Genetically modified food controversies
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The dispute involves consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food (GM food or GMO food) are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population. In addition, products derived from GMO organisms play a role in the production of ethanol fuels and pharmaceuticals.
Specific concerns include mixing of genetically modified and non-genetically modified products in the food supply, effects of GMOs on the environment, the rigor of the regulatory process, and consolidation of control of the food supply in companies that make and sell GMOs. Advocacy groups such as the Center for Food Safety, Organic Consumers Association, Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace, say risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and they have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.
The safety assessment of genetically engineered food products by regulatory bodies starts with an evaluation of whether or not the food is substantially equivalent to non-genetically engineered counterparts that are already deemed fit for human consumption. No reports of ill effects have been documented in the human population from genetically modified food. There is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. Nonetheless, members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe. The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country, with some nations banning or restricting them, and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation.
- 1 Public perception
- 2 Lawsuits
- 3 Scientific publishing
- 4 Health
- 5 Environment
- 6 Economy
- 7 Regulation
- 8 Legislation
- 9 African controversies
- 10 Indian controversies
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Consumer concerns about food quality first became prominent long before the advent of GM foods in the 1990s. Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle led to the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act, the first major US legislation on the subject. This began an enduring concern over the purity and later "naturalness" of food that evolved from a focus on sanitation to include added ingredients such as preservatives and flavors and sweeteners, residues such as pesticides, the rise of organic food as a category and finally to concerns over GM food. The public came to see the latter as "unnatural" which created a reverse halo effect.
Specific perceptions include genetic engineering as meddling with naturally evolved biological processes, scientific limitations on comprehending potential negative ramifications.[better source needed] An opposing perception is that genetic engineering is itself an evolution of traditional selective breeding.
Surveys indicate public concerns that eating genetically modified food is harmful, that biotechnology is risky, that more information is needed and that consumers need control over whether to take such risks. A diffuse sense that social and technological change is accelerating and that people cannot affect this change context becomes focused when such changes affect food. Leaders in driving public perception of the harms of such food in the media include Jeffrey M. Smith, Dr. Oz, Oprah, and Bill Maher; organizations include Organic Consumers Association, Greenpeace (especially with regard to Golden rice) and Union of Concerned Scientists.
Religious groups have raised concerns over whether genetically modified food will remain kosher or halal. In 2001 no such foods had been designated as unacceptable by Orthodox rabbis or Muslim leaders. However, some Jewish groups dispute this designation.
Environmental groups such as Friends of the Earth, include genetic engineering in general as an environmental and political concern. Other groups such as GMWatch and The Institute of Science in Society concentrate mostly or solely on opposing genetically modified crops.
Food writer Michael Pollan does not oppose eating genetically modified foods, but expressed concerns about biotechnology companies holding the intellectual property of the foods people depend on, and about the effects of the growing corporatization of large-scale agriculture. To address these problems, Pollan has brought up the idea of open sourcing GM foods. The idea has since been adopted to varying degrees by companies like Syngenta, and is being promoted by organizations such as the New America Foundation. Some organizations, like The BioBricks Foundation, have already worked out open-source licenses that could prove useful in this endeavour.
Reviews and polls
A 2003 EMBO Reports article reported that the Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Europe project (PABE) found the public neither accepting nor rejecting GMOs. Instead, PABE found that public had "key questions" about GMOs: "Why do we need GMOs? Who benefits from their use? Who decided that they should be developed and how? Why were we not better informed about their use in our food, before their arrival on the market? Why are we not given an effective choice about whether or not to buy these products? Have potential long-term and irreversible consequences been seriously evaluated, and by whom? Do regulatory authorities have sufficient powers to effectively regulate large companies? Who wishes to develop these products? Can controls imposed by regulatory authorities be applied effectively? Who will be accountable in cases of unforeseen harm?" PABE also found that the public's scientific knowledge does not control public opinion, since scientific facts do not answer these questions. PABE also found that the public does not demand "zero risk" in GM food discussions and is "perfectly aware that their lives are full of risks that need to be counterbalanced against each other and against the potential benefits. Rather than zero risk, what they demanded was a more realistic assessment of risks by regulatory authorities and GMO producers."
In 2006, the Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology made public a review of U.S. survey results from 2001-2006. The review showed that Americans' knowledge of GM foods and animals was low throughout the period. During this period protests against Calgene's Flavr Savr GM tomato mistakenly described it as containing fish genes, confusing it with DNA Plant Technology's fish tomato experimental transgenic organism, which was never commercialized.
A 2007 survey by the Food Standards Australia New Zealand found that in Australia, where labeling is mandatory, 27% of Australians checked product labels to see whether GM ingredients were present when initially purchasing a food item.
A 2009 review article, of European consumer polls concluded that opposition to GMOs in Europe has been gradually decreasing, and that about 80% of respondents did not "actively avoid GM products when shopping". The 2010 "Eurobarometer" survey, which assesses public attitudes about biotech and the life sciences, found that cisgenics, GM crops made from plants that are crossable by conventional breeding, evokes a smaller reaction than transgenic methods, using genes from species that are taxonomically very different.
A 2010 Deloitte survey, found that 34% of U.S. consumers were very or extremely concerned about GM food, a 3% reduction from 2008. The same survey found gender differences: 10% of men were extremely concerned, compared with 16% of women, and 16% of women were unconcerned, compared with 27% of men.
A 2013 poll by The New York Times, showed that 93% of Americans wanted labeling of GM food.
The 2013 vote, rejecting Washington State's GM food labeling I-522 referendum came shortly after the 2013 World Food Prize was awarded to employees of Monsanto and Syngenta. The award has drawn criticism from opponents of genetically modified crops.
With respect to the question of "Whether GMO foods were safe to eat," the gap between the opinion of the public and that of American Association for the Advancement of Science scientists is very wide with 88% of AAAS scientists saying yes in contrast to 37% of the general public.
Public relations campaigns and protests
In May 2012, a group called "Take the Flour Back" led by Gerald Miles protested plans by a group from Rothamsted Experimental Station, based in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England, to conduct an experimental trial wheat genetically modified to repel aphids. The researchers, led by John Pickett, wrote a letter to the group in early May 2012, asking them to call off their protest, aimed for 27 May 2012. Group member Lucy Harrap said that the group was concerned about spread of the crops into nature, and cited examples of outcomes in the United States and Canada. Rothamsted Research and Sense About Science ran question and answer sessions about such a potential.
The March Against Monsanto is an international grassroots movement and protest against Monsanto corporation, a producer of genetically modified organism (GMOs) and Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide. The movement was founded by Tami Canal in response to the failure of California Proposition 37, a ballot initiative which would have required labeling food products made from GMOs. Advocates support mandatory labeling laws for food made from GMOs .
The initial march took place on May 25, 2013. The number of protesters who took part is uncertain; figures of "hundreds of thousands" and the organizers' estimate of "two million" were variously cited. Events took place in between 330 and 436 cities around the world, mostly in the United States. Many protests occurred in Southern California, and some participants carried signs expressing support for mandatory labeling of GMOs that read "Label GMOs, It's Our Right to Know", and "Real Food 4 Real People". Canal said that the movement would continue its "anti-GMO cause" beyond the initial event. Further marches occurred in October 2013 and in May 2014 and 2015. The protests were reported by news outlets including ABC News, the Associated Press, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, USA Today, and CNN (in the United States), and Russia Today and The Guardian (outside the United States).
Monsanto said that it respected people's rights to express their opinion on the topic, but maintained that its seeds improved agriculture by helping farmers produce more from their land while conserving resources, such as water and energy. The company reiterated that genetically modified foods were safe and improved crop yields. Similar sentiments were expressed by the Hawaii Crop Improvement Association, of which Monsanto is a member.
In July 2013, the agricultural biotechnology industry launched a GMO transparency initiative called GMO Answers to address consumers’ questions about GM foods in the U.S. food supply. GMO Answers' resources included conventional and organic farmers, agribusiness experts, scientists, academics, medical doctors and nutritionists, and "company experts" from founding members of the Council for Biotechnology Information, which funds the initiative. Founding members include BASF, Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, Monsanto Company and Syngenta.
In October 2013, a group called The European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER), posted a statement claiming that there is no scientific consensus on the safety of GMOs, which was signed by about 200 scientists in various fields in its first week. On January 25, 2015, their statement was formally published as a whitepaper by Environmental Sciences Europe:
Earth Liberation Front, Greenpeace and others have disrupted GMO research around the world. Within the UK and other European countries, as of 2014 80 crop trials by academic or governmental research institutes had been destroyed by protesters. In some cases, threats and violence against people or property were carried out. In 1999, activists burned the biotech lab of Michigan State University, destroying the results of years of work and property worth $400,000.
In 1987, the ice-minus strain of P. syringae became the first genetically modified organism (GMO) to be released into the environment when a strawberry field in California was sprayed with the bacteria. This was followed by the spraying of a crop of potato seedlings. The plants in both test fields were uprooted by activist groups, but were re-planted the next day.
In 2011, Greenpeace paid reparations when its members broke into the premises of an Australian scientific research organization, CSIRO, and destroyed a genetically modified wheat plot. The sentencing judge accused Greenpeace of cynically using junior members to avoid risking their own freedom. The offenders were given 9-month suspended sentences.
On August 8, 2013 protesters uprooted an experimental plot of golden rice in the Philippines. British author, journalist, and environmental activist Mark Lynas reported in Slate that the vandalism was carried out by a group led by the extreme-left KMP, to the dismay of other protesters. Golden rice is designed prevent vitamin A deficiency which, according to Helen Keller International, blinds or kills hundreds of thousands of children annually in developing countries.
There are various conspiracy theories related to the production and sale of genetically modified crops and genetically modified food that have been identified by some commentators such as Michael Shermer. Generally, these conspiracy theories posit that GMOs are being knowingly and maliciously introduced into the food supply either as a means to unduly enrich agribusinesses or as a means to poison or pacify the population.
A work seeking to explore risk perception over GMOs in Turkey identified a belief among the conservative political and religious figures who were opposed to GMOs that GMOs were "a conspiracy by Jewish Multinational Companies and Israel for world domination." Additionally, a Latvian study showed that a segment of the population believed that GMOs were part of a greater conspiracy theory to poison the population of the country.
Foundation on Economic Trends v. Heckler
Alliance for Bio-Integrity v. Shalala
In this case, the plaintiff argued both for mandatory labeling on the basis of consumer demand, and that GMO foods should undergo the same testing requirements as food additives because they are "materially changed" and have potentially unidentified health risks. The plaintiff also alleged that the FDA did not follow the Administrative Procedures Act in formulating and disseminating its policy on GMO's. The federal district court rejected all of those arguments and found that the FDA's determination that GMO's are Generally Recognized as Safe was neither arbitrary nor capricious. The court gave deference to the FDA's process on all issues, leaving future plaintiffs little legal recourse to challenge the FDA's policy on GMO's.
This case was on the question of whether GMOs can be patented.
Scientific publishing on the safety and effects of GM foods is controversial.
One of the first incidents occurred in 1999, when Nature published a paper on potential toxic effects of Bt maize on butterflies. The paper produced a public uproar and demonstrations, however by 2001 multiple follow-up studies had concluded that "the most common types of Bt maize pollen are not toxic to monarch larvae in concentrations the insects would encounter in the fields" and that they had "brought that particular question to a close."
Concerned scientists began to patrol the scientific literature and react strongly, both publicly and privately, to discredit conclusions they view as flawed in order to prevent unjustified public outcry and regulatory action. A 2013 Scientific American article noted that a "tiny minority" of biologists have published concerns about GM food, and said that scientists who support the use of GMOs in food production are often overly dismissive of them.
Restrictive end-user agreements
Prior to 2010, scientists wishing to conduct research on commercial GM plants or seeds were unable to do so, because of restrictive end-user agreements. Cornell University's Elson Shields was the spokesperson for one group of scientists who opposed such restrictions. The group submitted a statement to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2009 protesting that "as a result of restrictive access, no truly independent research can be legally conducted on many critical questions regarding the technology".
A 2009 Scientific American editorial quoted a scientist who said that several studies that were initially approved by seed companies were blocked from publication when they returned "unflattering" results. While favoring protection of intellectual property rights, the editors called for the restrictions to be lifted and for the EPA to require, as a condition of approval, that independent researchers have unfettered access to genetically modified products for research.
In December 2009, the American Seed Trade Association agreed to "allow public researchers greater freedom to study the effects of GM food crops." The companies signed blanket agreements permitting such research. This agreement left many scientists optimistic about the future, However, some scientists still express concern as to whether this agreement has the ability to "alter what has been a research environment rife with obstruction and suspicion." Monsanto previously had research agreements (i.e., Academic Research Licenses) with approximately 100 universities that allowed for university scientists to conduct research on their GM products with no oversight.
A 2011 analysis by Diels et al., reviewed 94 peer-reviewed studies pertaining to GMO safety to assess whether conflicts of interest correlated with outcomes that cast GMOs in a favorable light. They found that financial conflict of interest was not associated with study outcome (p = 0.631) while author affiliation to industry (i.e., a professional conflict of interest) was strongly associated with study outcome (p < 0.001). Of the 94 studies that were analyzed, 52% did not declare funding. 10% of the studies were categorized as "undetermined" with regard to professional conflict of interest. Of the 43 studies with financial or professional conflicts of interest, 28 studies were compositional studies. According to Marc Brazeau, an association between professional conflict of interest and positive study outcomes can be skewed because companies typically contract with independent researchers to perform follow-up studies only after in-house research uncovers favorable results. In-house research that uncovers negative or unfavorable results for a novel GMO is generally not further pursued.
A 2013 review, of 1,783 papers on genetically modified crops and food published between 2002 and 2012 found no plausible evidence of dangers from the use of then marketed GM crops. Biofortified, an independent nonprofit organization devoted to providing factual information and fostering discussion about agriculture, especially plant genetics and genetic engineering, planned to add the studies found by the Italian group to its database of studies about GM crops, GENERA.
In a 2014 review, Zdziarski et al. examined published studies of the histopathology of GI tracts of rats that were fed diets derived from GM crops, and identified some systemic flaws in this area of the scientific literature. Most studies were performed years after the approval of the crop for human consumption. Papers were often imprecise in their descriptions of the histological results and the selection of study endpoints, and lacked necessary details about methods and results. The authors called for the development of better study guidelines for determining the long-term safety of eating GM foods.
A 2016 study by the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concluded that GM foods are safe for human consumption and they could find no conclusive evidence that they harm the environment nor wildlife. They analysed over 1.000 studies over the previous 30 years that GM crops have been available, reviewed 700 written presentations submitted by interested bodies and heard 80 witnesses. They concluded that GM crops had given farmers economic advantages but found no evidence that GM crops had increased yields. They also noted that weed resistance to GM crops could cause major agricultural problems but this could be addressed by better farming procedures.
Alleged data manipulation
A University of Naples investigation suggested that images in eight papers on animals were intentionally altered and/or misused. The leader of the research group, Federico Infascelli, rejected the claim. The research concluded that mother goats fed GM soybean meal secreted fragments of the foreign gene in their milk. In December 2015 one of the papers was retracted for "self-plagiarism", although the journal noted that the results remained valid. A second paper was retracted in March 2016 after The University of Naples concluded that "multiple heterogeneities were likely attributable to digital manipulation, raising serious doubts on the reliability of the findings".
There is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. Nonetheless, members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe. The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country, with some nations banning or restricting them, and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation.
The ENTRANSFOOD project was a European Commission-funded scientist group chartered to set a research program to address public concerns about the safety and value of agricultural biotechnology. It concluded that "the combination of existing test methods provides a sound test-regime to assess the safety of GM crops." In 2010, the European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation reported that "The main conclusion to be drawn from the efforts of more than 130 research projects, covering a period of more than 25 years of involving more than 500 independent research groups, is that biotechnology, and in particular GMOs, are not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding technologies.":16
Consensus among scientists and regulators pointed to the need for improved testing technologies and protocols. Transgenic and cisgenic organisms are treated similarly when assessed. However, in 2012 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) GMO Panel said that "novel hazards" could be associated with transgenic strains. In a 2016 review, Domingo concluded that studies in recent years had established that GM soybeans, rice, corn, and wheat do not differ from the corresponding conventional crops in terms of short-term human health effects, but recommended that further studies of long-term effects be conducted.
Governments manage the marketing and release of GM foods on a case-by-case basis. Countries differ in their risk assessments and regulations. Marked differences distinguish the US from Europe. Crops not intended as foods are generally not reviewed for food safety. GM foods are not tested in humans before marketing because they are not a single chemical, nor are they intended to be ingested using specific doses and intervals, which complicate clinical study design. Regulators examine the genetic modification, related protein products and any changes that those proteins make to the food.
Regulators check that GM foods are "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, to detect any negative unintended consequences. New protein(s) that differ from conventional food proteins or anomalies that arise in the substantial equivalence comparison require further toxicological analysis.
In 1999, Andrew Chesson of the Rowett Research Institute warned that substantial equivalence testing "could be flawed in some cases" and that current safety tests could allow harmful substances to enter the human food supply. The same year Millstone, Brunner and Mayer argued that the standard was a pseudo-scientific product of politics and lobbying that was created to reassure consumers and aid biotechnology companies to reduce the time and cost of safety testing. They suggested that GM foods have extensive biological, toxicological and immunological tests and that substantial equivalence should be abandoned. This commentary was criticized for misrepresenting history, for distorting existing data and poor logic. Kuiper claimed that it oversimplified safety assessments and that equivalence testing involves more than chemical tests, possibly including toxicity testing. Keler and Lappe supported Congressional legislation to replace the substantial equivalence standard with safety studies. In a 2016 review, Domingo criticized the use of the "substantial equivalence" concept as a measure of the safety of GM crops.
