Temporal range: Callovian -Holocene
|"Candocks" of the Great Horsetail (Equisetum telmateia subsp. telmateia), showing whorls of branches and the tiny dark-tipped leaves|
|Equisetum arvense L.
Equisetum is a "living fossil" as it is the only living genus of the entire class Equisetopsida, which for over one hundred million years was much more diverse and dominated the understory of late Paleozoic forests. Some Equisetopsida were large trees reaching to 30 meters tall. The genus Calamites of the family Calamitaceae, for example, is abundant in coal deposits from the Carboniferous period.
A superficially similar but entirely unrelated flowering plant genus, mare's tail (Hippuris), is occasionally referred to as "horsetail", and adding to confusion, the name mare's tail is sometimes applied to Equisetum.
The name "horsetail", often used for the entire group, arose because the branched species somewhat resemble a horse's tail. Similarly, the scientific name Equisetum derives from the Latin equus ("horse") + seta ("bristle").
Other names include candock for branching individuals, and snake grass or scouring-rush for unbranched or sparsely branched individuals. The latter name refers to the rush-like appearance of the plants, and to the fact that the stems are coated with abrasive silicates, making them useful for scouring (cleaning) metal items such as cooking pots or drinking mugs, particularly those made of tin. In German, the corresponding name is Zinnkraut ("tin-herb"). Rough horsetail E. hyemale is still boiled and then dried in Japan, to be used for the final polishing process on woodcraft to produce a smoother finish than any sandpaper. In Spanish-speaking countries, these plants are known as "cola de caballo," meaning "horsetail."
In these plants the leaves are greatly reduced and usually non-photosynthetic. They contain a single, non-branching vascular trace, which is the defining feature of microphylls. However, it has recently been recognised that horsetail microphylls are probably not ancestral as in Lycopodiophyta (clubmosses and relatives), but rather derived adaptations, evolved by reduction of megaphylls. They are, therefore, sometimes referred to as megaphylls to reflect this homology.
The leaves of horsetails are arranged in whorls fused into nodal sheaths. The stems are usually green and photosynthetic, and are distinctive in being hollow, jointed and ridged (with sometimes 3 but usually 6-40 ridges). There may or may not be whorls of branches at the nodes.
The spores are borne under sporangiophores in strobili, cone-like structures at the tips of some of the stems. In many species the cone-bearing shoots are unbranched, and in some (e.g. field horsetail, E. arvense) they are non-photosynthetic, produced early in spring. In some other species (e.g. marsh horsetail, E. palustre) they are very similar to sterile shoots, photosynthetic and with whorls of branches.
Horsetails are mostly homosporous, though in the field horsetail smaller spores give rise to male prothalli. The spores have four elaters that act as moisture-sensitive springs, assisting spore dispersal through crawling and hopping motions after the sporangia have split open longitudinally.
Equisetum cell walls
The crude cell extracts of all Equisetum species tested contain mixed-linkage glucan : Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (MXE) activity. This is a novel enzyme and is not known to occur in any other plants. In addition, the cell walls of all Equisetum species tested contain mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a polysaccharide which, until recently, was thought to be confined to the Poales. The evolutionary distance between Equisetum and the Poales suggests that each evolved MLG independently. The presence of MXE activity in Equisetum suggests that they have evolved MLG along with some mechanism of cell wall modification. The lack of MXE in the Poales suggests that there it must play some other, currently unknown, role. Due to the correlation between MXE activity and cell age, MXE has been proposed to promote the cessation of cell expansion.
The living members of the genus Equisetum are divided into two distinct lineages, which are usually treated as subgenera. The name of the type subgenus, Equisetum, means "horse hair" in Latin, while the name of the other subgenus, Hippochaete, means "horse hair" in Greek. Hybrids are common, but hybridization has only been recorded between members of the same subgenus. While plants of subgenus Equisetum are usually referred to as horsetails, those of subgenus Hippochaete are often called scouring rushes, especially when unbranched.
Two Equisetum plants are sold commercially under the names Equisetum japonicum (barred horsetail) and Equisetum camtschatcense (Kamchatka horsetail). These are both types of E. hyemale var. hyemale, although they may also be listed as varieties of E. hyemale.
