Corporation / Hotel Associates[edit]

Al Olshan, a developer from Little Ferry, New Jersey purchased some land in the marina district through a partnership, Hotel Associates, intending to develop a hotel-casino. In 1982, the Securities and Exchange Commission charged Olsham and his company, Route 1 Corp., with securities violations involving Hotel Associates.[79][80][81]

Royale Atlantic Hotel / Atlantic Plaza Hotel Casino[edit]

Robert Maheu, a former aide to Howard Hughes, and Grady Sanders announced plans for a hotel-casino in August 1978, called the Royale Atlantic Hotel. However, they were unable to get funding for the project and turned it over to other developers.[82]

Howard Weingrow, Robert Lifton and Midland Resources took over the Royale Atlantic hotel-casino project in 1979, and renamed it the Atlantic Plaza Hotel Casino. They applied for a casino license on September 4, 1979. However, they were unable to get funding for the project, and Donald Trump took it over and developed the Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino.[83][84]

Sahara Boardwalk Hotel and Casino[edit]

See entry for Sahara Boardwalk Hotel and Casino.

Sardi's Broadway Casino Hotel[edit]

In 1986, two theatrical producers, who had recently bought Sardi's restaurant in New York, announced plans to develop a hotel-casino in the marina district called Sardi's Broadway Casino Hotel. The project was a venture with the successor company that had tried to develop the Camelot Hotel/Casino. The producers lost ownership of Sardi's restaurant in a 1990 bankruptcy case.[85][86]

SS United States[edit]

In July 1977, a group headed by Harry Katz announced that they were trying to purchase the ocean liner SS United States and dock it at a pier in Atlantic City. The ship would have a casino and the cabins would function as a hotel.[87][88]

Steel Pier[edit]

In August 1977, Alvin Snyder, a Maryland real estate developer, planned to use the famous Steel Pier to house a hotel-casino called Casino at Sea. He bought the pier, contingent on getting the necessary government approvals for the construction and use. However, the approvals could not be obtained. In July 1978, the pier was purchased by the Resorts Casino Hotel for non-casino use.[89][90][91]

Trans-Expo Casino[edit]

Kupper Associates, a Piscataway, New Jersey engineering firm announced plans in February 1978 to build a hotel-casino at Arkansas Ave. near the terminus of the Atlantic City Expressway. The land was later sold to Colonial Commercial Corp., which defaulted on the mortgage and the land was reacquired by Tran-Expo.[92][93]

Trump Yacht Casino[edit]

In 1996, Donald Trump proposed building a 430-foot yacht, docking it next to the Trump's Castle resort in the marina district, and opening a casino on the boat. At the time, it would have been the largest yacht in the world, costing $75 million and having 35,000 square feet of casino space on three levels. The yacht was never built.[94]

Trump World's Fair successor[edit]

The Trump World's Fair (formerly the Trump Regency, which was formerly the Atlantis Hotel and Casino, which was formerly the Playboy Hotel and Casino) was torn down in 2000. Donald Trump then proposed building a 62-story hotel-casino on the site. However, after his company entered bankruptcy in 2005, the property was auctioned off to BET Investments, owned by real estate developer Bruce E. Toll. A deed restriction, preventing the property being used as a casino, was lifted in 2011 in exchange for $5.5 million, but no plans were announced for a hotel-casino.[95]

Two-O-Two Corp.[edit]

Two New Jersey developers, John Griek and Martin Cummins announced plans in April 1977 to develop a hotel-casino on a tract of land on U.S. Route 30 and the Absecon bridge. They were seeking to have the land rezoned from industrial to commercial use.[14][96]

Vornado, Inc.[edit]