Kuiper examined this process further in 2002, finding that substantial equivalence does not measure absolute risks, but instead identifies differences between new and existing products. He claimed that characterizing differences is properly a starting point for a safety assessment and "the concept of substantial equivalence is an adequate tool in order to identify safety issues related to genetically modified products that have a traditional counterpart". Kuiper noted practical difficulties in applying this standard, including the fact that traditional foods contain many toxic or carcinogenic chemicals and that existing diets were never proven to be safe. This lack of knowledge re conventional food means that modified foods may differ in anti-nutrients and natural toxins that have never been identified in the original plant, possibly allowing harmful changes to be missed. In turn, positive modifications may also be missed. For example, corn damaged by insects often contains high levels of fumonisins, carcinogenic toxins made by fungi that travel on insects' backs and that grow in the wounds of damaged corn. Studies show that most Bt corn has lower levels of fumonisins than conventional insect-damaged corn. Workshops and consultations organized by the OECD, WHO, and FAO have worked to acquire data and develop better understanding of conventional foods, for use in assessing GM foods.
A survey of publications comparing the intrinsic qualities of modified and conventional crop lines (examining genomes, proteomes and metabolomes) concluded that GM crops had less impact on gene expression or on protein and metabolite levels than the variability generated by conventional breeding.
In a 2013 review, Herman (Dow AgroSciences) and Price (FDA, retired) argued that transgenesis is less disruptive than traditional breeding techniques because the latter routinely involve more changes (mutations, deletions, insertions and rearrangements) than the relatively limited changes (often single gene) in genetic engineering. The FDA found that all of the 148 transgenic events that they evaluated to be substantially equivalent to their conventional counterparts, as have Japanese regulators for 189 submissions including combined-trait products. This equivalence was confirmed by more than 80 peer-reviewed publications. Hence, the authors argue, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM food crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.
A well-known risk of genetic modification is the introduction of an allergen. Allergen testing is routine for products intended for food, and passing those tests is part of the regulatory requirements. Organizations such as the European Green Party and Greenpeace emphasize this risk. A 2005 review of the results from allergen testing stated that "no biotech proteins in foods have been documented to cause allergic reactions". Regulatory authorities require that new modified foods be tested for allergenicity before they are marketed.
GMO proponents note that because of the safety testing requirements, the risk of introducing a plant variety with a new allergen or toxin is much smaller than from traditional breeding processes, which do not require such tests. Genetic engineering can have less impact on the expression of genomes or on protein and metabolite levels than conventional breeding or (non-directed) plant mutagenesis. Toxicologists note that "conventional food is not risk-free; allergies occur with many known and even new conventional foods. For example, the kiwi fruit was introduced into the U.S. and the European markets in the 1960s with no known human allergies; however, today there are people allergic to this fruit."
Genetic modification can also be used to remove allergens from foods, potentially reducing the risk of food allergies. A hypo-allergenic strain of soybean was tested in 2003 and shown to lack the major allergen that is found in the beans. A similar approach has been tried in ryegrass, which produces pollen that is a major cause of hay fever: here a fertile GM grass was produced that lacked the main pollen allergen, demonstrating that hypoallergenic grass is also possible.
The development of genetically modified products found to cause allergic reactions has been halted by the companies developing them before they were brought to market. In the early 1990s, Pioneer Hi-Bred attempted to improve the nutrition content of soybeans intended for animal feed by adding a gene from the Brazil nut. Because they knew that people have allergies to nuts, Pioneer ran in vitro and skin prick allergy tests. The tests showed that the transgenic soy was allergenic. Pioneer Hi-Bred therefore discontinued further development. In 2005, a pest-resistant field pea developed by the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation for use as a pasture crop was shown to cause an allergic reaction in mice. Work on this variety was immediately halted. These cases have been used as evidence that genetic modification can produce unexpected and dangerous changes in foods, and as evidence that safety tests effectively protect the food supply.
During the Starlink corn recalls in 2000, a variety of GM maize containing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein Cry9C, was found contaminating corn products in U.S. supermarkets and restaurants. It was also found in Japan and South Korea.:20–21 Starlink corn had only been approved for animal feed as the Cry9C protein lasts longer in the digestive system than other Bt proteins raising concerns about its potential allergenicity.:3 In 2000, Taco Bell-branded taco shells sold in supermarkets were found to contain Starlink, resulting in a recall of those products, and eventually led to the recall of over 300 products. Sales of StarLink seed were discontinued and the registration for the Starlink varieties was voluntarily withdrawn by Aventis in October 2000. Aid sent by the United Nations and the United States to Central African nations was also found to be contaminated with StarLink corn and the aid was rejected. The U.S. corn supply has been monitored for Starlink Bt proteins since 2001 and no positive samples have been found since 2004. In response, GeneWatch UK and Greenpeace set up the GM Contamination Register in 2005. During the recall, the United States Centers for Disease Control evaluated reports of allergic reactions to StarLink corn, and determined that no allergic reactions to the corn had occurred.
Horizontal gene transfer
Horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genes from one organism to another in a manner other than reproduction.
The risk of horizontal gene transfer between GMO plants and animals is very low and in most cases is expected to be lower than background rates. Two studies on the possible effects of feeding animals with genetically modified food found no residues of recombinant DNA or novel proteins in any organ or tissue samples. Studies found DNA from the M13 virus, Green fluorescent protein and Rubisco genes in the blood and tissue of animals, and in 2012, a paper suggested that a specific microRNA from rice could be found at very low quantities in human and animal serum. Other studies however, found no or negligible transfer of plant microRNAs into the blood of humans or any of three model organisms.
Another concern is that the antibiotic resistance gene commonly used as a genetic marker in transgenic crops could be transferred to harmful bacteria, creating resistant superbugs. A 2004 study involving human volunteers examined whether the transgene from modified soy would transfer to bacteria that live in the human gut. As of 2012 it was the only human feeding study to have been conducted with GM food. The transgene was detected in three volunteers from a group of seven who had previously had their large intestines removed for medical reasons. As this gene transfer did not increase after the consumption of the modified soy, the researchers concluded that gene transfer did not occur. In volunteers with intact digestive tracts, the transgene did not survive. The antibiotic resistance genes used in genetic engineering are naturally found in many pathogens and antibiotics these genes confer resistance to are not widely prescribed.
Animal feeding studies
Reviews of animal feeding studies mostly found no effects. A 2014 review found that the performance of animals fed GM feed was similar to that of animals fed "isogenic non-GE crop lines". A 2012 review of 12 long-term studies and 12 multigenerational studies conducted by public research laboratories concluded that none had discovered any safety problems linked to consumption of GM food. A 2009 review by Magaña-Gómez found that although most studies concluded that modified foods do not differ in nutrition or cause toxic effects in animals, some did report adverse changes at a cellular level caused by specific modified foods. The review concluded that "More scientific effort and investigation is needed to ensure that consumption of GM foods is not likely to provoke any form of health problem". Dona and Arvanitoyannis' 2009 review concluded that "results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters". Reactions to this review in 2009 and 2010 noted that Dona and Arvanitoyannis had concentrated on articles with an anti-modification bias that were refuted in peer-reviewed articles elsewhere. Flachowsky concluded in a 2005 review that food with a one-gene modification were similar in nutrition and safety to non-modified foods, but he noted that food with multiple gene modifications would be more difficult to test and would require further animal studies. A 2004 review of animal feeding trials by Aumaitre and others found no differences among animals eating genetically modified plants.
In 2007, Domingo's search of the Pubmed database using 12 search terms indicated that the "number of references" on the safety of GM or transgenic crops was "surprisingly limited," and he questioned whether the safety of GM food had been demonstrated. The review also stated that its conclusions were in agreement with three earlier reviews. However, Vain found 692 research studies in 2007 that focused on GM crop and food safety and found increasing publication rates of such articles in recent years. Vain commented that the multidisciplinarian nature of GM research complicated the retrieval of studies based on it and required many search terms (he used more than 300) and multiple databases. Domingo and Bordonaba reviewed the literature again in 2011 and said that, although there had been a substantial increase in the number of studies since 2006, most were conducted by biotechnology companies "responsible of commercializing these GM plants."
While some groups and individuals have called for more human testing of GM food, multiple obstacles complicate such studies. The General Accounting Office (in a review of FDA procedures requested by Congress) and a working group of the Food and Agricultural and World Health organizations both said that long-term human studies of the effect of GM food are not feasible. The reasons included lack of a plausible hypothesis to test, lack of knowledge about the potential long-term effects of conventional foods, variability in the ways humans react to foods and that epidemiological studies were unlikely to differentiate modified from conventional foods, which come with their own suite of unhealthy characteristics.
Additionally, ethical concerns guide human subject research. These mandate that each tested intervention must have a potential benefit for the human subjects, such as treatment for a disease or nutritional benefit (ruling out, e.g., human toxicity testing). Kimber claimed that the "ethical and technical constraints of conducting human trials, and the necessity of doing so, is a subject that requires considerable attention." Food with nutritional benefits may escape this objection. E.g., GM rice has been tested for nutritional benefits, namely, increased levels of Vitamin A.
Arpad Pusztai published the first peer-reviewed paper to find negative effects from GM food consumption in 1999. Pusztai fed rats potatoes transformed with the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene from the Galanthus (snowdrop) plant, allowing the tuber to synthesise the GNA lectin protein. While some companies were considering growing GM crops expressing lectin, GNA was an unlikely candidate. Lectin is toxic, especially to gut epithelia. Pusztai reported significant differences in the thickness of the gut epithelium, but no differences in growth or immune system function.
On June 22, 1998, an interview on Granada Television's current affairs programme World in Action, Pusztai said that rats fed on the potatoes had stunted growth and a repressed immune system. A media frenzy resulted. Pusztai was suspended from the Rowett Institute. Misconduct procedures were used to seize his data and ban him from speaking publicly. The Rowett Institute and the Royal Society reviewed his work and concluded that the data did not support his conclusions. The work was criticized on the grounds that the unmodified potatoes were not a fair control diet and that any rat fed only potatoes would suffer from protein deficiency. Pusztai responded by stating that all diets had the same protein and energy content and that the food intake of all rats was the same.
A 2011 study, was the first to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure to Bt toxin produced in GM maize and to determine exposure levels of the pesticides and their metabolites. It reported the presence of pesticides associated with the modified foods in women and in pregnant women's fetuses. The paper and related media reports were criticized for overstating the results. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) posted a direct response, saying that the suitability of the ELISA method for detecting the Cry1Ab protein was not validated and that no evidence showed that GM food was the protein's source. The organization also suggested that even had the protein been detected its source was more likely conventional or organic food.
In 2007, 2009, and 2011, Gilles-Éric Séralini published re-analysis studies that used data from Monsanto rat-feeding experiments for three modified maize varieties (insect-resistant MON 863 and MON 810 and glyphosate-resistant NK603). He concluded that the data showed liver, kidney and heart damage. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) then concluded that the differences were all within the normal range. EFSA also stated that Séralini's statistics were faulty. EFSA's conclusions were supported by FSANZ, a panel of expert toxicologists, and the French High Council of Biotechnologies Scientific Committee (HCB).
In 2012, Séralini's lab published a paper that considered the long-term effects of feeding rats various levels of GM glyphosate-resistant maize, conventional glyphosate-treated maize, and a mixture of the two strains. The paper concluded that rats fed the modified maize had severe health problems, including liver and kidney damage and large tumors. The study provoked widespread criticism. Séralini held a press conference just before the paper was released in which he announced the release of a book and a movie. He allowed reporters to have access to the paper before his press conference only if they signed a confidentiality agreement under which they could not report other scientists' responses to the paper. The press conference resulted in media coverage emphasizing a connection between GMOs, glyphosate, and cancer. Séralini's publicity stunt yielded criticism from other scientists for prohibiting critical commentary. Criticisms included insufficient statistical power and that Séralini's Sprague-Dawley rats were inappropriate for a lifetime study (as opposed to a shorter toxicity study) because of their tendency to develop cancer (one study found that more than 80% normally got cancer). The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines recommended using 65 rats per experiment instead of the 10 in Séralini's. Other criticisms included the lack of data regarding food amounts and specimen growth rates, the lack of a dose–response relationship (females fed three times the standard dose showed a decreased number of tumours) and no identified mechanism for the tumour increases. Six French national academies of science issued an unprecedented joint statement condemning the study and the journal that published it. Food and Chemical Toxicology published many critical letters, with only a few expressing support. National food safety and regulatory agencies also reviewed the paper and dismissed it. In March 2013, Séralini responded to these criticisms in the same journal that originally published his study, and a few scientists supported his work.:5 In November 2013, the editors of Food and Chemical Toxicology retracted the paper. The retraction was met with protests from Séralini and his supporters. In 2014, the study was republished by a different journal, Environmental Sciences Europe, in an expanded form, including the raw data that Séralini had originally refused to reveal.
Genetically modified crops are planted in fields much like regular crops. There they interact directly with organisms that feed on the crops and indirectly with other organisms in the food chain. The pollen from the plants is distributed in the environment like that of any other crop. This distribution has led to concerns over the effects of GM crops on the environment. Potential effects include gene flow, pesticide resistance and greenhouse gas emissions.
A major use of GM crops is in insect control through the expression of the cry (crystal delta-endotoxins) and Vip (vegetative insecticidal proteins) genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Such toxins could affect other insects in addition to targeted pests such as the European corn borer. Bt proteins have been used as organic sprays for insect control in France since 1938 and the US since 1958, with no reported ill effects. Cry proteins selectively target Lepidopterans (moths and butterflies). As a toxic mechanism, cry proteins bind to specific receptors on the membranes of mid-gut (epithelial) cells, resulting in their rupture. Any organism that lacks the appropriate receptors in its gut is unaffected by the cry protein, and therefore is not affected by Bt. Regulatory agencies assess the potential for transgenic plants to affect non-target organisms before approving their commercial release.
In 1999, a paper stated that, in a laboratory environment, pollen from Bt maize dusted onto milkweed could harm the monarch butterfly. A collaborative research exercise over the following two years by several groups of scientists in the US and Canada studied the effects of Bt pollen in both the field and the laboratory. The study resulted in a risk assessment concluding that any risk posed to butterfly populations was negligible. A 2002 review of the scientific literature concluded that "the commercial large-scale cultivation of current Bt–maize hybrids did not pose a significant risk to the monarch population" and noted that despite large-scale planting of genetically modified crops, the butterfly's population was increasing. However, the herbicide glyphosate used to grow GMOs kills milkweed, the only food source of monarch butterflies, and by 2015 about 90% of the U.S. population has declined.
Lövei et al. analyzed laboratory settings and found that Bt toxins could affect non-target organisms, generally closely related to the intended targets. Typically, exposure occurs through the consumption of plant parts, such as pollen or plant debris, or through Bt ingestion by predators. A group of academic scientists criticized the analysis, writing: "We are deeply concerned about the inappropriate methods used in their paper, the lack of ecological context, and the authors’ advocacy of how laboratory studies on non-target arthropods should be conducted and interpreted".
Crop genetic diversity might decrease due to the development of superior GM strains that crowd others out of the market. Indirect effects might affect other organisms. To the extent that agrochemicals impact biodiversity, modifications that increase their use, either because successful strains require them or because the accompanying development of resistance will require increased amounts of chemicals to offset increased resistance in target organisms.
Studies comparing the genetic diversity of cotton found that in the US diversity has either increased or stayed the same, while in India it has declined. This difference was attributed to the larger number of modified varieties in the US compared to India. A review of the effects of Bt crops on soil ecosystems found that in general they "appear to have no consistent, significant, and long-term effects on the microbiota and their activities in soil".
The diversity and number of weed populations has been shown to decrease in farm-scale trials in the United Kingdom and in Denmark when comparing herbicide-resistant crops to their conventional counterparts. The UK trial suggested that the diversity of birds could be adversely affected by the decrease in weed seeds available for foraging. Published farm data involved in the trials showed that seed-eating birds were more abundant on conventional maize after the application of the herbicide, but that there were no significant differences in any other crop or prior to herbicide treatment. A 2012 study found a correlation between the reduction of milkweed in farms that grew glyphosate-resistant crops and the decline in adult monarch butterfly populations in Mexico. The New York Times reported that the study "raises the somewhat radical notion that perhaps weeds on farms should be protected.
A 2005 study, designed to "simulate the impact of a direct overspray on a wetland" with four different agrochemicals (carbaryl (Sevin), malathion, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and glyphosate in a Roundup formulation) by creating artificial ecosystems in tanks and then applying "each chemical at the manufacturer's maximum recommended application rates" found that "species richness was reduced by 15% with Sevin, 30% with malathion, and 22% with Roundup, whereas 2,4-D had no effect". The study has been used by environmental groups to argue that use of agrochemicals causes unintended harm to the environment and to biodiversity.
Several studies documented surges in secondary pests within a few years of adoption of Bt cotton. In China, the main problem has been with mirids, which have in some cases "completely eroded all benefits from Bt cotton cultivation". A 2009 study in China concluded that the increase in secondary pests depended on local temperature and rainfall conditions and occurred in half the villages studied. The increase in insecticide use for the control of these secondary insects was far smaller than the reduction in total insecticide use due to Bt cotton adoption. A 2011 study based on a survey of 1,000 randomly selected farm households in five provinces in China found that the reduction in pesticide use in Bt cotton cultivars was significantly lower than that reported in research elsewhere: The finding was consistent with a hypothesis that more pesticide sprayings are needed over time to control emerging secondary pests, such as aphids, spider mites, and lygus bugs. Similar problems have been reported in India, with mealy bugs and aphids.
