Hranice (Cheb District)
Aerial view of Hranice.
|Elevation||575 m (1,886 ft)|
|Area||31.80 km2 (12.28 sq mi)|
|Density||71/km2 (184/sq mi)|
|- summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||351 24|
Location in Cheb District
|Wikimedia Commons: Hranice|
Hranice lies twelve kilometres north of Aš, in the northernmost part of the region, at about 575 meters above sea level. The villages of Trojmezí and Kozí Hřbety to the west of the town, Krásňany to the east, Pastviny to the southwest, and Studánka and Novosedly to the south are parts of Hranice. It neighbors the German towns of Bad Elster to the southeast, Gettengrün to the northeast, and Ebmath to the north.
The first written mention of Hranice dates to 1413, when the town was bought by the House of Zedtwitz. Before that time, Hranice was the property of the Neubergs. At the end of the 14th century, the Neubergs ran into financial trouble and sold the town. The House of Zedwitz controlled Hranice and the whole region around Aš for almost 500 years.
In 1542, Lutheranism first appeared in the village.
In 1633, the bubonic plague killed forty people in the town.
In 1822 a new school was built; in 1850, a post office was opened; and in 1868, the first fire squad was established.
In the 19th century, the textile industry expanded rapidly in the region, including in Hranice. Beginning in 1806, a local textile factory was one of the most successful in Bohemia. In 1840, however, a plan to build a new road through the town was rejected by the local council. Because Hranice had no railway connection and only bad roads, the textile industry there began to decline. Two new railway routes – one from Aš to Hranice (established in 1885) and the other from Hranice to Adorf (established in 1906) – helped local industry greatly.
The name of the town
In Czech, Hranice means "border". The old German name, Rossbach, means "horse brook". Following the partition of Germany, a border tripoint (between Czechoslovakia, West and East Germany) was situated near the town, for which the village of Trojmezí (literally "Tripoint") is named. In fact, the village is also the tripoint of the three historical regions of Bohemia, Bavaria and Saxony.
Notable buildings in Hranice include the Evangelic Church, built in the 14th century, and the Catholic Church of the Virgin Mary, built in 1894.
Hranice contains a World War I memorial, built in 1928, along with a World War II memorial and a memorial to a Royal Air Force pilot who crashed in the area during World War II.
- Rudolf Dölling (1902–1975), major general of the National People's Army in the German Democratic Republic and ambassador to the Soviet Union
- Josef Hendel (1897–1993), artist in multiple fields
- Johann Christoph Hilf (1783–1885), musician
- Otto Zapf (born 1931), industrial designer, co-founder of the furniture manufacturer Vitsoe
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