Human enhancement

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An electrically powered exoskeleton suit currently in development by Tsukuba University of Japan.

Human enhancement is any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means. It is the use of technological means to select or alter human characteristics and capacities, whether or not the alteration results in characteristics and capacities that lie beyond the existing human range. Some bioethicists restrict the term to the non-therapeutic application of specific technologiesneuro-, cyber-, gene-, and nano-technologies — to human biology.[1][2]

Technologies[edit]

Human enhancement technologies (HET) are techniques that can be used not simply for treating illness and disability, but also for enhancing human characteristics and capacities.[3] In some circles, the expression "human enhancement technologies" is synonymous with emerging technologies or converging technologies.[4] In other circles, the expression "human enhancement" is roughly synonymous with human genetic engineering,[5][6] it is used most often to refer to the general application of the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science (NBIC) to improve human performance.[4]

Existing technologies[edit]

Emerging technologies[edit]

Speculative technologies[edit]

  • Mind uploading, the hypothetical process of "transferring"/"uploading" or copying a conscious mind from a brain to a non-biological substrate by scanning and mapping a biological brain in detail and copying its state into a computer system or another computational device.
  • Exocortex, a theoretical artificial external information processing system that would augment a brain's biological high-level cognitive processes.
  • Endogenous artificial nutrition, such as having a radioisotope generator that resynthesizes glucose (similarly to photosynthesis), amino acids and vitamins from their degradation products, theoretically availing for weeks without food if necessary.

Ethics[edit]

While in some circles the expression "human enhancement" is roughly synonymous with human genetic engineering,[5][6] it is used most often to refer to the general application of the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science (NBIC) to improve human performance.[4]

Since the 1990s, several academics (such as some of the fellows of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies[10]) have risen to become cogent advocates of the case for human enhancement while other academics (such as the members of President Bush's Council on Bioethics[11]) have become its most outspoken critics.[12]

Advocacy of the case for human enhancement is increasingly becoming synonymous with “transhumanism”, a controversial ideology and movement which has emerged to support the recognition and protection of the right of citizens to either maintain or modify their own minds and bodies; so as to guarantee them the freedom of choice and informed consent of using human enhancement technologies on themselves and their children.[13]

Neuromarketing consultant Zack Lynch argues that neurotechnologies will have a more immediate effect on society than gene therapy and will face less resistance as a pathway of radical human enhancement. He also argues that the concept of "enablement" needs to be added to the debate over "therapy" versus "enhancement".[14]

Although many proposals of human enhancement rely on fringe science, the very notion and prospect of human enhancement has sparked public controversy.[15][16][17]

Many critics argue that "human enhancement" is a loaded term which has eugenic overtones because it may imply the improvement of human hereditary traits to attain a universally accepted norm of biological fitness (at the possible expense of human biodiversity and neurodiversity), and therefore can evoke negative reactions far beyond the specific meaning of the term. Furthermore, they conclude that enhancements which are self-evidently good, like "fewer diseases", are more the exception than the norm and even these may involve ethical tradeoffs, as the controversy about ADHD arguably demonstrates.[18]

However, the most common criticism of human enhancement is that it is or will often be practiced with a reckless and selfish short-term perspective that is ignorant of the long-term consequences on individuals and the rest of society, such as the fear that some enhancements will create unfair physical or mental advantages to those who can and will use them, or unequal access to such enhancements can and will further the gulf between the "haves" and "have-nots".[19][20][21][22]

Accordingly, some advocates, who want to use more neutral language, and advance the public interest in so-called "human enhancement technologies", prefer the term "enablement" over "enhancement";[23] defend and promote rigorous, independent safety testing of enabling technologies; as well as affordable, universal access to these technologies.[12]


Inequality and social disruption[edit]

Some believe that the ability to enhance one's self would reflect the overall goal of human life: to improve fitness and survivability. They claim that it is in human nature to want to better ourselves via increase life expectancy, become stronger and/or smarter, become less fearful and more independent.[24] In today’s world, however, there are stratification among socioeconomic classes that prevent some from accessing these enhancements. The advantage gained by one person’s enhancements implies a disadvantage to an unenhanced person.[25] Human enhancements present a great debate on the equality between the haves and the have-nots. A modern day example of this would be LASIK eye surgery, which only the wealthy can afford.