Genes from a GMO may pass to another organism just like an endogenous gene. The process is known as outcrossing and can occur in any new open-pollinated crop variety. Introduced traits potentially can cross into neighboring plants of the same or closely related species through three different types of gene flow: crop-to-crop, crop-to-weedy, and crop-to-wild. In crop-to-crop, genetic information from a genetically modified crop is transferred to a non-genetically modified crop. Crop-to-weedy transfer refers to the transfer of genetically modified material to a weed, and crop-to-wild indicates transfer from a genetically modified crop to a wild, undomesticated plant and/or crop. There are concerns that the spread of genes from modified organisms to unmodified relatives could produce species of weeds resistant to herbicides that could contaminate nearby non-genetically modified crops, or could disrupt the ecosystem, This is primarily a concern if the transgenic organism has a significant survival capacity and can increase in frequency and persist in natural populations. This process, whereby genes are transferred from GMOs to wild relatives, is different from the development of so-called "superweeds" or "superbugs" that develop resistance to pesticides under natural selection.
In most countries environmental studies are required before approval of a GMO for commercial purposes, and a monitoring plan must be presented to identify unanticipated gene flow effects.
In 2004, Chilcutt and Tabashnik found Bt protein in kernels of in a refuge (a conventional crop planted to harbor pests that might otherwise become resistant a pesticide associated with the GMO) implying that gene flow had occurred.
In 2005, scientists at the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology reported the first evidence of horizontal gene transfer of pesticide resistance to weeds, in a few plants from a single season; they found no evidence that any of the hybrids had survived in subsequent seasons.
In 2007, the U.S. Department of Agriculture fined Scotts Miracle-Gro $500,000 when modified DNA from GM creeping bentgrass, was found within relatives of the same genus (Agrostis) as well as in native grasses up to 21 km (13 mi) from the test sites, released when freshly cut, wind-blown grass.
In 2009, Mexico created a regulatory pathway for GM maize, but because Mexico is maize's center of diversity, concerns were raised about GM maize's effects on local strains. A 2001 report found Bt maize cross-breeding with conventional maize in Mexico. The data in this paper was later described as originating from an artifact and the publishing journal Nature stated that "the evidence available is not sufficient to justify the publication of the original paper", although it did not retract the paper. A subsequent large-scale study, in 2005, found no evidence of gene flow in Oaxaca. However, other authors claimed to have found evidence of such gene flow.
A 2010 study showed that about 83 percent of wild or weedy canola tested contained genetically modified herbicide resistance genes. According to the researchers, the lack of reports in the United States suggested that oversight and monitoring were inadequate. A 2010 report stated that the advent of glyphosate-resistant weeds could cause GM crops to lose their effectiveness unless farmers combined glyphosate with other weed-management strategies.
One way to avoid environmental contamination is genetic use restriction technology (GURT), also called "Terminator". This uncommercialized technology would allow the production of crops with sterile seeds, which would prevent the escape of GM traits. Groups concerned about food supplies had expressed concern that the technology would be used to limit access to fertile seeds. Another hypothetical technology known as "Traitor" or "T-GURT", would not render seeds sterile, but instead would require application of a chemical to GM crops to activate engineered traits. Groups such as Rural Advancement Foundation International raised concerns that further food safety and environmental testing needed to be done before T-GURT would be commercialized.
Escape of modified crops
In 1999 scientists in Thailand claimed they had discovered unapproved glyphosate-resistant GM wheat in a grain shipment, even though it was only grown in test plots. No mechanism for the escape was identified.
In 2000, Aventis StarLink GM corn was found in US markets and restaurants. It became the subject of a recall that started when Taco Bell-branded taco shells sold in supermarkets were found to contain it. StarLink was then discontinued. Registration for Starlink varieties was voluntarily withdrawn by Aventis in October 2000.
American rice exports to Europe were interrupted in 2006 when the LibertyLink modification was found in commercial rice crops, although it had not been approved for release. An investigation by the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) failed to determine the cause of the contamination.
In May 2013, unapproved glyphosate-resistant GM wheat (but that had been approved for human consumption) was discovered in a farm in Oregon in a field that had been planted with winter wheat. The strain was developed by Monsanto, and had been field-tested from 1998 to 2005. The discovery threatened US wheat exports which totaled $8.1 billion in 2012. Japan, South Korea and Taiwan temporarily suspended winter wheat purchases as a result of the discovery. As of August 30, 2013, while the source of the modified wheat remained unknown, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan had resumed placing orders.
Coexistence with conventional crops
The US has no legislation governing the relationship among mixtures of farms that grow organic, conventional and GM crops. The country relies on a "complex but relaxed" combination of three federal agencies (FDA, EPA, and USDA/APHIS) and states' common law tort systems to manage coexistence.:44 The Secretary of Agriculture convened an Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) to study coexistence and make recommendations about the issue. The members of AC21 included representatives of the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry, food manufacturers, State governments, consumer and community development groups, the medical profession, and academic researchers. AC21 recommended that a study assess the potential for economic losses to US organic farmers; that any serious losses lead to a crop insurance program, an education program to ensure that organic farmers put appropriate contracts in place and that neighboring GMO farmers take appropriate containment measures. Overall the report supported a diverse agriculture system supporting diverse farming systems.
The EU implemented regulations specifically governing co-existence and traceability. Traceability has become commonplace in the food and feed supply chains of most countries, but GMO traceability is more challenging given strict legal thresholds for unwanted mixing. Since 2001, conventional and organic food and feedstuffs can contain up to 0.9% of authorised modified material without carrying a GMO label. (any trace of non-authorised modification is cause for a shipment to be rejected). Authorities require the ability to trace, detect and identify GMOs, and the several countries and interested parties created a non-governmental organization, Co-Extra, to develop such methods.
Pesticides destroy, repel or mitigate pests (an organism that attacks or competes with a crop). A 2014 meta-analysis covering 147 original studies of farm surveys and field trials, and 15 studies from the researchers conducting the study, concluded that adoption of GM technology had reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, with the effect larger for insect-tolerant crops than herbicide-tolerant crops. In August 2015, protests occurred in Hawaii over the possibility that birth defects were being caused by the heavy use of pesticides on new strains of GM crops being developed there. Hawaii uses 17 times the amount of pesticides per acre compared to the rest of the US.
The development of glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready) plants changed the herbicide use profile away from more persistent, higher toxicity herbicides, such as atrazine, metribuzin and alachlor, and reduced the volume and harm of herbicide runoff. A study by Chuck Benbrook concluded that the spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds had increased US herbicide use. That study cited a 23% increase (.3 kilograms/hectare) for soybeans from 1996-2006, a 43% (.9 kg/ha) increase for cotton from 1996-2010 and a 16% (.5 kg/ha) decrease for corn from 1996-2010. However, this study came under scrutiny because Benbrook did not consider the fact that glyphosate is less toxic than other herbicides, thus net toxicity may decrease even as use increases. Graham Brookes accused Benbrook of subjective herbicide estimates because his data, provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, does not distinguish between genetically modified and non-genetically modified crops. Brookes had earlier published a study that found that the use of biotech crops had reduced the volume and environmental impact of herbicide and other pesticides, which contradicted Benbrook. Brookes stated that Benbrook had made "biased and inaccurate" assumptions.
A claimed environmental benefit of Bt-cotton and maize is reduced insecticide use. A PG Economics study concluded that global pesticide use was reduced by 286,000 tons in 2006, decreasing pesticidal environmental impact by 15%. A survey of small Indian farms between 2002 and 2008 concluded that Bt cotton adoption had led to higher yields and lower pesticide use. Another study concluded that insecticide use on cotton and corn during the years 1996 to 2005 fell by 35,600,000 kilograms (78,500,000 lb) of active ingredient, roughly equal to the annual amount applied in the European Union. A Bt cotton study in six northern Chinese provinces from 1990 to 2010 concluded that it halved the use of pesticides and doubled the level of ladybirds, lacewings and spiders and extended environmental benefits to neighbouring crops of maize, peanuts and soybeans.
Resistant insect pests
Resistance evolves naturally after a population has been subjected to selection pressure via repeated use of a single pesticide. In November 2009, Monsanto scientists found that the pink bollworm had become resistant to first generation Bt cotton in parts of Gujarat, India—that generation expresses one Bt gene, Cry1Ac. This was the first instance of Bt resistance confirmed by Monsanto. Similar resistance was later identified in Australia, China, Spain and the US.
One strategy to delay Bt-resistance is to plant pest refuges using conventional crops, thereby diluting any resistant genes. Another is to develop crops with multiple Bt genes that target different receptors within the insect. In 2012, a Florida field trial demonstrated that army worms were resistant to Dupont-Dow's GM corn. This resistance was discovered in Puerto Rico in 2006, prompting Dow and DuPont to stop selling the product there. The European corn borer, one of Bt's primary targets, is also capable of developing resistance.
GM food's economic value to farmers is one of its major benefits, including in developing nations. A 2010 study found that Bt corn provided economic benefits of $6.9 billion over the previous 14 years in five Midwestern states. The majority ($4.3 billion) accrued to farmers producing non-Bt corn. This was attributed to European corn borer populations reduced by exposure to Bt corn, leaving fewer to attack conventional corn nearby. Agriculture economists calculated that "world surplus [increased by] $240.3 million for 1996. Of this total, the largest share (59%) went to U.S. farmers. Seed company Monsanto received the next largest share (21%), followed by US consumers (9%), the rest of the world (6%), and the germplasm supplier, Delta and Pine Land Company (5%)." PG Economics comprehensive 2012 study concluded that GM crops increased farm incomes worldwide by $14 billion in 2010, with over half this total going to farmers in developing countries.
The main Bt crop grown by small farmers in developing countries is cotton. A 2006 review of Bt cotton findings by agricultural economists concluded, "the overall balance sheet, though promising, is mixed. Economic returns are highly variable over years, farm type, and geographical location". However, environmental activist Mark Lynas said that complete rejection of genetic engineering is "illogical and potentially harmful to the interests of poorer peoples and the environment".
In 2013, the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) asked the EU to allow the development of agricultural GM technologies to enable more sustainable agriculture, by employing fewer land, water and nutrient resources. EASAC also criticizes the EU's "timeconsuming and expensive regulatory framework" and said that the EU had fallen behind in the adoption of GM technologies.
GM crops play a key role in intensive crop farming, which involves monoculture, use of herbicides and pesticides, use of equipment requiring large amounts of fuel and irrigation. Opponents such as Jonathan Latham of the Bioscience Resource Project and Vandana Shiva treat industrial agriculture and modified crops as closely related topics, and call for agriculture to adopt practices drastically reducing disruptions to the environment.
Disagreements about developing nations include the claimed need for increased food supplies, and how to achieve such an increase. Some scientists suggest that a second Green Revolution including use of modified crops is needed to provide sufficient food.:12 The potential for genetically modified food to help developing nations was recognised by the International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development, but as of 2008 they had found no conclusive evidence of a solution.
Skeptics such as John Avise claim that apparent shortages are caused by problems in food distribution and politics, rather than production.:73 Other critics say that the world has so many people because the second green revolution adopted unsustainable agricultural practices that left the world with more mouths to feed than the planet can sustain. Pfeiffer claimed that even if technological farming could feed the current population, its dependence on fossil fuels, which in 2006 he incorrectly predicted would reach peak output in 2010, would lead to a catastrophic rise in energy and food prices.:1–2
Claimed deployment constraints to developing nations include the lack of easy access, equipment costs and intellectual property rights that hurt developing countries. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), an aid and research organization, was praised by the World Bank for its efforts, but the bank recommended that they shift to genetics research and productivity enhancement. Obstacles include access to patents, commercial licenses and the difficulty that developing countries have in accessing genetic resources and other intellectual property. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture attempted to remedy this problem, but results have been inconsistent. As a result, "orphan crops", such as teff, millets, cowpeas and indigenous plants, which are important in these countries receive little investment.
Writing about Norman Borlaug's 2000 publication Ending world hunger: the promise of biotechnology and the threat of antiscience zealotry, the authors argued that Borlaug's warnings were still true in 2010:
GM crops are as natural and safe as today's bread wheat, opined Dr. Borlaug, who also reminded agricultural scientists of their moral obligation to stand up to the antiscience crowd and warn policy makers that global food insecurity will not disappear without this new technology and ignoring this reality would make future solutions all the more difficult to achieve.
US maize yields were flat until the 1930s, when the adoption of conventional hybrid seeds caused them to increase by ~.8 bushels/acre (1937-1955). Thereafter a combination of improved genetics, fertilizer and pesticide availability and mechanization raised the rate of increase to 1.9 bushels per acre per year. In the years since the advent of GM maize, the rate increased slightly to 2.0. Average US maize yields were 174.2 bushels per acre in 2014.
A 2014 review, concluded that GM crops' effects on farming were positive. According to The Economist, the meta-analysis considered all published English-language examinations of the agronomic and economic impacts between 1995 and March 2014. The study found that herbicide-tolerant crops have lower production costs, while for insect-resistant crops the reduced pesticide use was offset by higher seed prices, leaving overall production costs about the same.
Yields increased 9% for herbicide tolerance and 25% for insect resistance. Farmers who adopted GM crops made 69% higher profits than those who did not. The review found that GM crops help farmers in developing countries, increasing yields by 14 percentage points.
The researchers considered some studies that were not peer-reviewed, and a few that did not report sample sizes. They attempted to correct for publication bias, by considering sources beyond academic journals. The large data set allowed the study to control for potentially confounding variables such as fertiliser use. Separately, they concluded that the funding source did not influence study results.
A 2010 article, supported by CropLife International summarised the results of 49 peer reviewed studies. On average, farmers in developed countries increased yields by 6% and 29% in developing countries.
Tillage decreased by 25–58% on herbicide-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate-resistant crops allowed farmers to plant rows closer together as they did not have to control post-emergent weeds with mechanical tillage. Insecticide applications on Bt crops were reduced by 14–76%. 72% of farmers worldwide experienced positive economic results.
In 2009, the Union of Concerned Scientists, a group opposed to genetic engineering and cloning of food animals, summarized peer-reviewed studies on the yield contribution of GM soybeans and maize in the US. The report concluded that other agricultural methods had made a greater contribution to national crop yield increases in recent years than genetic engineering.
A study unusually published as correspondence rather than as an article examined maize modified to express four traits (resistance to European corn borer, resistance to corn root worm, glyphosate tolerance and glyfosinate tolerance) singly and in combination in Wisconsin fields from 1990-2010. The variance in yield from year to year was reduced, equivalent to a yield increase of 0.8-4.2 bushels per acre. Bushel per acre yield changes were +6.4 for European corn borer resistance, +5.76 for glufosinate tolerance, -5.98 for glyphosate tolerance and -12.22 for corn rootworm resistance. The study found interactions among the genes in multi-trait hybrid strains, such that the net effect varied from the sum of the individual effects. For example, the combination of European corn borer resistance and glufosinate tolerance increased yields by 3.13, smaller than either of the individual traits
In 2001, the USDA reported that industry consolidation led to economies of scale, but noted that the move by some companies to divest their seed operations questioned the long-term viability of these conglomerates. Two economists have said that the seed companies' market power could raise welfare despite their pricing strategies, because "even though price discrimination is often considered to be an unwanted market distortion, it may increase total welfare by increasing total output and by making goods available to markets where they would not appear otherwise."
Market share gives firms the ability to set or influence price, dictate terms, and act as a barrier to entry. It also gives firms bargaining power over governments in policy making. In March 2010, the US Department of Justice and the US Department of Agriculture held a meeting in Ankeny, Iowa, to look at the competitive dynamics in the seed industry. Christine Varney, who heads the antitrust division in the Justice Department, said that her team was investigating whether biotech-seed patents were being abused. A key issue was how Monsanto licenses its patented glyphosate-tolerance trait that was in 93 percent of US soybeans grown in 2009. About 250 family farmers, consumers and other critics of corporate agriculture held a town meeting prior to the government meeting to protest Monsanto's purchase of independent seed companies, patenting seeds and then raising seed prices.
Traditionally, farmers in all nations saved their own seed from year to year. However, since the early 1900s hybrid crops have been widely used in the developed world and seeds to grow these crops are purchased each year from seed producers. The offspring of the hybrid corn, while still viable, lose hybrid vigor (the beneficial traits of the parents). This benefit of first-generation hybrid seeds is the primary reason for not planting second-generation seed. However, for non-hybrid GM crops, such as GM soybeans, seed companies use intellectual property law and tangible property common law, each expressed in contracts, to prevent farmers from planting saved seed. For example, Monsanto's typical bailment license (covering transfer of the seeds themselves) forbids saving seeds, and also requires purchasers to sign a separate patent license agreement.
Corporations say that they need to prevent seed piracy, to fulfill financial obligations to shareholders, and to finance further development. DuPont spent approximately half its $2 billion research and development (R&D) budget on agriculture in 2011 while Monsanto spends 9-10% of sales on R&D.
Detractors such as Greenpeace say that patent rights give corporations excessive control over agriculture. The Center for Ecoliteracy claimed that "patenting seeds gives companies excessive power over something that is vital for everyone." A 2000 report stated, "If the rights to these tools are strongly and universally enforced - and not extensively licensed or provided pro bono in the developing world - then the potential applications of GM technologies described previously are unlikely to benefit the less developed nations of the world for a long time" (i.e. until after the restrictions expire).
Monsanto has patented its seed and it obligates farmers who choose to buy its seeds to sign a license agreement, obligating them store or sell, but not plant, all the crops that they grow.:213:156
Lawsuits filed against farmers for patent infringement
Monsanto has filed patent infringement suits against 145 farmers, but proceeded to trial with only 11. In some of the latter, the defendants claimed unintentional contamination by gene flow, but Monsanto won every case. Monsanto Canada's Director of Public Affairs stated, "It is not, nor has it ever been Monsanto Canada's policy to enforce its patent on Roundup Ready crops when they are present on a farmer's field by accident...Only when there has been a knowing and deliberate violation of its patent rights will Monsanto act." In 2009 Monsanto announced that after its soybean patent expires in 2014, it will no longer prohibit farmers from planting soybean seeds that they grow.