- Subgenus Equisetum
- Equisetum arvense L. – field horsetail, common horsetail or mare's tail; circumboreal down through temperate zones
- Equisetum bogotense Kunth – Andean horsetail; upland South America up to Costa Rica; includes E. rinihuense, sometimes treated as a separate species
- Equisetum diffusum L. – Himalayan horsetail; Himalayan India and China and adjacent nations above about 1500 feet (450 m)
- Equisetum fluviatile L. – water horsetail; circumboreal down through temperate zones
- Equisetum palustre L. – marsh horsetail; circumboreal down through temperate zones
- Equisetum pratense Ehrh. – meadow horsetail, shade horsetail, shady horsetail; circumboreal except for tundra down through cool temperate zones
- Equisetum sylvaticum L. – wood horsetail; circumboreal down through cool temperate zones, more restricted in east Asia
- Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. – great horsetail, northern giant horsetail; Europe to Asia Minor and north Africa, also west coast of North America
- Subgenus Hippochaete
- Equisetum giganteum L. – southern giant horsetail or giant horsetail; temperate to tropical South America and Central America north to southern Mexico
- Equisetum hyemale L. – rough horsetail, rough scouring rush; most of non-tropical northern hemisphere
- Equisetum laevigatum A.Braun – smooth horsetail, smooth scouring rush; western 3/4 of North America down into northwestern Mexico; also sometimes known as Equisetum kansanum
- Equisetum myriochaetum Schltdl. & Cham. – Mexican giant horsetail; from central Mexico south to Peru
- Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. (including E. debile) – branched horsetail; Asia, Europe, Africa, southwest Pacific islands
- Equisetum scirpoides Michx. – dwarf horsetail, dwarf scouring rush; northern (cool temperate) zones worldwide
- Equisetum variegatum Schleich. ex Weber & Mohr – variegated horsetail, variegated scouring rush; northern (cool temperate) zones worldwide, except for northeasternmost Asia
- unplaced to subgenus
- †Equisetum dimorphum - Lower Jurassic, Argentina
- †Equisetum thermale - Middle to Late Jurassic, Argentina
- Hybrids between species in subgenus Equisetum
- Equisetum × bowmanii C.N.Page (Equisetum sylvaticum × Equisetum telmateia)
- Equisetum × dycei C.N.Page (Equisetum fluviatile × Equisetum palustre)
- Equisetum × font-queri Rothm. (Equisetum palustre × Equisetum telmateia)
- Equisetum × litorale Kühlew ex Rupr. (Equisetum arvense × Equisetum fluviatile)
- Equisetum × mchaffieae C.N.Page (Equisetum fluviatile × Equisetum pratense)
- Equisetum × mildeanum Rothm. (Equisetum pratense × Equisetum sylvaticum)
- Equisetum × robertsii Dines (Equisetum arvense × Equisetum telmateia)
- Equisetum × rothmaleri C.N.Page (Equisetum arvense × Equisetum palustre)
- Equisetum × willmotii C.N.Page (Equisetum fluviatile × Equisetum telmateia)
- Hybrids between species in subgenus Hippochaete
- Equisetum × ferrissii Clute (Equisetum hyemale × Equisetum laevigatum)
- Equisetum × moorei Newman (Equisetum hyemale × Equisetum ramosissimum)
- Equisetum × nelsonii (A.A.Eaton) Schaffn. (Equisetum laevigatum × Equisetum variegatum)
- Equisetum × schaffneri Milde (Equisetum giganteum × Equisetum myriochaetum)
- Equisetum × trachyodon (A.Braun) W.D.J.Koch (Equisetum hyemale × Equisetum variegatum)
Distribution, ecology and uses
The genus Equisetum as a whole, while concentrated in the non-tropical northern hemisphere, is near-cosmopolitan, being absent only from Antarctica, though they are not known to be native to Australia, New Zealand nor the islands of the Pacific. They are most common in northern North America (Canada and the northernmost United States), where the genus is represented by nine species (arvense, fluviatile, palustre, pratense, sylvaticum, hyemale, laevigatum, scirpoides, and variegatum). Only four (bogotense, giganteum, myriochaetum, and ramosissimum) of the fifteen species are known to be native south of the Equator. They are perennial plants, herbaceous and dying back in winter as most temperate species, or evergreen as most tropical species and the temperate species rough horsetail (E. hyemale), branched horsetail (E. ramosissimum), dwarf horsetail (E. scirpoides) and variegated horsetail (E. variegatum). They typically grow 0.2-1.5 m tall, though the "giant horsetails" are recorded to grow as high as 2.5 m (northern giant horsetail, E. telmateia), 5 m (southern giant horsetail, E. giganteum) or 8 m (Mexican giant horsetail, E. myriochaetum), and allegedly even more.