Vornado, Inc., the owner of the Two Guys discount store chain, announced in November 1978 that they planned to open two hotel-casinos on Great Island, about a mile west of the Boardwalk. In 1982, Golden Nugget announced plans to purchase the site if it could be rezoned for a hotel-casino. However, the site was in the flight path of the Bader Field airport and required Federal Aviation Administration approval for a hotel.[71][97][98][99]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ambitious Casino Plans Outlined by Silverberg New York Times July 18, 1978
  2. ^ American Land Chief Accused New York Times December 27, 1978
  3. ^ Developer's Jersey Plans New York Times June 9, 1980
  4. ^ Joint Venture Set on Casino-Hotel New York Times June 22, 1979
  5. ^ Jersey To Refuse To License Casinos Imperiling Housing in Atlantic City New York Times August 30, 1979
  6. ^ a b How a $37,600 Dump Site Grew To $20 Million Value New York Times June 17, 1980
  7. ^ The AC Gateway Project : Wally Barr and Curtis Bashaws Plans For The Dunes, Sahara Atlantic City and Old Atlantic City High School. December 10, 2007. atlanticcitytripping.com [1]
  8. ^ Donald Wittkowski (April 19, 2008). "Casino project details surface". Press of Atlantic City – via NewsBank. 
  9. ^ "Yet another casino plan gets put on hold in Atlantic City". Donald Wittkowski. January 12, 2009 – via NewsBank. 
  10. ^ Donald Wittkowski (June 21, 2011). "Hard Rock files documents with DEP in first step toward building small-scale Atlantic City casino". Press of Atlantic City. Retrieved 2017-11-04. 
  11. ^ a b "Hard Rock plans boutique Atlantic City casino". Reuters. March 23, 2010. 
  12. ^ Boardwalk of Dreams: Atlantic City and the Fate of Urban America by Bryant Simon p. 192 ISBN 9780195308099
  13. ^ Shore Casino Complex Proposed Associated Press Reading Eagle May 11, 1977 [2]
  14. ^ a b Union Leaders Call For the Ouster of State Official in Casino Dispute New York Times May 11, 1977
  15. ^ MGM, Hilton Plan Two Casino Hotels Toledo Blade October 11, 1978
  16. ^ Japanese to open casino New York Times News Service The Times-News July 12, 1978 [3]
  17. ^ Quaker Resort
  18. ^ Beyond the Mafia: Organized Crime in the Americas edited by Sue Mahan, Katherine O'Neil ISBN 9780761913597 [4]
  19. ^ Benihana owner hit on insider stock deal Associated Press The Miami News July 24, 1980 [5]
  20. ^ Blumenfeld Development v. Carnival Cruise Lines, 669 F. Supp. 1297 (E.D. Pa. 1987) District Court, E.D. Pennsylvania [6]
  21. ^ A Festive Groundbreaking For A.c.'s 14th Casino-hotel By Mike Schurman, Special to The Inquirer October 30, 1986 [7]
  22. ^ Blumenfeld Bargaining To Avert Foreclosures On 2 Sites By Susan Warner, Inquirer Staff Writer January 30, 1989 [8]
  23. ^ A Casino Land Sale Reveals How A.C. Prices Have Sunk By Alison Fitzgerald and Thomas Turcol, For The Inquirer December 30, 1994 [9]
  24. ^ Caesar's On Move To East Reading Eagle June 3, 1977
  25. ^ Casino Status Proves a Burden New York Times August 16, 1981
  26. ^ Booming Jersey Casinos Seek Sites For Branches New York Times July 3, 1983
  27. ^ Levin Discloses Casino-Hotel Plans New York Times June 22, 1978
  28. ^ New Casino Hotel Due New York Times June 29, 1978
  29. ^ Cavanagh wins some time The Miami News November 2, 1979
  30. ^ Cavanagh to sell land for casinos The Miami News April 16, 1980
  31. ^ Resorts Acquiring New Casino Site New York Times August 21, 1983
  32. ^ Property Shift Due at Resort Reading-Eagle September 20, 1979
  33. ^ Casino Plans Delayed by Motel Firm Spokesman-Review January 19, 1981 [10]
  34. ^ Hints of Stock Manipulation New York Times June 25, 1979
  35. ^ Colonial Sets Property Accord New York Times August 12, 1982
  36. ^ Casino-Hotel Planned New York Times July 20, 1979
  37. ^ Colonial Leisure in Atlantic City Deal New York Times September 13, 1979
  38. ^ Context in Accord for Casino Project New York Times June 8, 1979
  39. ^ Notes on People New York Times October 29, 1977
  40. ^ High Rollers The Miami News November 1, 1977
  41. ^ a b Donald Wittkowski (June 22, 2011). "Hard Rock wants to use piece of the beach for a cafe with its proposed Atlantic City casino". Press of Atlantic City. Retrieved 2017-11-04. 
  42. ^ a b Donald Wittkowski (November 16, 2011). "Hard Rock plans to start construction on Atlantic City casino hotel by July". Press of Atlantic City. Retrieved 2017-11-04. 
  43. ^ Suzette Parmley (June 23, 2011). "Hard Rock files to build Boardwalk boutique casino". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2017-11-04. 
  44. ^ Emily Previti (March 14, 2012). "Developers of Hard Rock hotel and casino in Atlantic City get more time to start project". Press of Atlantic City. Retrieved 2017-11-04. 
  45. ^ Suzette Parmley (September 12, 2012). "Hard Rock backs off plans to build A.C. casino". Philadelphia Inquirer – via NewsBank. 