One example of such litigation is the Monsanto v. Schmeiser case. This case is widely misunderstood. In 1997, Percy Schmeiser, a canola breeder and grower in Bruno, Saskatchewan, discovered that one of his fields had canola that was resistant to Roundup. He had not purchased this seed, which had blown onto his land from neighboring fields. He later harvested the area and saved the crop in the back of a pickup truck.:para 61 & 62 Before the 1998 planting, Monsanto representatives informed Schmeiser that using this crop for seed would infringe the patent, and offered him a license, which Schmeiser refused.:para 63 According to the Canadian Supreme Court, after this conversation "Schmeiser nevertheless took the harvest he had saved in the pick-up truck to a seed treatment plant and had it treated for use as seed. Once treated, it could be put to no other use. Mr. Schmeiser planted the treated seed in nine fields, covering approximately 1,000 acres in all....A series of independent tests by different experts confirmed that the canola Mr. Schmeiser planted and grew in 1998 was 95 to 98 percent Roundup resistant.":para 63–64 After further negotiations between Schmeiser and Monsanto broke down, Monsanto sued Schmeiser for patent infringement and prevailed in the initial case. Schmeiser appealed and lost, and appealed again to the Canadian Supreme Court, which in 2004 ruled 5 to 4 in Monsanto's favor, stating that "it is clear on the findings of the trial judge that the appellants saved, planted, harvested and sold the crop from plants containing the gene and plant cell patented by Monsanto.":para 68
GM crops have been the source of international trade disputes and tensions within food-exporting nations over whether introduction of genetically modified crops would endanger exports to other countries.
In Canada in 2010, flax exports to Europe were rejected when traces of an experimental GM flax were found in shipments. This led a member of Parliament to propose Private Member's Bill C-474, which would have required that "an analysis of potential harm to export markets be conducted before the sale of any new genetically engineered seed is permitted." Opponents claimed that "incorporating stringent socio-economic standards into the science-based regulatory system could spell the end of private research funding; because if private biotechnology companies can't see the possibility of a return on their investment, they'll invest their research budget elsewhere." The bill was defeated in 2011, in a "vote of 176 to 97."
In 2014, 64 countries required labeling of all GM foods.:7 These include the European Union, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Russia, China and India. As of March 2015, Israel was in the process of issuing regulations for labeling of food with ingredients from GMOs.
Alaska required labeling of GMO fish and shellfish in 2005, even though no GM fish had been approved by the FDA at the time. A 2014 Vermont law went into effect on July 1, 2016, and some food manufacturers (including General Mills, Mars, Kellogg's, the Campbell Soup Company, PepsiCo, ConAgra, Frito-Lay, and Bimbo Bakeries USA) began distributing products either locally or nationwide with labels such as "Partially produced with Genetic Engineering". Other manufacturers removed about 3,000 non-compliant products from sale in Vermont. The federal government of the United States passed a law at the end of that month pre-empting all state laws, including Vermont's. The law requires labeling regulations to be issued by July 2018, and allows indirect disclosure such as with a phone number, bar code, or web site. It is unclear whether the rules will require labeling of oils and sugars from GM crops, where the final product does not contain any "genetic material" as mentioned in the law.
Prior to the new federal rules taking effect, while it does require pre-market approval, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not required GMO labeling as long as there are no differences in health, environmental safety, and consumer expectations based on the packaging. The federal rules come after GMO labeling was debated in many state legislatures and defeated in popular referendums in Oregon (2002 and 2014), Colorado (2014), California Proposition 37 (2012), and Washington Initiative 522 (2012). Connecticut and Maine had passed laws in 2013 and 2014 respectively, which would have required GMO food labels if Northeast states with a population of at least 20 million had passed similar laws (and for Connecticut, representing at least four states).
Other jurisdictions make such labeling voluntary or have had plans to require labeling. Major GM food crop exporters like the United States (until 2018), Argentina, and Canada have adopted voluntary labeling approaches; China and Brazil have major GM (largely non-food) crops and have adopted mandatory labelling.
The American Public Health Association, the British Medical Association and the Public Health Association of Australia support mandatory labeling. The European Commission argued that mandatory labeling and traceability are needed to allow for informed choice, avoid potential misleading of consumers and facilitate the withdrawal of products if adverse effects on health or the environment are discovered. A 2007 study on the effect of labeling laws found that once labeling went into effect, few products continued to contain GM ingredients. The study also found that costs were higher in food-exporting than in food-importing countries.[not in citation given]
The American Medical Association (AMA) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science have opposed mandatory labeling absent scientific evidence of harm. The AMA said that even voluntary labeling is misleading unless accompanied by focused consumer education. The AAAS stated that mandatory labeling "can only serve to mislead and falsely alarm consumers".
[Labeling] efforts are not driven by evidence that GM foods are actually dangerous. Indeed, the science is quite clear: crop improvement by the modern molecular techniques of biotechnology is safe. Rather, these initiatives are driven by a variety of factors, ranging from the persistent perception that such foods are somehow "unnatural" and potentially dangerous to the desire to gain competitive advantage by legislating attachment of a label meant to alarm. Another misconception used as a rationale for labeling is that GM crops are untested.
Objectivity of regulatory bodies
Groups such as the Union of Concerned Scientists and Center for Food Safety that have expressed concerns about the FDA's lack of a requirement for additional testing for GMO's, lack of required labeling and the presumption that GMO's are "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS), have questioned whether the FDA is too close to companies that seek approval for their products.
Critics in the U.S. protested the appointment of lobbyists to senior positions in the Food and Drug Administration. Michael R. Taylor, a former Monsanto lobbyist, was appointed as a senior adviser to the FDA on food safety in 1991. After leaving the FDA, Taylor became a vice-president of Monsanto. On 7 July 2009, Taylor returned to government as a senior adviser to the FDA Commissioner.
In 2001, when the Starlink corn recall became public, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was criticized for being slow to react by Joseph Mendelson III of the Center for Food Safety. He also criticized the EPA and Aventis CropScience for statements at the time of the recall, that indicated they did not anticipate that such a thing would happen.
The Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee that reviewed Canada's regulations in 2003 was accused by environmental and citizen groups of not representing the full spectrum of public interests and for being too closely aligned to industry groups.
Most of the Chinese National Biosafety Committee are involved in biotechnology, a situation that led to criticisms that they do not represent a wide enough range of public concerns.
Litigation and regulation disputes
Four federal district court suits have been brought against Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the agency within USDA that regulates genetically modified plants. Two involved field trials (herbicide-tolerant turfgrass in Oregon; pharmaceutical-producing corn and sugar in Hawaii) and two the deregulation of GM alfalfa. and GM sugar beet. APHIS lost all four cases at trial, with the judges ruling they failed to diligently follow the guidelines set out in the National Environmental Policy Act. However, the Supreme Court overturned the nationwide ban on GM alfalfa and an appeal court allowed the partial deregulation of GM sugar beets. After APHIS prepared Environmental Impact Statements for both alfalfa and sugar beets they were approved.
In 2014, Maui County, Hawaii approved an initiative calling for a moratorium on GMO production and research. The initiative specified penalties including fines and jail for knowing violations and did not limit its scope to commercial agriculture. The initiative passed by about 50.2 to 47.9 percent.
On December 15, 2015, the New York Times ran an op-ed titled "Are You Eating Frankenfish?", saying that the United States congress will debate whether genetically engineered salmon should be labeled.
Until the 1990s, Europe's regulation was less strict than in the U.S. In 1998, the use of MON810, a Bt expressing maize conferring resistance to the European corn borer, was approved for commercial cultivation in Europe. However, in the 1990s a series of unrelated food crises created consumer apprehension about food safety in general and eroded public trust in government oversight. A bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak was the most publicized. In 1998, a de facto moratorium led to the suspension of approvals of new GMOs in the EU pending the adoption of revised rules.
In the mid-1990s, government approval of some GMO crops in the United States precipitated public concern in Europe and led to a dramatic decrease in American exports to Europe. "Prior to 1997, corn exports to Europe represented about 4% of total US corn exports, generating about $300 million in sales....For example, before 1997, the U.S. sold about 1.75 million tons of corn annually to Spain and Portugal....But in the 1998–99 crop year, Spain bought less than a tenth of the previous year's amount and Portugal bought none at all."
In May 2003, the US and twelve other countries filed a formal complaint with the World Trade Organization that the EU was violating international trade agreements, by blocking imports of US farm products through its ban on GM food. The countries argued that the EU's regulatory process was far too slow and its standards were unreasonable given the scientific evidence showing that the crops were safe. The case was lobbied by Monsanto and France's Aventis, as well as by US agricultural groups such as the National Corn Growers Association. In response, in June 2003, the European Parliament ratified a U.N. biosafety protocol regulating international trade in GM food, and in July agreed to new regulations requiring labeling and traceability, as well as an opt-out provision for individual countries. The approval of new GMOs resumed in May 2004. While GMOs have been approved since then, approvals remain controversial and various countries have utilized opt-out provisions. In 2006, the World Trade Organization ruled that the pre-2004 restrictions had been violations, although the ruling had little immediate effect since the moratorium had already been lifted.
In late 2007, the US ambassador to France recommended "moving to retaliation" to cause "some pain" against France and the European Union in an attempt to fight the French ban and changes in European policy toward genetically modified crops, according to a US government diplomatic cable obtained by WikiLeaks.
These are the countries which have/implement a ban on GMO:
- Belgium for the Wallonia region
- Britain for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
- Germany (except for research)
In May 2014, the Supreme Court of the Australian state of Western Australia dismissed "Marsh v. Baxter". The plaintiff was Steve Marsh, an organic farmer, and the defendant was Michael Baxter, his lifelong neighbor, who grew GM canola. In late 2010 Marsh found seeds from Baxter's crop in his fields. Later, Marsh found escaped GM canola growing amidst his crop. Marsh reported the seed and plants to his local organic certification board, and lost the organic certification of some 70 per cent of his 478 hectare farm. Marsh sued on the grounds that Baxter used a method of harvesting his crop that was substandard and negligent, and on the basis that his land had been widely contaminated. In its summary judgment, the court found that approximately 245 cut canola plants were blown by the wind into Marsh's property, Eagle's Rest.:2 However, Baxter's method (swathing) was "orthodox and well accepted harvest methodology".:5 "In 2011, eight GM canola plants were found to have grown up as self-sown volunteer plants on Eagle Rest," which "were identified and pulled out", and "no more volunteer RR canola plants grew on Eagle Rest in subsequent years.":4 The summary judgment stated that the loss of organic certification "was occasioned by the erroneous application of governing NASAA Standards applicable to NASAA organic operators as regards GMOs (genetically modified organisms) at the time.":4 and that "[t]he absence of a reliable underlying evidentiary platform to support a perpetual injunction against swathing was a significant deficiency".:6
On June 18, 2014, Marsh announced that he had filed an appeal. One ground was the costs of $803,989 awarded against him. The appeal hearing commenced on 23 March 2015 and was adjourned on 25 March "to deal with an order to ascertain whether Mr Baxter's defence has been financially supported by GM-seed supplier Monsanto and/or the Pastoralists and Graziers Association (PGA)".
A petition filed May 17, 2013, by environmental group Greenpeace Southeast Asia and farmer-scientist coalition Masipag (Magsasaka at Siyentipiko sa Pagpapaunlad ng Agrikultura) asked the appellate court to stop the planting of Bt eggplant in test fields, saying the impacts of such an undertaking to the environment, native crops and human health are still unknown. The Court of Appeals granted the petition, citing the precautionary principle stating "when human activities may lead to threats of serious and irreversible damage to the environment that is scientifically plausible but uncertain, actions shall be taken to avoid or diminish the threat." Respondents filed a motion for reconsideration in June 2013 and on September 20, 2013 the Court of Appeals chose to uphold their May decision saying the bt talong field trials violate the people's constitutional right to a "balanced and healthful ecology." The Supreme Court on Tuesday, December 8, 2015 permanently stopped the field testing for Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) talong (eggplant), upholding the decision of the Court of Appeals which stopped the field trials for the genetically modified eggplant.
Innovation in technology and regulatory law
The first genetically modified crops were made with transgenic approaches, introducing foreign genes and sometimes using bacteria to transfer the genes. In the US, these foreign genetic elements placed the resulting plant under the jurisdiction of the USDA under the Plant Protection Act. However, as of 2010, newer genetic engineering technologies like genome editing have allowed scientists to modify plant genomes without adding foreign genes, thus escaping USDA regulation. Critics have called for regulation to be changed to keep up with changing technology.
During a conference in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa, Kingsley Amoako, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), encouraged African nations to accept GM food and expressed dissatisfaction in the public's negative opinion of biotechnology.
Critics claimed that shipment of US food to southern Africa was more about promoting the adoption of biotech crops in the region than about hunger. The US was supplying Africa with meals and support during a food crisis they were facing in the early 2000s. However, once some of the African countries realized that these shipments contained GM maize, they rejected the shipments and stopped releasing the food that had been sent to them. Critics accused the US of "exploiting the Southern African famine as a public relations tool". The U.S. countered these comments by saying that European nations were letting millions of Africans suffer from hunger and starvation because of "irrational fears over hypothetical and unproven risks". The US had a pre-GMO policy of shipping US crops as food aid, rather than buying crops in/near the countries that needed aid. The US policy was claimed to be more costly than Europe's.
Genetically modified food controversies in Ghana have been widespread since 2013.
India is an agrarian country with around 60% of its people depending directly or indirectly upon agriculture. From 1995 to 2013, a total of 296,438 farmers have killed themselves in India, or an average of 16,469 suicides per year. During the same period, about 9.5 million people died per year in India from other causes including malnutrition, diseases and suicides that were non-farming related, or about 171 million deaths from 1995 to 2013. Activists and scholars have offered a number of conflicting reasons for farmer suicides, such as monsoon failure, high debt burdens, genetically modified crops, government policies, public mental health, personal issues and family problems. There are also accusations of states reporting inaccurate data on farmer suicides.
In India, GM cotton yields in Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu resulted in an average 42% increase in yield in 2002, the first year of commercial planting. A severe drought in Andhra Pradesh that year prevented any increase in yield, because the GM strain was not drought tolerant. Drought-tolerant variants were later developed. Driven by substantially reduced losses to insect predation, by 2011 88% of Indian cotton was modified. There are economic and environmental benefits of GM cotton to farmers in India. A study from 2002 through 2008 on the economic impacts of Bt cotton in India, showed that Bt cotton increased yields, profits and living standards of smallholder farmers. However, recently cotton bollworm has been developing resistance to Bt cotton. Consequently, in 2012 Maharashtra banned Bt cotton and ordered an independent socioeconomic study of its use. Indian regulators cleared the Bt brinjal, a genetically modified eggplant, for commercialisation in October 2009. After opposition by some scientists, farmers and environmental groups, a moratorium was imposed on its release in February 2010 "for as long as it is needed to establish public trust and confidence".
As of 1 January 2013, all foods containing GMOs must be labelled. The Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 2011 states that "every package containing the genetically modified food shall bear at the top of its principal display panel the letters 'GM.'" The rules apply to 19 products including biscuits, breads, cereals and pulses, and a few others. The law faced criticism from consumer rights activists as well as from the packaged-food industry; both sides had major concerns that no logistical framework or regulations had been established to guide the law's implementation and enforcement. On March 21, 2014, the Indian government revalidated 10 GM-based food crops and allowed field trials of GM food crops, including wheat, rice and maize.
- "Proposals for managing the coexistence of GM, conventional and organic crops Response to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs consultation paper" (PDF). Chartered Institute of Environmental Health. October 2006.
- "Statement on Genetically Modified Organisms in the Environment and the Marketplace". Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment. October 2013.
- "Genetically Modified Maize: Doctors' Chamber Warns of "Unpredictable Results" to Humans.". PR Newswire. 11 November 2013.
- "IDEA Position on Genetically Modified Foods.". Irish Doctors' Environmental Association. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "Report 2 of the Council on Science and Public Health: Labeling of Bioengineered Foods." (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012. p. 7.
To better detect potential harms of bioengineered foods, the Council believes that pre-market safety assessment should shift from a voluntary notification process to a mandatory requirement
- Hollingworth RM, Bjeldanes LF, Bolger M, Kimber I, Meade BJ, Taylor SL, Wallace KB (January 2003). "The safety of genetically modified foods produced through biotechnology". Toxicological Sciences. 71 (1): 2–8. PMID 12520069. doi:10.1093/toxsci/71.1.2.
- "Substantial Equivalence in Food Safety Assessment" (PDF). Council for Biotechnology Information. 11 March 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2009.
- Winter CK, Gallegos LK (2006). "Safety of Genetically Engineered Food" (PDF). University of California Agricultural and Natural Resource Service. ANR Publication 8180.
- Kuiper HA, Kleter GA, Noteborn HP, Kok EJ (December 2002). "Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?". Toxicology. 181–182: 427–31. PMID 12505347. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00488-2.
- "Report 2 of the Council on Science and Public Health: Labeling of Bioengineered Foods" (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2012.
Bioengineered foods have been consumed for close to 20 years, and during that time, no overt consequences on human health have been reported and/or substantiated in the peer-reviewed literature. (first page)
- United States Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (2004). Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects. National Academies Press. Free full-text. National Academies Press. pp R9-10: "In contrast to adverse health effects that have been associated with some traditional food production methods, similar serious health effects have not been identified as a result of genetic engineering techniques used in food production. This may be because developers of bioengineered organisms perform extensive compositional analyses to determine that each phenotype is desirable and to ensure that unintended changes have not occurred in key components of food."
- Key S, Ma JK, Drake PM (June 2008). "Genetically modified plants and human health". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 101 (6): 290–8. PMC . PMID 18515776. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.070372.