Many species[which?] in this genus prefer wet sandy soils, while others are adapted to wet clay soils. One species, Equisetum fluviatile, is an emergent aquatic, rooted in water with shoots growing into the air. The stalks arise from rhizomes that are deep underground and difficult to dig out. The field horsetail (E. arvense) can be a nuisance weed, readily regrowing from the rhizome after being pulled out. It is unaffected by many herbicides[which?] designed to kill seed plants. However, as E. arvense prefers an acid soil, lime may be used to assist in eradication efforts to bring the soil pH to 7 or 8. Members of the genus have been declared noxious weeds in Australia and in the US state of Oregon.
If eaten over a long enough period of time, some species of horsetail can be poisonous to grazing animals, including horses. The toxicity appears to be due to thiaminase enzymes, which can cause thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. People have regularly consumed horsetails. The young plants are eaten cooked or raw, but considerable care must be taken. For example, the fertile stems bearing strobili of some species are cooked and eaten like asparagus (a dish called tsukushi) in Japan. The people of ancient Rome would eat meadow horsetail in a similar manner, and they also used it to make tea as well as a thickening powder. Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest eat the young shoots of this plant raw. The plants are used as a dye and give a soft green colour. An extract is often used to provide silica for supplementation. Horsetail was often used by Indians to polish wooden tools. Equisetum species are often used to analyze gold concentrations in an area due to their ability to take up the metal when it is in a solution.
Extracts and other preparations of E. arvense have served as herbal remedies, with records dating to ancient Greek and Roman medical sources. Reliable modern alternative medicine sources include cautions[specify] with regard to its use. In 2009, the European Food Safety Authority issued a report assessing some specific health claims for E. arvense—e.g., for invigoration, weight control, and skin, hair, and bone health—concluding that none could be substantiated. There is thus insufficient evidence to draw conclusions regarding its effectiveness as a medicine for all human conditions described. Even so, E. giganteum preparations are widely used in South America as an orally administered diuretic to reduce swelling caused by excess fluid retention and for urinary infections, bladder and kidney disorders. Horsetail preparations contain silicon, so they are sometimes suggested as a treatment for osteoporosis (brittle bone disorders).
- "Equisetum thermale sp. nov. (Equisetales) from the Jurassic San Agustín hot spring deposit, Patagonia: anatomy, paleoecology, and inferred paleoecophysiology". American Journal of Botany. 98 (4): 680–97. April 2011. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000211. PMID 21613167.
- Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
- "An Introduction to the Genus Equisetum and the Class Sphenopsida as a whole". Florida International University. Archived from the original on 2009-07-14. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- Oxford English Dictionary.
- Sacks, Oliver (August 2011). "Field Trip: Hunting Horsetails". The New Yorker.
- Rutishauser, R (November 1999). "Polymerous leaf whorls in vascular plants: Developmental morphology and fuzziness of organ identities". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 160 (S6): S81–S103. doi:10.1086/314221. PMID 10572024.
- "Horsetail plant spores use 'legs' to walk and jump - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-11-30.
- Fry, S. C.; Mohler, K. E.; Nesselrode, B. H. W. A.; Frankov, L. (2008). "Mixed-linkage -glucan:xyloglucan endotransglucosylase, a novel wall-remodelling enzyme from Equisetum (horsetails) and charophytic algae". The Plant Journal. 55 (2): 240–252. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03504.x. PMID 18397375.