The enhancement of the human body could have profound changes to everyday situations. Sports, for instance, would change dramatically if enhanced people were allowed to compete; there would be a clear disadvantage for those who are not enhanced.[25] In regards to economic programs, human enhancements would greatly increase life expectancy which would require employers to either adjust their pension programs to compensate for a longer retirement term, or delay retirement age another ten years or so. When considering birth rates into this equation, if there is no decline with increased longevity, this could put more pressure on resources like energy and food availability. A job candidate enhanced with a neural transplant that heightens their ability to compute and retain information, would outcompete someone who is not enhanced. Another scenario might be a person with a hearing or sight enhancement could intrude on privacy laws or expectations in an environment like a classroom or workplace. These enhancements could go undetected and give individuals an overall advantage. Human enhancements have profound ability to benefit fitness and survivability; but at too high of a cost, enhancements could widen the gap between socioeconomic classes.

Effects on identity[edit]

Human enhancement technologies can impact human identity by affecting one's self-conception.[26] This is problematic because enhancement technologies threaten to alter the self fundamentally to the point where the result is a different and inauthentic person. For example, extreme changes in personality may affect the individual's relationships because others can no longer relate to the new person.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hughes, James (2004). Human Enhancement on the Agenda. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  2. ^ Moore, P., "Enhancing Me: The Hope and the Hype of Human Enhancement", John Wiley, 2008
  3. ^ Enhancement Technologies Group (1998). Writings by group participants. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  4. ^ a b c Roco, Mihail C. and Bainbridge, William Sims, eds. (2004). Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-1254-3. 
  5. ^ a b Agar, Nicholas (2004). Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement. ISBN 1-4051-2390-7. 
  6. ^ a b Parens, Erik (2000). Enhancing Human Traits: Ethical and Social Implications. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-780-4. 
  7. ^ "Dorlands Medical Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2008-01-30. 
  8. ^ Lanni C, Lenzken SC, Pascale A, et al. (March 2008). "Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind". Pharmacol. Res. 57 (3): 196–213. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2008.02.004. PMID 18353672. 
  9. ^ "So you're a cyborg -- now what?". CNN. 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 
  10. ^ Bailey, Ronald (2006). The Right to Human Enhancement: And also uplifting animals and the rapture of the nerds. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  11. ^ Members of the President's Council on Bioethics (2003). Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness. President's Council on Bioethics. 
  12. ^ a b Hughes, James (2004). Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4198-1. 
  13. ^ Ford, Alyssa (May–June 2005). "Humanity: The Remix". Utne Magazine. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  14. ^ R. U. Sirius (2005). "The NeuroAge: Zack Lynch In Conversation With R.U. Sirius". Life Enhancement Products. 
  15. ^ The Royal Society & The Royal Academy of Engineering (2004). Nanoscience and nanotechnologies (Ch. 6). Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  16. ^ European Parliament (2006). Technology Assessment on Converging Technologies. Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  17. ^ European Parliament (2009). Human Enhancement. Retrieved 2010-01-10. 
  18. ^ Carrico, Dale (2007). Modification, Consent, and Prosthetic Self-Determination. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
  19. ^ Mooney, Pat Roy (2002). Beyond Cloning: Making Well People "Better". Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  20. ^ Fukuyama, Francis (2002). Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. Farrar Straus & Giroux. ISBN 0-374-23643-7. 
  21. ^ Institute on Biotechnology and the Human Future. Human "Enhancement". Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  22. ^ a b Michael Hauskeller, Better Humans?: Understanding the Enhancement Project, Acumen, 2013, ISBN 978-1-84465-557-1.
  23. ^ Good, Better, Best: The Human Quest for Enhancement Summary Report of an Invitational Workshop. Convened by the Scientific Freedom, Responsibility and Law Program. American Association for the Advancement of Science. June 1–2, 2006. Author: Enita A. Williams. Edited by: Mark S. Frankel.
  24. ^ Berry, Roberta (July 2010). "A polemic for human enhancement". Metascience (Springer Netherlands) 19 (2): 263–266. doi:10.1007/s11016-010-9361-z. ISSN 1467-9981. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  25. ^ a b Allhoff, Fritz; Patrick Lin; Jesse Steinberg (June 2011). "Ethics of Human Enhancement: An Executive Summary". Science and Engineering Ethics (Springer Netherlands) 17 (2): 201–212. doi:10.1007/s11948-009-9191-9. ISSN 1471-5546. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  26. ^ DeGrazia, David (2005). "Enhancement Technologies and Human Identity". Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30: 261–283. Retrieved 12 May 2013. 

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