+pp 292-293. Foods derived from GM crops have been consumed by hundreds of millions of people across the world for more than 15 years, with no reported ill effects (or legal cases related to human health), despite many of the consumers coming from that most litigious of countries, the USA.
- Nicolia A, Manzo A, Veronesi F, Rosellini D (March 2014). "An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research". Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 34 (1): 77–88. PMID 24041244. doi:10.3109/07388551.2013.823595.
We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety for the last 10 years that catches the scientific consensus matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide, and we can conclude that the scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazard directly connected with the use of GM crops.
The literature about Biodiversity and the GE food/feed consumption has sometimes resulted in animated debate regarding the suitability of the experimental designs, the choice of the statistical methods or the public accessibility of data. Such debate, even if positive and part of the natural process of review by the scientific community, has frequently been distorted by the media and often used politically and inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns.
- "State of Food and Agriculture 2003–2004. Agricultural Biotechnology: Meeting the Needs of the Poor. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2004. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
Currently available transgenic crops and foods derived from them have been judged safe to eat and the methods used to test their safety have been deemed appropriate. These conclusions represent the consensus of the scientific evidence surveyed by the ICSU (2003) and they are consistent with the views of the World Health Organization (WHO, 2002). These foods have been assessed for increased risks to human health by several national regulatory authorities (inter alia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, the United Kingdom and the United States) using their national food safety procedures (ICSU). To date no verifiable untoward toxic or nutritionally deleterious effects resulting from the consumption of foods derived from genetically modified crops have been discovered anywhere in the world (GM Science Review Panel). Many millions of people have consumed foods derived from GM plants - mainly maize, soybean and oilseed rape - without any observed adverse effects (ICSU).
- Ronald P (May 2011). "Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security". Genetics. 188 (1): 11–20. PMC . PMID 21546547. doi:10.1534/genetics.111.128553.
There is broad scientific consensus that genetically engineered crops currently on the market are safe to eat. After 14 years of cultivation and a cumulative total of 2 billion acres planted, no adverse health or environmental effects have resulted from commercialization of genetically engineered crops (Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on Environmental Impacts Associated with Commercialization of Transgenic Plants, National Research Council and Division on Earth and Life Studies 2002). Both the U.S. National Research Council and the Joint Research Centre (the European Union's scientific and technical research laboratory and an integral part of the European Commission) have concluded that there is a comprehensive body of knowledge that adequately addresses the food safety issue of genetically engineered crops (Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health and National Research Council 2004; European Commission Joint Research Centre 2008). These and other recent reports conclude that the processes of genetic engineering and conventional breeding are no different in terms of unintended consequences to human health and the environment (European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation 2010).
- But see also:
Domingo JL, Giné Bordonaba J (May 2011). "A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants". Environment International. 37 (4): 734–42. PMID 21296423. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003.
In spite of this, the number of studies specifically focused on safety assessment of GM plants is still limited. However, it is important to remark that for the first time, a certain equilibrium in the number of research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was observed. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible of commercializing these GM plants. Anyhow, this represents a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies.
Krimsky S (2015). "An Illusory Consensus behind GMO Health Assessment" (PDF). Science, Technology, & Human Values. 40: 1–32. doi:10.1177/0162243915598381.
I began this article with the testimonials from respected scientists that there is literally no scientific controversy over the health effects of GMOs. My investigation into the scientific literature tells another story.
Panchin AY, Tuzhikov AI (January 2016). "Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons". Critical Reviews in Biotechnology: 1–5. PMID 26767435. doi:10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684.
Here, we show that a number of articles some of which have strongly and negatively influenced the public opinion on GM crops and even provoked political actions, such as GMO embargo, share common flaws in the statistical evaluation of the data. Having accounted for these flaws, we conclude that the data presented in these articles does not provide any substantial evidence of GMO harm.
The presented articles suggesting possible harm of GMOs received high public attention. However, despite their claims, they actually weaken the evidence for the harm and lack of substantial equivalency of studied GMOs. We emphasize that with over 1783 published articles on GMOs over the last 10 years it is expected that some of them should have reported undesired differences between GMOs and conventional crops even if no such differences exist in reality.
Yang YT, Chen B (April 2016). "Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 96 (6): 1851–5. PMID 26536836. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7523.
It is therefore not surprising that efforts to require labeling and to ban GMOs have been a growing political issue in the USA (citing Domingo and Bordonaba, 2011)'.
Overall, a broad scientific consensus holds that currently marketed GM food poses no greater risk than conventional food... Major national and international science and medical associations have stated that no adverse human health effects related to GMO food have been reported or substantiated in peer-reviewed literature to date.
Despite various concerns, today, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the World Health Organization, and many independent international science organizations agree that GMOs are just as safe as other foods. Compared with conventional breeding techniques, genetic engineering is far more precise and, in most cases, less likely to create an unexpected outcome.
- "Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods" (PDF). American Association for the Advancement of Science. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
The EU, for example, has invested more than €300 million in research on the biosafety of GMOs. Its recent report states: "The main conclusion to be drawn from the efforts of more than 130 research projects, covering a period of more than 25 years of research and involving more than 500 independent research groups, is that biotechnology, and in particular GMOs, are not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding technologies." The World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the British Royal Society, and every other respected organization that has examined the evidence has come to the same conclusion: consuming foods containing ingredients derived from GM crops is no riskier than consuming the same foods containing ingredients from crop plants modified by conventional plant improvement techniques.
Pinholster G (October 25, 2012). "AAAS Board of Directors: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could "Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers"". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- "A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001–2010)" (PDF). Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Biotechnologies, Agriculture, Food. European Commission, European Union. 2010. ISBN 978-92-79-16344-9. doi:10.2777/97784. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- "AMA Report on Genetically Modified Crops and Foods (online summary)". American Medical Association. January 2001. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
A report issued by the scientific council of the American Medical Association (AMA) says that no long-term health effects have been detected from the use of transgenic crops and genetically modified foods, and that these foods are substantially equivalent to their conventional counterparts. (from online summary prepared by ISAAA) Crops and foods produced using recombinant DNA techniques have been available for fewer than 10 years and no long-term effects have been detected to date. These foods are substantially equivalent to their conventional counterparts. (from original report by AMA: )
"Report 2 of the Council on Science and Public Health (A-12): Labeling of Bioengineered Foods" (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
Bioengineered foods have been consumed for close to 20 years, and during that time, no overt consequences on human health have been reported and/or substantiated in the peer-reviewed literature.
- "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: United States. Public and Scholarly Opinion". Library of Congress. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
Several scientific organizations in the US have issued studies or statements regarding the safety of GMOs indicating that there is no evidence that GMOs present unique safety risks compared to conventionally bred products. These include the National Research Council, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Medical Association. Groups in the US opposed to GMOs include some environmental organizations, organic farming organizations, and consumer organizations. A substantial number of legal academics have criticized the US's approach to regulating GMOs.
- "Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects". The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (US). 2016. p. 149. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
Overall finding on purported adverse effects on human health of foods derived from GE crops: On the basis of detailed examination of comparisons of currently commercialized GE with non-GE foods in compositional analysis, acute and chronic animal toxicity tests, long-term data on health of livestock fed GE foods, and human epidemiological data, the committee found no differences that implicate a higher risk to human health from GE foods than from their non-GE counterparts.
- "Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods". World Health Organization. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
Different GM organisms include different genes inserted in different ways. This means that individual GM foods and their safety should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and that it is not possible to make general statements on the safety of all GM foods.
GM foods currently available on the international market have passed safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they have been approved. Continuous application of safety assessments based on the Codex Alimentarius principles and, where appropriate, adequate post market monitoring, should form the basis for ensuring the safety of GM foods.
- Haslberger AG (July 2003). "Codex guidelines for GM foods include the analysis of unintended effects". Nature Biotechnology. 21 (7): 739–41. PMID 12833088. doi:10.1038/nbt0703-739.
These principles dictate a case-by-case premarket assessment that includes an evaluation of both direct and unintended effects.
- Some medical organizations, including the British Medical Association, advocate further caution based upon the precautionary principle:
"Genetically modified foods and health: a second interim statement" (PDF). British Medical Association. March 2004. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
In our view, the potential for GM foods to cause harmful health effects is very small and many of the concerns expressed apply with equal vigour to conventionally derived foods. However, safety concerns cannot, as yet, be dismissed completely on the basis of information currently available.
When seeking to optimise the balance between benefits and risks, it is prudent to err on the side of caution and, above all, learn from accumulating knowledge and experience. Any new technology such as genetic modification must be examined for possible benefits and risks to human health and the environment. As with all novel foods, safety assessments in relation to GM foods must be made on a case-by-case basis.
Members of the GM jury project were briefed on various aspects of genetic modification by a diverse group of acknowledged experts in the relevant subjects. The GM jury reached the conclusion that the sale of GM foods currently available should be halted and the moratorium on commercial growth of GM crops should be continued. These conclusions were based on the precautionary principle and lack of evidence of any benefit. The Jury expressed concern over the impact of GM crops on farming, the environment, food safety and other potential health effects.
The Royal Society review (2002) concluded that the risks to human health associated with the use of specific viral DNA sequences in GM plants are negligible, and while calling for caution in the introduction of potential allergens into food crops, stressed the absence of evidence that commercially available GM foods cause clinical allergic manifestations. The BMA shares the view that that there is no robust evidence to prove that GM foods are unsafe but we endorse the call for further research and surveillance to provide convincing evidence of safety and benefit."
- Funk C, Rainie L (January 29, 2015). "Public and Scientists' Views on Science and Society". Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
The largest differences between the public and the AAAS scientists are found in beliefs about the safety of eating genetically modified (GM) foods. Nearly nine-in-ten (88%) scientists say it is generally safe to eat GM foods compared with 37% of the general public, a difference of 51 percentage points.
- Marris C (July 2001). "Public views on GMOs: deconstructing the myths. Stakeholders in the GMO debate often describe public opinion as irrational. But do they really understand the public?". EMBO Reports. 2 (7): 545–8. PMC . PMID 11463731. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve142.
- Final Report of the PABE research project (December 2001). "Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Europe". Commission of European Communities. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Scott SE, Inbar Y, Rozin P (May 2016). "Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 11 (3): 315–24. PMID 27217243. doi:10.1177/1745691615621275.
- "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms". Library of Congress. June 9, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Bashshur R (February 2013). "FDA and Regulation of GMOs". American Bar Association. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Sifferlin A (October 3, 2015). "Over Half of E.U. Countries Are Opting Out of GMOs". Time.
- Lynch D, Vogel D (April 5, 2001). "The Regulation of GMOs in Europe and the United States: A Case-Study of Contemporary European Regulatory Politics". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Swann JP. "The 1906 Food and Drugs Act and Its Enforcement". FDA History - Part I. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Konnikova M (August 8, 2013). "The Psychology of Distrusting G.M.O.s". New Yorker.
- "GM Contamination Register Official Website". Gmcontaminationregister.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Borel B (1 November 2012). "Can Genetically Engineered Foods Harm You?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Editors of Nature (2 May 2013). "Editorial: Fields of gold". Nature. 497 (5–6). doi:10.1038/497005b.
- Harmon A (4 January 2014). "A Lonely Quest for Facts on Genetically Modified Crops". The New York Times.
- Johnson N (July 8, 2013). "The genetically modified food debate: Where do we begin?". Grist.
- Hunt L (2004). "Factors determining the public understanding of GM technologies" (Review Article). AgBiotechNet. 6 (128): 1–8.
- Lazarus RJ (1991). "The Tragedy of Distrust in the Implementation of Federal Environmental Law". Law and Contemporary Problems. 54 (4): 311–74. JSTOR 1191880. doi:10.2307/1191880.
- Kloor K (October 19, 2012). "Liberals Turn a Blind Eye to Crazy Talk on GMOs". Discover Magazine.
- Hughlett M (5 November 2013). "Firebrand activist leads organic consumers association". Star Tribune (Minneapolis) for the Witchita Eagle.
- Alberts B, Beachy R, Baulcombe D, Blobel G, Datta S, Fedoroff N, Kennedy D, Khush GS, Peacock J, Rees M, Sharp P (2013). "Standing up for GMOs". Science. 341 (6152): 1320. PMID 24052276. doi:10.1126/science.1245017.
- Wendel J (10 September 2013). "Scientists, journalists and farmers join lively GMO forum". Genetic Literacy Project.
- Kloor K (22 August 2014). "On Double Standards and the Union of Concerned Scientists". Discover Magazine's CollideAScape.
- "Biotechnology companies produce genetically engineered crops to control insects and weeds and to manufacture pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. The Union of Concerned Scientists works to strengthen the federal oversight needed to prevent such products from contaminating our food supply.". Alternatives to Genetic Engineering. Union of Concerned Scientists.
- Marden E (2003). "Risk and Regulation: U.S. Regulatory Policy on Genetically Modified Food and Agriculture". 44 B.C.L. Rev. 733.
By the late 1990s, public awareness of GM foods reached a critical level and a number of public interest groups emerged to focus on the issue. One of the early groups to focus on the issue was Mothers for Natural Law ("MFNL"), an Iowa-based organization that aimed to ban GM foods from the market....The Union of Concerned Scientists ("UCS"), an alliance of 50,000 citizens and scientists, has been another prominent voice on the issue.... As the pace of GM products entering the market increased in the 1990s, UCS became a vocal critic of what it saw as the agency's collusion with industry and failure to fully take account of allergenicity and other safety issues.
- Food Biotechnology in the United States: Science, Regulation, and Issues Congressional Research Service: The Library of Congress 2001
- Grunpeter M (August 5, 2013). "GMOs, A Global Debate: Israel a Center for Study, Kosher Concerns". Epoch Times.
- "Genetic engineering". Friends of the Earth.
- "GE-Agriculture". The Institute of Science in Society.
- "About GMWatch". GMWatch.
- "What if we open sourced genetic engineering?".
- Fecht S (8 April 2013). "Can Syngenta help make open-source GMOs a reality?".
- Kaufman F (9 July 2013). "Let's Make Genetically Modified Food Open-Source" – via Slate.
- Deibel E (9 January 2014). "Open Genetic Code: on open source in the life sciences". Life Sciences, Society and Policy. 10: 2. PMC . PMID 26573980. doi:10.1186/2195-7819-10-2.
- "Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Europe homepage". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Memo from The Mellman Group, Inc. to The Pew Initiative On Food And Biotechnology" (PDF). Review Of Public Opinion Research. 16 November 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2011.
- Addario J (Spring 2002). "Horror Show: Why the debate over genetically modified organisms and other complex science stories freak out newspapers". Ryerson Review of Journalism.=.
- Example of protester confusion. Chamberlain S (5 August 1997). "Sara Chamberlain Dissects The Food That We Eat And Finds Some Alarming Ingredients. Article On Genetically Engineered/modified Foods For New Internationalist Magazine". New Internationalist Magazine.
What would you think if I said that your dinner resembles Frankenstein an unnatural hodgepodge of alien ingredients? Fish genes are swimming in your tomato sauce, microscopic bacterial genes in your tortillas, and your veg curry has been spiked with viruses.
- "Genetically modified (GM) foods". Food Standards Australia and New Zealand. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- "Consumer Attitudes Survey 2007, A benchmark survey of consumers' attitudes to food issues". Food Standards Australia New Zealand. January 2008. Archived from the original on February 17, 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- "Opposition decreasing or acceptance increasing?: An overview of European consumer polls on attitudes to GMOs". GMO Compass. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Gaskell G, Stares S, Allansdottir A, Allum N, Castro P, Esmer Y, et al. (October 2010). "Europeans and Biotechnology in 2010: Winds of change?" (PDF). A report to the European Commission's Directorate-General for Research] European Commission Directorate-General for Research 2010 Science in Society and Food, Agriculture & Fisheries, & Biotechnology, EUR 24537 EN.
- Gaskell G, Allansdottir A, Allum N, Castro P, Esmer Y, Fischler C, et al. (February 2011). "The 2010 Eurobarometer on the life sciences". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (2): 113–4. PMID 21301431. doi:10.1038/nbt.1771.
- "Deloitte 2010 Food Survey—Genetically Modified Foods" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 27, 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Kopeck A (July 27, 2013). "Strong Support for Labeling Modified Foods". The New York Times.
- Shapiro N (October 24, 2013). "GMOs: Group Refutes Claim of ‘Scientific Consensus’". Seattle Weekly.
- Fusaro D (November 7, 2013). "European Scientists Ask for GMO Research". Food Processing.
- Morand C (16 October 2013). "Le prix mondial de l'alimentation à Monsanto et Syngenta? Une farce" [The World Food Prize Monsanto and Syngenta? A joke]. www.letemps.ch (in French).
- "Choice of Monsanto Betrays World Food Prize Purpose, Say Global Leaders". Huffington Post. 26 June 2013.
- "And The Winner Of The World Food Prize Is ... The Man From Monsanto". National Public Radio. 19 June 2013.
- "Energy-environment world food prize event in Iowa confronts divisive issues of biotech crops and global warming". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Funk C, Rainie L (January 29, 2015). "Public and Scientists’ Views on Science and Society" (Full report PDF file). pewinternet.org. Pew Research Center. p. 37. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
Fully 88% of AAAS scientists say it is generally safe to eat genetically modified (GM) foods compared with 37% of the general public who say the same, a gap of 51 percentage points.Link to key data
- Take the Flour Back Press Release, 27/05/12 European activists link up to draw the line against GM
- Driver A (2 May 2012). "Scientists urge protestors not to trash GM trials". Farmers Guardian.
- "GM wheat trial belongs in a laboratory". BBC News. 2 May 2012.
- "Don't Destroy Research Q & A". Sense About Science. 25 July 2012.