  46. ^ Nicholas Huba (April 6, 2017). "Hard Rock unveils $375 million plans for Taj Mahal". Press of Atlantic City. Retrieved 2017-11-04. 
  47. ^ Atlantic City – Still No Casinos New York Times December 18, 1977
  48. ^ Degnan v. William C. Kissane and John H. Leddy
  49. ^ The Tale of MGM Grand Atlantic City, Borgata and Le Jardin
  50. ^ When Atlantic City projects had to be big, so were the ideas ... and the failures The Press of Atlantic City May 14, 2010 [11]
  51. ^ Mirage Reshuffles Deal in Mega-Resort Plan Ocala Star-Banner January 21, 1998 [12]
  52. ^ Future Plans Revealed Reading Eagle September 29, 1976
  53. ^ Loews Weighs Atlantic City Casino New York Times May 28, 1977
  54. ^ Holdouts Making Casinos Builders Zig New York Times April 29, 1979
  55. ^ Atlantic City Homeowners Under Pressure To Sell New York Times December 3, 1978
  56. ^ $100,000 dangled before Atlantic City homeowners Associated Press The Miami News October 20, 1978 [13]
  57. ^ All-or-Nothing Boardwalk offer fails Associated Press Lakeland Ledger October 10, 1980 [14]
  58. ^ Boardwalk of Dreams: Atlantic City and the Fate of Urban America by Bryant Simon p. 187-189 ISBN 9780195308099
  59. ^ 2 More Casinos Proposed Associated Press Reading Eagle November 2, 1978
  60. ^ All is not fun and games in Atlantic City Associated Press Daily News February 11, 1981 [15]
  61. ^ Public Power, Private Gain
  62. ^ MGM Wants to Put $700 Million Resort in Atlantic City New York Times May 17, 1996 [16]
  63. ^ Holdout A.c. Landowner Sells To Casino Joseph C. Zoll; Will Receive $2,228,000 From Mgm Grand For Eight Lots In The South Inlet Area Philadelphia Inquirer August 13, 1999 [17]
  64. ^ Company Charged With False Claims Associated Press Lakeland Ledger June 19, 1979 [18]
  65. ^ Another Marina Resort? December 2008 casinoconnectionac.com
  66. ^ New Development: Pagano Real Estate Seeks Casino Zoning November 13, 2008 atlantictripping.com
  67. ^ Penn National makes offer for site Associated Press Reading Eagle January 24, 2008 [19]
  68. ^ Penn National Courts Rezone Casino Connection AC August 28, 2008
  69. ^ Planet Hollywood will orbit casinos Toledo Blade July 1, 1996
  70. ^ Planet Hollywood...Casino? casinoconnectionac.com October 2005
  71. ^ a b Casinos Fight Bid to Break Master Plan New York Times December 26, 1982
  72. ^ Company Briefs New York Times January 11, 1980
  73. ^ Unfinished Casino Reprieved New York Times November 8, 1981
  74. ^ Jerry Polinsky Tries His Luck in Atlantic City By Charles I. Mundale Corporate Report Minnesota December 1978 [20]
  75. ^ Gaming Executive Sentenced for Tax Evasion, Fraud by Mike Hughlett November 14, 1998 Saint Paul (Minn.) Pioneer Press [21]
  76. ^ Tale Of Atlantic City Hotel That Tried To Be A Casino By Donald Janson, Special to the New York Times May 31, 1981 [22]
  77. ^ Williams faces ethics inquiry New York Times News Service The Miami News February 8, 1980 [23]
  78. ^ 705 F.2d 603 United States v. A Williams
  79. ^ Atlantic City Sells Six Acres of Landfill to Developer to Build New Casino Hotel New York Times March 31, 1978
  80. ^ Casino Fraud Charged New York Times March 10, 1982
  81. ^ SEC News Digest March 12, 1982
  82. ^ Casino-Hotel Planned Associated Press The Tuscaloosa News August 11, 1978 [24]
  83. ^ Pill & Puff owner has Atlantic City project The Milwaukee Sentinel May 31, 1979 [25]
  84. ^ Briefly – "Unsettled" Economic Conditions ...Lakeland Ledger March 8, 1980 [26]
  85. ^ Sardi's Owners To Build Atlantic City Casino-Hotel New York Times October 4, 1986 [27]
  86. ^ Company News; New Hotel Planned For Atlantic City New York Times Reuters November 19, 1987 [28]
  87. ^ Picture This On the Boardwalk New York Times July 22, 1977
  88. ^ Ship May Become Casino Times Daily July 21, 1977
  89. ^ Atlantic City Landmark Eyed For "Casino At Sea" New York Times News Service Sarasota Herald-Tribune August 21, 1977 [29]
  90. ^ Sale of Steel Pier Set in Atlantic City New York Times July 18, 1978
  91. ^ The Big Players On the Boardwalk New York Times February 5, 1978
  92. ^ 500-Room Casino Hotel Planned in Atlantic City New York Times February 1, 1978
  93. ^ Developer Suggests Transit Complex Associated Press Reading Eagle February 5, 1978 [30]
  94. ^ Trump's Plan: Dock Biggest Yacht In World For Gambling By Mark Davis, Inquirer Staff Writer June 14, 1996 [31]
  95. ^ Deal gives luxury home developer Toll opportunity to use land for Atlantic City casino nj.com April 6, 2011 [32]
  96. ^ Atlantic City Gets Plan for New Hotel-Casino New York Times April 30, 1977
  97. ^ Vornado Plans 2 Hotel-Casinos New York Times November 16, 1978
  98. ^ F.A.A. Hearing Set On Casino Proposal New York Times January 23, 1983
  99. ^ Vornado Proposes Casino Complex Associated Press Schenectady Gazette November 16, 1978 [33]