- Fry, Stephen C.; Nesselrode, Bertram H. W. A.; Miller, Janice G.; Mewburn, Ben R. (2008). "Mixed-linkage (1→3,1→4)-β-d-glucan is a major hemicellulose of Equisetum (horsetail) cell walls". New Phytologist. 179 (1): 104–15. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02435.x. PMID 18393951.
- Sørensen, Iben; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Wilson, Sarah M.; Doblin, Monika S.; Johansen, Bo; Bacic, Antony; Willats, William G. T. (2008). "Mixed-linkage (1→3),(1→4)-β-d-glucan is not unique to the Poales and is an abundant component of Equisetum arvense cell walls". The Plant Journal. 54 (3): 510–21. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03453.x. PMID 18284587.
- Pigott, Anthony (4 October 2001). "Summary of Equisetum Taxonomy". National Collection of Equisetum. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Husby, Chad E. (2003): How large are the giant horsetails? Version of 2003-03-19. Retrieved 2008-11-20. Archived April 4, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
- Kress, Henriette, Getting rid of horsetail, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, April 7th, 2005. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
- William Thomas Parsons; Eric George Cuthbertson (2001). Noxious weeds of Australia. CSIRO Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-643-06514-7.
- "Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. giant horsetail". USDA. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- Israelsen, Clark E.; McKendrick, Scott S. & Bagley, Clell V. (2006): Poisonous Plants and Equine. PDF fulltext Archived January 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Henderson JA, Evans EV, McIntosh RA (June 1952). "The antithiamine action of Equisetum". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 120 (903): 375–8. PMID 14927511.
- Fabre, B; Geay, B.; Beaufils, P. (1993). "Thiaminase activity in Equisetum arvense and its extracts.". Plant Med Phytother. 26: 190–7.
- "Horsetail". National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- Pohl, Richard (1955). "Toxicity of ferns and Equisetum". American Fern Journal. 45 (3): 95–97. doi:10.2307/1544850.
- Steven D. Ehrlich (2011) "Horsetail", University of Maryland Medical Center Complementary and Alternative Medicine Guide, 5 March 2011 review date, see , accessed 31 July 2014.
- Michael Ashkenazi, Jeanne Jacob. 2003. Food culture in Japan. Greenwood Publishing Group. 232 p.
- Plants For A Future Database.
- Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia & Alaska, Written by Paul Alaback, ISBN 978-1-55105-530-5
- Erna Gunther. 1973. Ethnobotany of western Washington: The knowledge and use of indigenous plants by Native Americans.
- "Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Equisetum arvense L. and invigoration of the body (ID 2437), maintenance of skin (ID 2438), maintenance of hair (ID 2438), maintenance of bone (ID 2439), and maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 2783) pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006". European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "Horsetail". US National Institute of Health. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- Walkowiak, Radoslaw (2008): IEA – Equisetum Taxonomy. Version of 2008-10-04. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
- Pryer, K.M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Wolf, P.G.; Schneider, H.; Smith, A.R. & Cranfill, R. (2004): Phylogeny and evolution of ferns (monilophytes) with a focus on the early leptosporangiate divergences. Am. J. Bot. 91(10): 1582-1598. PDF fulltext
- Rutishauser, R. (1999). "Polymerous leaf whorls in vascular plants: developmental morphology and fuzziness of organ identities". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 160 (S6): S81–S103. doi:10.1086/314221. PMID 10572024.
- Weber, Reinhard (2005): Equisetites aequecaliginosus sp. nov., ein Riesenschachtelhalm aus der spättriassischen Formation Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexiko [Equisetites aequecaliginosus sp. nov., a tall horsetail from the Late Triassic Santa Clara Formation, Sonora, Mexico]. Revue de Paléobiologie 24(1): 331-364 [German with English abstract]. PDf fulltext
- Equisetum at the Tree of Life Web Project
- National Collection of Equisetum
- The Wonderful World of Equisetum
- International Equisetological Association
- "Horsetail". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Equisetaceae.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Equisetum|