- Associated Press, 25 May 2013 in The Guardian. Millions march against GM crops
- Quick D (26 May 2013). "More than 100 participate in Charleston's March Against Monsanto, one of 300+ in world on Saturday". The Post and Courier. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Protesters Around the World March Against Monsanto". USA Today. Associated Press. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Xia, Rosanna (28 May 2013). "Hundreds in L.A. march in global protest against Monsanto, GMOs". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Search Results for "March against monsanto"". ABC News.
- "Monsanto protests around the world". The Washington Post. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Global march challenges Monsanto's dominance: TIMELINE". RT. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Moayyed M (27 May 2013). "Marching against genetic engineering". The Wellingtonians. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Perry B (26 May 2013). "Protesters against GMOs, but Monsanto says crops are safe". The Maui News. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Hawaii Crop Improvement Association". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Pollack A (28 July 2013). "Seeking Support, Biotech Food Companies Pledge Transparency". New York Times. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- "Experts". GMO Answers. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- "The Council for Biotechnology Information: Founding Members". GMO Answers. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- Statement: No scientific consensus on GMO safety, ENSSER, 10/21/2013
- Hilbeck A, Binimelis R, Defarge N, Steinbrecher R, Székács A, Wickson F, et al. (2015). "No scientific consensus on GMO safety" (PDF). Environmental Sciences Europe. 27 (4): 1–6. doi:10.1186/s12302-014-0034-1.
- von Mogel KH (24 June 2013). "GMO crops vandalized in Oregon". Biology Fortified.
- "Fighting GM Crop Vandalism With a Government-Protected Research Site". Science Daily. 28 February 2013.
- "Scientists speak out against vandalism of genetically modified rice". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 September 2013.
- Abrams L (30 September 2013). "Vandals hack down Hawaii's genetically modified papaya trees: The destruction is believed to have been the work of anti-GMO activists". Salon.
- von Mogel KH (25 June 2013). "Oregon: Genetically modified crops vandalized". Genetic Literacy Project.
- Kuntz M (2012). "Destruction of public and governmental experiments of GMO in Europe". GM Crops & Food. 3 (4): 258–64. PMID 22825391. doi:10.4161/gmcr.21231.
- Bailey R (January 2001). "Dr. Strangelunch Or: Why we should learn to stop worrying and love genetically modified food". The Reason.
- BBC News 14 June 2002 GM crops: A bitter harvest?
- Maugh TH (9 June 1987). "Altered Bacterium Does Its Job: Frost Failed to Damage Sprayed Test Crop, Company Says". Los Angeles Times.
- "Greenpeace activists in costly GM protest". Sydney Morning Herald. 2012-08-02. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- "GM crop destroyers given suspended sentences". Canberra Times. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- Harmon A (24 August 2013). "Golden Rice: Lifesaver?" (News Analysis). The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Slezak M (9 August 2013). "Militant Filipino farmers destroy Golden Rice GM crop". NewScientist. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Lynas M (26 August 2013). "The True Story About Who Destroyed a Genetically Modified Rice Crop". Slate.
- "'Golden rice' GM trial vandalised in the Philippines". BBC News. 9 August 2013.
- Sheerer M (2014). "Why Do People Believe in Conspiracy Theories?". Scientific American. pp. 94–94.
- Veltri GA, Suerdem AK (February 2013). "Worldviews and discursive construction of GMO-related risk perceptions in Turkey". Public Understanding of Science. 22 (2): 137–54. PMID 23833021. doi:10.1177/0963662511423334.
- "SHS Web of Conferences". www.shs-conferences.org. Retrieved 2016-01-31.
- Bratspies R (2007). "Some Thoughts on the American Approach to Regulating Genetically Modified Organisms". Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy. 16: 393. SSRN .
- United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit. (1985). "Foundation on Economic Trends v. Heckler". 756 F.2d 143.
- Bashshur R (February 2013). "FDA and Regulation of GMOs". ABA Health eSource. 9 (6): 755–756.
- U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia (September 29, 2000). "Alliance for Bio-Integrity v Shall". 116 F.Supp.2d 166 (D.D.C. 2000).
- Waltz E (September 2009). "GM crops: Battlefield". Nature. 461 (7260): 27–32. PMID 19727179. doi:10.1038/461027a.
- Freedman DH (August 26, 2013). "The Truth about Genetically Modified Food". Scientific American.
Despite overwhelming evidence that GM crops are safe to eat, the debate over their use continues to rage, and in some parts of the world, it is growing ever louder.
- Stutz B (1 July 2010). "Wanted: GM Seeds for Study". Seed Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 July 2010.
- The editors (August 2009). "Do seed companies control GM crop research? A seedy practice". Scientific American. 301.
- Waltz E (October 2010). "Monsanto relaxes restrictions on sharing seeds for research" (PDF). Nature Biotechnology.
- "Unearthed: Are patents the problem?". Washington Post. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Diels J, Cunha M, Manaia C, Sabugosa-Madeira B, Silva M (2011). "Association of financial or professional conflict of interest to research outcomes on health risks or nutritional assessment studies of genetically modified products". Food Policy. 36 (2): 197–203. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.11.016.
- Braze M (September 10, 2014). "About Those Industry Funded GMO Studies". GMO Building Blocks.
- About page, Biofortified.org
- von Mogel KH (October 25, 2013). "Making sense of lists of studies". Biofortified.
- Entine J (14 October 2013). "2000+ Reasons Why GMOs Are Safe To Eat And Environmentally Sustainable". Forbes.
- Zdziarski IM, Edwards JW, Carman JA, Haynes JI (2014). "GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review". Environment International. 73: 423–33. PMID 25244705. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.08.018.
- Pollack A (2016-05-17). "Genetically Engineered Crops Are Safe, Analysis Finds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- Webster B (2016-05-18). "GM food safe to eat, say world's leading scientists". The Times. London, UK. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- Abbott A (January 2016). "Italian papers on genetically modified crops under investigation". Nature. 529 (7586): 268–9. PMID 26791701. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19183.
- "Another paper by GM researcher pulled over manipulation concerns". Retraction Watch. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Tudisco R, Mastellone V, Cutrignelli MI, Lombardi P, Bovera F, Mirabella N, Piccolo G, Calabrò S, Avallone L, Infascelli F (2010). "Fate of transgenic DNA and evaluation of metabolic effects in goats fed genetically modified soybean and in their offsprings – RETRACTION". Animal. 4 (10): 1662–71. PMID 22445119. doi:10.1017/S1751731110000728. (Retracted)
- "EU project publishes conclusions and recommendations on GM foods". CORDIS - Community Research and Development Information Service. 2005-01-06.
- König A, Cockburn A, Crevel RW, Debruyne E, Grafstroem R, Hammerling U, Kimber I, Knudsen I, Kuiper HA, Peijnenburg AA, Penninks AH, Poulsen M, Schauzu M, Wal JM (July 2004). "Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 42 (7): 1047–88. PMID 15123382. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2004.02.019.
- A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001-2010) (PDF). Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Biotechnologies, Agriculture, Food. European Union. 2010. ISBN 978-92-79-16344-9. doi:10.2777/97784.
"The main conclusion to be drawn from the efforts of more than 130 research projects, covering a period of more than 25 years of research, and involving more than 500 independent research groups, is that biotechnology, and in particular GMOs, are not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding technologies." (p. 16)
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (20 September 2010). "Consensus Document on Molecular Characterisation of Plants Derived from Modern Biotechnology" (PDF).
- EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) (2012). "Scientific opinion addressing the safety assessment of plants developed through cisgenesis and intragenesis". EFSA Journal. 10 (2): 12561. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2561.
- Domingo JL (September 2016). "Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 95: 12–18. PMID 27317828. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.013.
- "Safety Evaluation of Foods Derived by Modern Biotechnology: Concepts and Principles" (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- Schauzu M (April 2000). "The concept of substantial equivalence in safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified organisms" (PDF). AgBiotechNet. 2.
- van Eijck P (10 March 2010). "The History and Future of GM Potatoes". PotatoPro.
- EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) (2011). "Guidance for risk assessment of food and feed from genetically modified plants" (PDF). EFSA Journal. 9 (5): 2150. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2150.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Board of Directors (2012). Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods, and associated Press release: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers
- "UK GM expert calls for tougher tests". BBC. 7 September 1999.
- Millstone E, Brunner E, Mayer S (October 1999). "Beyond 'substantial equivalence'". Nature. 401 (6753): 525–6. Bibcode:1999Natur.401..525M. PMID 10524614. doi:10.1038/44006.
- Burke D (October 1999). "No GM conspiracy". Nature. 401 (6754): 640–1. Bibcode:1999Natur.401..640.. PMID 10537098. doi:10.1038/44262.
- Trewavas A, Leaver CJ (October 1999). "Conventional crops are the test of GM prejudice". Nature. 401 (6754): 640. Bibcode:1999Natur.401..640T. PMID 10537097. doi:10.1038/44258.
- Gasson MJ (November 1999). "Genetically modified foods face rigorous safety evaluation". Nature. 402 (6759): 229. Bibcode:1999Natur.402..229G. PMID 10580485. doi:10.1038/46147.
- Keeler B, Lappe M (7 January 2001). "Some Food for FDA Regulation". Los Angeles Times.
- Domingo JL (June 2016). "Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 95: 12–18. PMID 27317828. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.013.
- Ostry V, Ovesna J, Skarkova J, Pouchova V, Ruprich J (August 2010). "A review on comparative data concerning Fusarium mycotoxins in Bt maize and non-Bt isogenic maize". Mycotoxin Research. 26 (3): 141–5. PMID 23605378. doi:10.1007/s12550-010-0056-5.
- Ackerman J (May 2002). "Genetically Modified Foods". National Geographic magazine.
- "OECD harmonization webpage". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Ricroch AE, Bergé JB, Kuntz M (April 2011). "Evaluation of genetically engineered crops using transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic profiling techniques". Plant Physiology. 155 (4): 1752–61. PMC . PMID 21350035. doi:10.1104/pp.111.173609.
- Herman RA, Price WD (December 2013). "Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61 (48): 11695–701. PMID 23414177. doi:10.1021/jf400135r.
- Bennett D (7 May 2006). "Our allergies, ourselves". Boston Globe.
- Lehrer SB, Bannon GA (May 2005). "Risks of allergic reactions to biotech proteins in foods: perception and reality". Allergy. 60 (5): 559–64. PMID 15813800. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00704.x.
- Staff (February 15, 2006). "Food Safety Evaluation: The Allergy Check". GMO Compass.
- Herman EM (May 2003). "Genetically modified soybeans and food allergies". Journal of Experimental Botany. 54 (386): 1317–9. PMID 12709477. doi:10.1093/jxb/erg164.
- Herman EM, Helm RM, Jung R, Kinney AJ (May 2003). "Genetic modification removes an immunodominant allergen from soybean". Plant Physiology. 132 (1): 36–43. PMC . PMID 12746509. doi:10.1104/pp.103.021865.
- Bhalla PL, Swoboda I, Singh MB (September 1999). "Antisense-mediated silencing of a gene encoding a major ryegrass pollen allergen". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 96 (20): 11676–80. Bibcode:1999PNAS...9611676B. PMC . PMID 10500236. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.20.11676.
- Nordlee JA, Taylor SL, Townsend JA, Thomas LA, Bush RK (March 1996). "Identification of a Brazil-nut allergen in transgenic soybeans". The New England Journal of Medicine. 334 (11): 688–92. PMID 8594427. doi:10.1056/NEJM199603143341103.
- Leary W (14 March 1996). "Genetic Engineering of Crops Can Spread Allergies, Study Shows". The New York Times.
- Streit L, Beach LR, Register JC, Jung R, Fehr WR (2001). "Association of the Brazil nut protein gene and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor alleles with soybean protease inhibitor activity and agronomic traits". Crop Sci. 41 (6): 1757–1760. doi:10.2135/cropsci2001.1757.
- Prescott VE, Campbell PM, Moore A, Mattes J, Rothenberg ME, Foster PS, Higgins TJ, Hogan SP (November 2005). "Transgenic expression of bean alpha-amylase inhibitor in peas results in altered structure and immunogenicity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53 (23): 9023–30. PMID 16277398. doi:10.1021/jf050594v. Lay summary – New Scientist.
- Taylor MR, Tick JS. "The StarLink Case: Issues for the Future" (PDF). Resources for the Future, Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology.
- "While EPA had no specific data to indicate that Cry9C was an allergen, the protein expressed in StarLink corn did exhibit certain characteristics (i.e. relative heat stability and extended time to digestion) that were common to known food allergens such as those found in peanuts, eggs, etc. EPA's concern was that StarLink corn may be a human food allergen and in the absence of more definitive data, EPA has not made a decision whether or not to register the human food use." Staff, EPA. November 2000 Executive Summary: EPA Preliminary Evaluation of Information Contained in the October 25, 2000 Submission from Aventis Cropscience
- King D, Gordon A. (September 23, 2000). "Contaminant found in Taco Bell taco shells. Food safety coalition demands recall". Friends of the Earth (Press release). Washington, DC. Retrieved November 3, 2001.
- Fulmer M (23 September 2000). "Taco Bell Recalls Shells That Used Bioengineered Corn". Los Angeles Times.
- Lueck S, Merrick A, Millman J, Moore SD (November 3, 2000). "Corn-Recall Cost Could Reach Into the Hundreds of Millions". Wall Street Journal.
- Carpenter JE, Gianessi LP (2001). "Agricultural Biotechnology: Updated Benefit Estimates" (PDF). National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy.
- "Millers agree: Testing corn for StarLink not adding to food safety". North American Millers' Association (Press release). April 28, 2008. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008.
- "GM Contamination Register Official Website". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "StarLink Corn: What Happened". University of California, Davis. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Keese P (2008). "Risks from GMOs due to horizontal gene transfer". Environmental Biosafety Research. 7 (3): 123–49. PMID 18801324. doi:10.1051/ebr:2008014.
- Flachowsky G, Chesson A, Aulrich K (February 2005). "Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants". Archives of Animal Nutrition. 59 (1): 1–40. PMID 15889650. doi:10.1080/17450390512331342368.
- Beagle JM, Apgar GA, Jones KL, Griswold KE, Radcliffe JS, Qiu X, Lightfoot DA, Iqbal MJ (March 2006). "The digestive fate of Escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase deoxyribonucleic acid from transgenic corn in diets fed to weanling pigs". Journal of Animal Science. 84 (3): 597–607. PMID 16478951.
- Brigulla M, Wackernagel W (April 2010). "Molecular aspects of gene transfer and foreign DNA acquisition in prokaryotes with regard to safety issues". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 86 (4): 1027–41. PMID 20191269. doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2489-3.
- Guertler P, Paul V, Albrecht C, Meyer HH (March 2009). "Sensitive and highly specific quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA for recording a potential transfer of novel DNA and Cry1Ab protein from feed into bovine milk". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 393 (6–7): 1629–38. PMID 19225766. doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2667-2.
- Zhang L, Hou D, Chen X, Li D, Zhu L, Zhang Y, Li J, Bian Z, Liang X, Cai X, Yin Y, Wang C, Zhang T, Zhu D, Zhang D, Xu J, Chen Q, Ba Y, Liu J, Wang Q, Chen J, Wang J, Wang M, Zhang Q, Zhang J, Zen K, Zhang CY (January 2012). "Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA". Cell Research. 22 (1): 107–26. PMC . PMID 21931358. doi:10.1038/cr.2011.158.
- Snow JW, Hale AE, Isaacs SK, Baggish AL, Chan SY (July 2013). "Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms". RNA Biology. 10 (7): 1107–16. PMC . PMID 23669076. doi:10.4161/rna.24909.
- Witwer KW, McAlexander MA, Queen SE, Adams RJ (July 2013). "Real-time quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR for plant miRNAs in mammalian blood provide little evidence for general uptake of dietary miRNAs: limited evidence for general uptake of dietary plant xenomiRs". RNA Biology. 10 (7): 1080–6. PMC . PMID 23770773. doi:10.4161/rna.25246.
- Uzogara SG (May 2000). "The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: a review". Biotechnology Advances. 18 (3): 179–206. PMID 14538107. doi:10.1016/S0734-9750(00)00033-1.
- Nelson GC, ed. (2001). Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture: economics and politics. Academic Press. p. 250. ISBN 9780080488868. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- Netherwood T, Martín-Orúe SM, O'Donnell AG, Gockling S, Graham J, Mathers JC, Gilbert HJ (February 2004). "Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract". Nature Biotechnology. 22 (2): 204–9. PMID 14730317. doi:10.1038/nbt934.
- Käppeli O (1998). "How safe is safe enough in plant genetic engineering?". Trends in Plant Science. 3 (7): 276–281. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(98)01251-5.
- Bakshi A (2003). "Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews. 6 (3): 211–25. PMID 12746139. doi:10.1080/10937400306469.
- Van Eenennaam AL, Young AE (October 2014). "Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations". Journal of Animal Science. 92 (10): 4255–78. PMID 25184846. doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8124.
- Snell C, Bernheim A, Bergé JB, Kuntz M, Pascal G, Paris A, Ricroch AE (March 2012). "Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 50 (3–4): 1134–48. PMID 22155268. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.048.
- Magaña-Gómez JA, de la Barca AM (January 2009). "Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health". Nutrition Reviews. 67 (1): 1–16. PMID 19146501. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00130.x.
- Dona A, Arvanitoyannis IS (February 2009). "Health risks of genetically modified foods". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 49 (2): 164–75. PMID 18989835. doi:10.1080/10408390701855993.
- Amman Klaus (2009) Human and Animal Health - Rebuttal to a Review of Dona and Arvanitoyannis 2009, part one European Federation of Biotechnology, 31 August 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2010
- Amman, Klaus (2009) Rebuttal to a review of Dona and Arvanitoyannis 2009 Retrieved on 28 October 2010
- Rickard C (January 2010). "Response to "Health risks of genetically modified foods"". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 50 (1): 85–91; author reply 92–5. PMID 20047140. doi:10.1080/10408390903467787.
- Aumaitre A (2004). "Safety assessment and feeding value for pigs, poultry and ruminant animals of pest protected (Bt) plants and herbicide tolerant (glyphosate, glufosinate) plants: interpretation of experimental results observed worldwide on GM plants". Italian Journal of Animal Science. 3 (2): 107–121. doi:10.4081/ijas.2004.107.
- Domingo JL (2007). "Toxicity studies of genetically modified plants: a review of the published literature". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 47 (8): 721–33. PMID 17987446. doi:10.1080/10408390601177670.
- Vain P (June 2007). "Trends in GM crop, food and feed safety literature". Nature Biotechnology. 25 (6): 624–6. PMID 17557092. doi:10.1038/nbt0607-624b.
- Vain, Philippe (2007) Trends in GM crop, food and feed safety literature (2007)
- Domingo JL, Giné Bordonaba J (May 2011). "A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants". Environment International. 37 (4): 734–42. PMID 21296423. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003.
- "Physicians and Scientists for Responsible Application of Science and Technology Official Website". Psrast.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Staff (May 23, 2002). "Report to Congressional Requesters: Genetically Modified Foods]" (PDF). GAO-02-566. United States General Accounting Office. pp. 30–32.
- "FAO/WHO (2000b) Safety Aspects of Genetically Modified Foods of Plant Origin." (PDF). Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Foods Derived from Biotechnology (Geneva, Switzerland). May–June 2000.
- Wendell D (January 30, 2009). Zalta EN, ed. "The Ethics of Clinical Research". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2012 Edition).
- Germolec DR, Kimber I, Goldman L, Selgrade M (June 2003). "Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports". Environmental Health Perspectives. 111 (8): 1131–9. PMC . PMID 12826486. doi:10.1289/ehp.5814.
- Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski GG, Russell RM, Grusak MA (2009). "Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (6): 1776–83. PMC . PMID 19369372. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27119.
- Segal C (September 17, 2012). "Alleged ethics violations surface in Tufts-backed study". Tufts Daily.
- Ewen SW, Pusztai A (October 1999). "Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine". Lancet. 354 (9187): 1353–4. PMID 10533866. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)05860-7.
- Staff. "Rowett Research Institute: Audit Report Overview". Rowett Research Institute Press Office. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013.
- Vasconcelos IM, Oliveira JT (September 2004). "Antinutritional properties of plant lectins". Toxicon. 44 (4): 385–403. PMID 15302522. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.05.005.
- Enserink M (October 1999). "Transgenic food debate. The Lancet scolded over Pusztai paper". Science. 286 (5440): 656. PMID 10577214. doi:10.1126/science.286.5440.656a.
- Enserink M (1998). "Institute copes with genetic hot potato". Science. 281 (5380): 1124–5. PMID 9735026. doi:10.1126/science.281.5380.1124b.
- Randerson J (2008). "Arpad Pusztai: Biological divide". The Guardian.
- Bourne FJ, et al. (28 October 1998). "Audit Report Overview". Rowett Research Institute. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Murray N, Heap B, Hill W, Smith J, Waterfield M, Bowden R (1 June 1999). "Review of data on possible toxicity of GM potatoes" (PDF). The Royal Society. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Kuiper HA, Noteborn HP, Peijnenburg AA (October 1999). "Adequacy of methods for testing the safety of genetically modified foods". Lancet. 354 (9187): 1315–6. PMID 10533854. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)00341-4.
- Aris A, Leblanc S (May 2011). "Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada". Reproductive Toxicology. 31 (4): 528–33. PMID 21338670. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.02.004.
- Poulter S (20 May 2011). "GM food toxins found in the blood of 93% of unborn babies". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "Many Women, no Cry - OGM : environnement, santé et politique" (in English and French). Marcel-kuntz-ogm.over-blog.fr. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "FSANZ response to study linking Cry1Ab protein in blood to GM foods". Food Standards Australia New Zealand. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "FSANZ response to study linking Cry1Ab protein in blood to GM foods". FSANZ.
- Séralini GE, Cellier D, de Vendomois JS (May 2007). "New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity". Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 52 (4): 596–602. PMID 17356802. doi:10.1007/s00244-006-0149-5.
- de Vendômois JS, Roullier F, Cellier D, Séralini GE (2009). "A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health". International Journal of Biological Sciences. 5 (7): 706–26. PMC . PMID 20011136. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5.706.
- Séralini G, Mesnage R, Clair E, Gress S, De Vendômois J, Cellier D (2011). "Genetically modified crops safety assessments: Present limits and possible improvements". Environmental Sciences Europe. 23: 10. doi:10.1186/2190-4715-23-10.
- "Statement of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on the analysis of data from a 90-day rat feeding study with MON 863 maize" (PDF). European Food Safety Authority. 25 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2014.
- "EFSA review of statistical analyses conducted for the assessment of the MON 863 90-day rat feeding study". EFSA Journal. 5 (6): 19r. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2007.19r.
- "EFSA Minutes of the 55th Plenary Meeting of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms Held on 27–28 January 2010 IN Parma, Italy, Annex 1, Vendemois et al 2009" (PDF). European Food Safety Authority report. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- EFSA Scientific Committee (2011)EFSA guidance on conducting repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study in rodents on whole food/feed EFSA Journal 2011;9(12) 2438
- "Review of the report by Séralini et al., (2007): "New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity"". FSANZ final assessment report. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- "FSANZ reaffirms its risk assessment of genetically modified corn MON 863". FSANZ fact sheets 2007. 25 July 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- "Feeding studies and GM corn MON863". Food Standards Australia New Zealand. July 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Doull J, Gaylor D, Greim HA, Lovell DP, Lynch B, Munro IC (November 2007). "Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863)". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45 (11): 2073–85. PMID 17900781. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.033.
- "Opinion relating to the deposition of 15 December 2009 by the Member of Parliament, François Grosdidier, as to the conclusions of the study entitled "A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health"". English translation of French High Council of Biotechnologies Scientific Committee document. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Allen K (28 November 2013). "Science journal retracts French study on GM foods". Toronto Star. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "Elsevier Announces Article Retraction from Journal Food and Chemical Toxicology". Elsevier. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
- Séralini GE, Clair E, Mesnage R, Gress S, Defarge N, Malatesta M, Hennequin D, de Vendômois JS (November 2012). "Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 50 (11): 4221–31. PMID 22999595. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2012.08.005. (Retracted)
- "Tous cobayes? (2012) - IMDb". IMDB. IMDB.com.
- Lumley T (20 September 2012). "Roundup scare". Stats Chat website.
- "Poison postures". Nature. 489 (7417): 474. September 2012. PMID 23025010. doi:10.1038/489474a.
- Séralini G (2012). Tous Cobayes !: OGM, pesticides et produits chimiques [All Guinea Pigs: GMOs, pesticides and chemicals] (in French). Editions Flammarion. ISBN 9782081262362.
- Zimmer C (September 2012). "From Darwinius to GMOs: Journalists Should Not Let Themselves Be Played". Discovery Magazine blog, The Loom. 21.
- Hirschler B (September 19, 2012). "UPDATE 3-Study on Monsanto GM corn concerns draws scepticism". Reuters.
- Kniss A (19 September 2012). "Explanation of rat study". Control Freaks Blog.
- Suzuki H, Mohr U, Kimmerle G (October 1979). "Spontaneous endocrine tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. 95 (2): 187–96. PMID 521452. doi:10.1007/BF00401012.
- "Mortality and In-Life Patterns in Sprague-Dawley" (PDF). Huntingdon Life Sciences. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Sprague Dawley" (PDF). Harlan. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Butler D (October 2012). "Hyped GM maize study faces growing scrutiny". Nature. 490 (7419): 158. PMID 23060167. doi:10.1038/490158a.
- Hirschler B, Kielland K (20 September 2012). "Study on Monsanto GM corn concerns draws skepticism". Reuters.
- MacKenzie D (19 September 2012). "Study linking GM crops and cancer questioned". New Scientist. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Elizabeth Finkel (9 October 2012). "GM corn and cancer: the Séralini affai".
- Carman T (19 September 2012). "French scientists question safety of GM corn". Washington Post.
- Avis des Académies nationales d’Agriculture, de Médecine, de Pharmacie, des Sciences, des Technologies, et Vétérinaire sur la publication récente de G.E. Séralini et al. sur la toxicité d’un OGM Communiqué de presse 19 octobre 2012
- Barale-Thomas E (March 2013). "The SFPT feels compelled to point out weaknesses in the paper by Séralini et al. (2012)". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 53: 473–4. PMID 23165156. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2012.10.041.
- Staff (1 October 2012). "A study of the University of Caen neither constitutes a reason for a re-evaluation of genetically modified NK603 maize nor does it affect the renewal of the glyphosate approval". German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Staff (5 October 2012). "BVL prüft Rattenfütterungsstudie mit gentechnisch verändertem Mais und glyphosathaltigen Pflanzenschutzmitteln (Seralini et al. 2012)" [BVL checks rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize and glyphosate pesticide (Seralini et al. 2012.)] (in German). The German Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL). Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Staff (22 October 2012) French panel rejects study linking GM corn to cancer Agence France Presse. Retrieved 23 October 2012. From Internet Archive, archived February 1, 2013
- Staff (8 October 2012) VIB concludes that Séralini study is not substantiated VIB Life Sciences Research Institute, Belgium. Retrieved 14 October 2012
- Staff (October 2012). "GMO study fails to meet scientific standards". Technical University of Denmark, Danish National Food Institute. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Staff (November 2013). "Response to Séralini paper". Food Standards Australia New Zealand.
- Garcia JF, Moreno FS, Nardi NB (2012). "CTNBio Considered Opinion on Sep. 2012 publication of Seralini et al.]" (PDF). Brazilian Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation, National Biosafety Technical Commission. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2012). "Review of the Séralini et al. (2012) publication on a 2-year rodent feeding study with glyphosate formulations and GM maize NK603 as published online on 19 September 2012 in Food and Chemical Toxicology" (PDF). EFSA Journal. 10 (10): 2910. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2910. Lay summary – EFSA.
- Séralini GE, Mesnage R, Defarge N, Gress S, Hennequin D, Clair E, Malatesta M, de Vendômois JS (March 2013). "Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 53: 476–83. PMID 23146697. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.007.
- Retraction Watch. November 28, 2013. Controversial Seralini GMO-rats paper to be retracted
- Pollack A (November 28, 2013). "Paper Tying Rat Cancer to Herbicide Is Retracted". New York Times.
- Séralini G, Clair E, Mesnage R, Gress S, Defarge N, Malatesta M, Hennequin D, Spiroux de Vendômois J (Jun 24, 2014). "Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize". Environmental Sciences Europe. 26: 14. doi:10.1186/s12302-014-0014-5. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
- "History of Bt". University of California. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- Hall H. "Bt corn: is it worth the risk?". The Science Creative Quarterly.
- Dorsch JA, Candas M, Griko NB, Maaty WS, Midboe EG, Vadlamudi RK, Bulla LA (September 2002). "Cry1A toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis bind specifically to a region adjacent to the membrane-proximal extracellular domain of BT-R(1) in Manduca sexta: involvement of a cadherin in the entomopathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 32 (9): 1025–36. PMID 12213239. doi:10.1016/S0965-1748(02)00040-1.
- Romeis J, Hellmich RL, Candolfi MP, Carstens K, De Schrijver A, Gatehouse AM, Herman RA, Huesing JE, McLean MA, Raybould A, Shelton AM, Waggoner A (February 2011). "Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants". Transgenic Research. 20 (1): 1–22. PMC . PMID 20938806. doi:10.1007/s11248-010-9446-x.
- Romeis J, Bartsch D, Bigler F, Candolfi MP, Gielkens MM, Hartley SE, Hellmich RL, Huesing JE, Jepson PC, Layton R, Quemada H, Raybould A, Rose RI, Schiemann J, Sears MK, Shelton AM, Sweet J, Vaituzis Z, Wolt JD (February 2008). "Assessment of risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops to nontarget arthropods". Nature Biotechnology. 26 (2): 203–8. PMID 18259178. doi:10.1038/nbt1381.
- Losey JE, Rayor LS, Carter ME (May 1999). "Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae". Nature. 399 (6733): 214. PMID 10353241. doi:10.1038/20338.
- Sears MK, Hellmich RL, Stanley-Horn DE, Oberhauser KS, Pleasants JM, Mattila HR, Siegfried BD, Dively GP (October 2001). "Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: a risk assessment". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (21): 11937–42. Bibcode:2001PNAS...9811937S. JSTOR 3056827. PMC . PMID 11559842. doi:10.1073/pnas.211329998.
- Gatehouse AM, Ferry N, Raemaekers RJ (May 2002). "The case of the monarch butterfly: a verdict is returned". Trends in Genetics. 18 (5): 249–51. PMID 12047949. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(02)02664-1.
- The Guardian (2015). "US launches plan to halt decline of monarch butterfly".
- Pleasants JM, Oberhauser KS (2012). "Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population" (PDF). Insect Conservation and Diversity. 6: 135–144. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-04.
- Lövei GL, Andow DA, Arpaia S (April 2009). "Transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies: a detailed review of laboratory studies". Environmental Entomology. 38 (2): 293–306. PMID 19389277. doi:10.1603/022.038.0201.
- Shelton AM, Naranjo SE, Romeis J, Hellmich RL, Wolt JD, Federici BA, Albajes R, Bigler F, Burgess EP, Dively GP, Gatehouse AM, Malone LA, Roush R, Sears M, Sehnal F (June 2009). "Setting the record straight: a rebuttal to an erroneous analysis on transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies". Transgenic Research. 18 (3): 317–22. PMID 19357987. doi:10.1007/s11248-009-9260-5.
- Carpenter JE (2011). "Impact of GM crops on biodiversity". GM Crops. 2 (1): 7–23. PMID 21844695. doi:10.4161/gmcr.2.1.15086.
- Icoz I, Stotzky G (2008). "Fate and effects of insect-resistant Bt crops in soil ecosystems". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40 (3): 559–586. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.11.002.
- Bohan DA, Boffey CW, Brooks DR, Clark SJ, Dewar AM, Firbank LG, Haughton AJ, Hawes C, Heard MS, May MJ, Osborne JL, Perry JN, Rothery P, Roy DB, Scott RJ, Squire GR, Woiwod IP, Champion GT (March 2005). "Effects on weed and invertebrate abundance and diversity of herbicide management in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant winter-sown oilseed rape". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 272 (1562): 463–74. PMC . PMID 15799941. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.3049.
- Strandberg B, Bruus Pedersen M, Elmegaard N (2005). "Weed and arthropod populations in conventional and genetically modified herbicide tolerant fodder beet fields". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 105: 243–253. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2004.03.005.
- Gibbons DW, Bohan DA, Rothery P, Stuart RC, Haughton AJ, Scott RJ, Wilson JD, Perry JN, Clark SJ, Dawson RJ, Firbank LG (August 2006). "Weed seed resources for birds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 273 (1596): 1921–8. PMC . PMID 16822753. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3522.
- Chamberlain D, Freeman S, Vickery J (2007). "The effects of GMHT crops on bird abundance in arable fields in the UK". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 118: 350–356. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.012.
- Pleasants JM, Oberhauser KS (2013). "Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: Effect on the monarch butterfly population". Insect Conservation and Diversity. 6 (2): 135–144. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x.
- Pollack A (11 July 2011). "In Midwest, Flutters May Be Far Fewer". The New York Times.
- Relyea RA (2004). "The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities". Ecological Applications. 15 (2): 618–627. doi:10.1890/03-5342.
- Robin Meadows (2005)Common Herbicide Lethal to Wetland Species Conservation Magazine 6(3)
- Lu Y, Wu K, Jiang Y, Xia B, Li P, Feng H, Wyckhuys KA, Guo Y (May 2010). "Mirid bug outbreaks in multiple crops correlated with wide-scale adoption of Bt cotton in China". Science. 328 (5982): 1151–4. Bibcode:2010Sci...328.1151L. PMID 20466880. doi:10.1126/science.1187881.
- Lang, Susan (25 July 2006). "Profits die for Bt cotton in China". Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Wang S, Just DR, Andersen P (2008). "Bt-cotton and secondary pests". International Journal of Biotechnology. 10 (2/3): 113–21. doi:10.1504/IJBT.2008.018348.
- Wang Z, Lin H, Huang J, Hu R, Rozelle S, Pray C (2009). "Bt Cotton in China: Are Secondary Insect Infestations Offsetting the Benefits in Farmer Fields?". Agricultural Sciences in China. 8: 83–90. doi:10.1016/S1671-2927(09)60012-2.
- "Erratum to: Benefits of Bt cotton counterbalanced by secondary pests? Perceptions of ecological change in China". Environ Monit Assess. 184 (11): 7079. August 2012. doi:10.1007/s10661-012-2699-5.
- Goswami, Bhaskar (September 2007). "Making a meal of Bt cotton". InfoChange. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Bug makes meal of Punjab cotton, whither Bt magic?". IANS. 2 September 2007. Archived from the original on September 8, 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Stone GD (2011). "Field versus Farm in Warangal: Bt Cotton, Higher Yields, and Larger Questions". World Development. 39 (3): 387–98. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.09.008.
- Lu B, Snow AA (2005). "Gene Flow from Genetically Modified Rice and Its Environmental Consequences". BioScience. Academic Search Elite. 55 (8): 669. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0669:gffgmr]2.0.co;2.
- Conner AJ, Glare TR, Nap JP (January 2003). "The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part II. Overview of ecological risk assessment". The Plant Journal. 33 (1): 19–46. PMID 12943539. doi:10.1046/j.0960-7412.2002.001607.x.
- Buck EH (7 June 2011). "Genetically Engineered Fish and Seafood: Environmental Concerns." (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Pollack A (21 May 2012). "An Entrepreneur Bankrolls a Genetically Engineered Salmon". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Genetically Modified Plants: Out-crossing and Gene Flow". GMO Compass. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- Chilcutt CF, Tabashnik BE (May 2004). "Contamination of refuges by Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes from transgenic maize". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (20): 7526–9. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.7526C. PMC . PMID 15136739. doi:10.1073/pnas.0400546101.
- "Scientists play down 'superweed'" BBC, 25 July 2005 (source report)
- Watrud LS, Lee EH, Fairbrother A, Burdick C, Reichman JR, Bollman M, Storm M, King G, Van de Water PK (October 2004). "Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (40): 14533–8. Bibcode:2004PNAS..10114533W. PMC . PMID 15448206. doi:10.1073/pnas.0405154101.
- Pollack A (July 6, 2011). "U.S.D.A. Ruling on Bluegrass Stirs Cries of Lax Regulation". New York Times. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- GMO Compass. 5 June 2009 Mexico: controlled cultivation of genetically modified maize
- Shanahan, Mike (10 November 2004). "Warning issued on GM maize imported to Mexico". Science and Development Network.
- Mantell K (30 November 2001). "GM maize found ‘contaminating’ wild strains". Science and Development Network.
- Quist D, Chapela IH (November 2001). "Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico". Nature. 414 (6863): 541–3. PMID 11734853. doi:10.1038/35107068.
- Kaplinsky N, Braun D, Lisch D, Hay A, Hake S, Freeling M (April 2002). "Biodiversity (Communications arising): maize transgene results in Mexico are artefacts". Nature. 416 (6881): 601–2; discussion 600, 602. Bibcode:2002Natur.416..601K. PMID 11935145. doi:10.1038/nature739.
- Ortiz-García S, Ezcurra E, Schoel B, Acevedo F, Soberón J, Snow AA (August 2005). "Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003-2004)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (35): 12338–43. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10212338O. PMC . PMID 16093316. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503356102.
- Piñeyro-Nelson A, Van Heerwaarden J, Perales HR, Serratos-Hernández JA, Rangel A, Hufford MB, Gepts P, Garay-Arroyo A, Rivera-Bustamante R, Alvarez-Buylla ER (February 2009). "Transgenes in Mexican maize: molecular evidence and methodological considerations for GMO detection in landrace populations". Molecular Ecology. 18 (4): 750–61. PMC . PMID 19143938. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03993.x.
- "First Wild Canola Plants With Modified Genes Found in United States". Arkansas Newswire. University of Arkansas. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Genetically Modified Canola 'Escapes' Farm Fields. NPR. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- Black R (6 August 2010). "GM plants 'established in the wild'". BBC News. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- Ersberg N (7 November 2011). "Chemistry and Industry: GM crops are on the move". HighBeam Research. Ten Alps Publishing. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Genetically Engineered Crops Benefit Many Farmers, but the Technology Needs proper Management to Remain Effective". Report by the U.S. National Academies: press release on the report "The Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United States" Office of News and Public Information, News from the Academies,. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Biotech Crops Are Good For Earth, Report Finds". Npr.org. 2010-04-13. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide". Cls.casa.colostate.edu. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- BBC News, Tuesday, 5 October 1999. Terminator gene halt a 'major U-turn'
- Haider R (21 March 2006). "BIODIVERSITY: Don't Sell "Suicide Seeds", Activists Warn". Inter Press Service.
- Masood E (1999). "Compromise sought on 'Terminator' seed technology". Nature. 399 (6738): 721. doi:10.1038/21491.
- Pollack M, Shaffer G (2009). When Cooperation Fails: the international law and politics of genetically modified foods. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956705-8.
- Williston B (September 2001). "Farmers Fight to Save Organic Crops". The Progressive Magazine.
- Superman H (14 October 1999). "Genetically Altered Wheat Flagged – Thailand Detects Shipment Not Cleared for Commercial Sales". Spokesman Review (Spokane, WA).
- Gunther M (2 July 2007). "Attack of the mutant rice". Fortune Magazine.
- "APHIS Report of LibertyLink Rice Incidents" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Coghlan A (3 June 2013). "Monsanto modified wheat mystery deepens in Oregon". New Scientist.
- Bjerga A (29 May 2013). "Monsanto Modified Wheat Not Approved by USDA Found in Field". Bloomberg News.
- Reuters (2013-05-29). "Unapproved Monsanto GMO Wheat Found in Oregon". CNBC. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Allison M (2013-06-05). "Japan's wheat-import suspension worries state growers". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2013-06-05.
- Pollack A (29 May 2013). "Modified Wheat Is Discovered in Oregon". The New York Times.
- Associated Press (30 August 2013). "Source of GMO wheat in Oregon remains mystery".
- Allison M (18 June 2013). "Wheat scare leaves farmers in limbo". Seattle Times.
- Baram Ml (2011). "Governance of GM Crop and Food Safety in the United States". In Baram M, Bourrier M. Governing Risk in GM Agriculture. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–56.
- Flynn D (12 November 2012). "AC21 Wants USDA to Investigate Crop Insurance for Genetic Harm To Organic Crops". Food Safety News.
- USDA Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) (19 November 2012). "Enhancing Coexistence: A Report of the AC21 to the Secretary of Agriculture" (PDF).
- Czarnak-Kłos M, Rodríguez-Cerezo E (2010). "Best Practice documents for coexistence of Genetically Modified Crops with Conventional and Organic Crops" (PDF). Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. European Commission. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Smith J (December 2007). "EU caught in quandary over GMO animal feed imports". Reuters.
- USDA National Agriculture Library CO-EXTRA - GM and Non-GM Supply Chains: Their CO-EXistence and TRAceability
- "Research - Food Quality and Safety in Europe - Projects - KEEPING TRACK OF GMOs". europa.eu.
- "About Pesticides". U.S Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Klümper W, Qaim M (2014). "A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops". PloS One. 9 (11): e111629. PMC . PMID 25365303. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111629.
- "Pesticides in paradise: Hawaii's spike in birth defects puts focus on GM crops". The Guardian. 2015.
- Shipitalo MJ, Malone RW, Owens LB (2008). "Impact of glyphosate-tolerant soybean and glufosinate-tolerant corn production on herbicide losses in surface runoff". Journal of Environmental Quality. 37 (2): 401–8. PMID 18268303. doi:10.2134/jeq2006.0540.
- Benbrook CM (2012). "Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years". Environmental Sciences Europe. 24: 24. doi:10.1186/2190-4715-24-24.
- "How GMOs Unleashed a Pesticide Gusher". October 3, 2012.
- Kloor K (3 October 2012). "When Bad News Stories Help Bad Science Go Viral". Discover. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Mestel R (24 October 2012). "Examining the scientific evidence against genetically modified foods". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Brookes G, Barfoot P (2012). "Global impact of biotech crops: environmental effects, 1996-2010". GM Crops & Food. 3 (2): 129–37. doi:10.4161/gmcr.20061.
- Peeples L (4 October 2012). "Pesticide Use Proliferating With GMO Crops, Study Warns". Huffington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Roh JY, Choi JY, Li MS, Jin BR, Je YH (April 2007). "Bacillus thuringiensis as a specific, safe, and effective tool for insect pest control". Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 17 (4): 547–59. PMID 18051264.
- Marvier M, McCreedy C, Regetz J, Kareiva P (June 2007). "A meta-analysis of effects of Bt cotton and maize on nontarget invertebrates". Science. 316 (5830): 1475–7. PMID 17556584. doi:10.1126/science.1139208.
- Brookes G, Barefoot P (2008). "Global Impact of Biotech Crops: Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects, 1996-2006". AgBioForum. 11 (1): Article 3. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Krishna VV, Qaim M (2012). "Bt cotton and sustainability of pesticide reductions in India". Agricultural Systems. 107: 47–55. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2011.11.005.
- Kovach J, Petzoldt C, Degni J, Tette J. "A Method to Measure the Environmental Impact of Pesticides". New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- Carrington D (13 June 2012). "GM crops good for environment, study finds". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- Lu Y, Wu K, Jiang Y, Guo Y, Desneux N (July 2012). "Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and insecticide decrease promotes biocontrol services". Nature. 487 (7407): 362–5. PMID 22722864. doi:10.1038/nature11153.
- Neuman W, Pollack A (4 May 2010). "U.S. Farmers Cope With Roundup-Resistant Weeds". The New York Times. p. B1. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Cotton in India". Monsanto. 5 May 2010.
- Bagla P (March 2010). "India. Hardy cotton-munching pests are latest blow to GM crops". Science. 327 (5972): 1439. Bibcode:2010Sci...327.1439B. PMID 20299559. doi:10.1126/science.327.5972.1439.
- Tabashnik BE, Gassmann AJ, Crowder DW, Carriére Y (February 2008). "Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory". Nature Biotechnology. 26 (2): 199–202. PMID 18259177. doi:10.1038/nbt1382.
- Christou P, Capell T, Kohli A, Gatehouse JA, Gatehouse AM (June 2006). "Recent developments and future prospects in insect pest control in transgenic crops". Trends in Plant Science. 11 (6): 302–8. PMID 16690346. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2006.04.001.
- Kaskey, Jack (16 November 2012). "DuPont-Dow Corn Defeated by Armyworms in Florida: Study". Bloomberg News.
- Staff. "Section: Can European corn borer develop resistance to Bt corn? in the Bt Corn & European Corn Borer". University of Minnesota Extension.
- "Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries". Agbioworld.org. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- Areal FJ, Riesgo L, Rodríguez-Cerezo E (2012). "Economic and agronomic impact of commercialized GM crops: A meta-analysis". The Journal of Agricultural Science. 151: 7–33. doi:10.1017/S0021859612000111.
- Finger R, El Benni N, Kaphengst T, Evans C, Herbert S, Lehmann B, Morse S, Stupak N (2011). "A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops". Sustainability. 3 (12): 743–762. doi:10.3390/su3050743.
- Hutchison WD, Burkness EC, Mitchell PD, Moon RD, Leslie TW, Fleischer SJ, Abrahamson M, Hamilton KL, Steffey KL, Gray ME, Hellmich RL, Kaster LV, Hunt TE, Wright RJ, Pecinovsky K, Rabaey TL, Flood BR, Raun ES (October 2010). "Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers". Science. 330 (6001): 222–5. Bibcode:2010Sci...330..222H. PMID 20929774. doi:10.1126/science.1190242.
- Kanowski, Steve (8 October 2010). "High-Tech Corn Fights Pests at Home and Nearby". Sci-Tech today. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
- Falck-Zepeda JB, Traxler G, Nelson RG (2000). "Surplus Distribution from the Introduction of a Biotechnology Innovation". American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 82 (2): 360–9. JSTOR 1244657. doi:10.1111/0002-9092.00031.
- Brookes G, Barfoot P (May 2012). "GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2010" (PDF). PG Economics Ltd. UK. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- Smale M, Zambrano P, Cartel M (2006). "Bales and balance: A review of the methods used to assess the economic impact of Bt cotton on farmers in developing economies" (PDF). AgBioForum. 9 (3): 195–212.
- Lynas M (4 November 2010). "What the Green Movement Got Wrong: A turncoat explains". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- Planting the future: opportunities and challenges for using crop genetic improvement technologies for sustainable agriculture, EASAC policy report 21, 27.06.13.
- Staff (April 2, 2013). "BSR News: Jonathan Latham's Second Interview on Talk Radio Europe". Bioscience Resource Project.
- "Can Biotech Food Cure World Hunger?". The New York Times. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Staff, PBS. "Interview with Jeremy Rifkin".
- Altieri MA (1998). "Modern Agriculture: Ecological impacts and the possibilities for truly sustainable farming". Monthly Review. 50 (3).
- Ericsson B, Mintert J (November 2009). "Giving Thanksfor Contemporary Agriculture" (PDF). Top Farmer Crop Workshop Newsletter.
- Motes WC (March 2010). "Modern Agriculture and Its Benefits – Trends, Implications and Outlook" (PDF).
- Staff. "Monsanto: Who we are". Monsanto.
- Staff. "Bayer CropScience: Our purpose". Bayer CropScience.
- Diouf J, Sheehan J (2010). "The State of Food Insecurity in the World" (PDF). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Gillis J (5 June 2011). "A Warming Planet Struggles to Feed Itself". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Burke M (8 January 2009). "Half the world's population faces major food crisis by 2100, Science study finds". Stanford University. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Raney T, Pingali P (September 2007). "Sowing a Gene Revolution". Scientific American. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
- Lal R, Hobbs PR, Uphoff N, Hansen DO, eds. (2004). Sustainable Agriculture and the International Rice-Wheat System. CRC Press. ISBN 9780824754914. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- Kiers ET, Leakey RR, Izac AM, Heinemann JA, Rosenthal E, Nathan D, Jiggins J (April 2008). "Ecology. Agriculture at a crossroads". Science. 320 (5874): 320–1. PMID 18420917. doi:10.1126/science.1158390.
- "Agriculture at a Crossroads (c) 2009"" (PDF). International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Lappé FM, Collins J, Rosset P, Esparza L (1998). World Hunger: Twelve Myths. Grove Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-8021-3591-9.
- Boucher DH (1999). The Paradox of Plenty: Hunger in a Bountiful World. Food First Books. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-935028-71-3.
- Avise JC (2004). The Hope, Hype and Reality of Genetic Engineering: Remarkable Stories from Agriculture, Industry, Medicine and the Environment (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803790-3. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- Bourne Jr JK (June 2009). "The Global Food Crisis: The End of Plenty". National Geographic.
- Pfeiffer, D. (2006). Eating Fossil Fuel: Oil, Food, and the Coming Crisis in Agriculture.
- Naylor RL, Falcon WP, Goodman RM, Jahn MM, Sengooba T, Tefera H, Nelson RJ (2004). "Biotechnology in the developing world: A case for increased investments in orphan crops". Food Policy. 29: 15–44. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2004.01.002.
- Borlaug NE (2000). "Ending world hunger. The promise of biotechnology and the threat of antiscience zealotry". Plant Physiology. 124 (2): 487–90. PMC . PMID 11027697. doi:10.1104/pp.124.2.487.
- Kagale S, Rozwadowski K (October 2010). "Global Food Security: The Role of Agricultural Biotechnology Commentary" (PDF). Plant Physiology. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada,. 154: 1. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Nielsen R (August 2012). "Historical Corn Grain Yields for Indiana and the U.S.". Corny News Network. Purdue University. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Feed grains yearbook tables - recent". National Agricultural Statistics Service. October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Kaphengst T, El Benni N, Evans C, Finger R, Herbert S, Morse S, Stupak N (2010). "Assessment of the economic performance of GM crops worldwide" (PDF). Report to the European Commission, March 2011.
- Wesseler J, ed. (2005). Environmental Costs and Benefits of Transgenic Crops. Dordrecht, NL: Springer Press.
- "Genetically modified crops - Field research". Economist. 8 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Carpenter JE (April 2010). "Peer-reviewed surveys indicate positive impact of commercialized GM crops". Nature Biotechnology. 28 (4): 319–21. PMID 20379171. doi:10.1038/nbt0410-319.
- Carpenter J (2010). "Peer-reviewed surveys indicate positive impact of commercialized GM crops". Slide presentation of article in Nature Biotechnology, 28, 319 – 321 (2010). Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- "Roundup Ready soybean trait patent nears expiration in 2014". Hpj.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- D. Gurian-Sherman. 2009. Failure to Yield. UCSUSA.org
- "Do GM Crops Really Have Higher Yields?". Mother Jones. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Shi G, Chavas JP, Lauer J (February 2013). "Commercialized transgenic traits, maize productivity and yield risk". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (2): 111–4. PMID 23392505. doi:10.1038/nbt.2496.
- Hayenga M (1998). "Structural change in the biotech seed and chemical industrial complex". AgBioForum. 1 (2): 43–55.
- Who Owns Nature? Corporate Power and the Final Frontier in the Commodification of Life. ETC Group. 2008. p. 11.
- Who will control the Green Economy?. ETC Group. 2011. p. 22.
- USDA (2001). "Concentration and Technology in Agricultural Input Industries".
- Acquaye AK, Traxler G (2005). "Monopoly power, price discrimination, and access to biotechnology innovations". AgBioForum. 8 (2&3): 127–33.
- Murphy S (2006). "Concentrated Market Power and Agricultural Trade" (PDF). EcoFair Trade Dialog Discussion Paper #1. p. 18.
- Who Owns Nature? Corporate Power and the Final Frontier in the Commodification of Life. ETC Group. 2008. p. 14.
- Gillam C (11 March 2010). "Farm groups call on U.S. to "bust up big ag"". Reuters.
- Kaskey J, McQuillen W (12 March 2010). "Monsanto's Seed Patents May Trump Antitrust Claims (Update2)". Bloomberg News.
- History of Research at the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Agricultural Research Service Agricultural Research Service: Improving Corn. Last Modified: 6 June 2008. Originally published in U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1894–1992. Yearbooks of agriculture. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
- Eagle Seed Company, Roundup Ready Seed webpage Has example of license language
- "Monsanto Technology Stewardship Agreement 2011" (PDF).
- "Syngenta Stewardship Agreement" (PDF).
- "Dupont 2011 Annual Report (10-K Filing)".
See page 2 for ag R&D percentage, page 19 for total R&D spending
- "Monsanto Investors's page". Monsanto.com. 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Amy Goodman (24 October 2012). "Michael Pollan: California's Prop 37 Fight to Label GMOs Could Galvanize Growing U.S. Food Movement". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Discussion Guide for the film Food Inc" (PDF). Center for Ecoliteracy. p. 73. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 15, 2005.
- Mechlem K, Raney T (2007). "Biotechnologies and International Human rights". In Francioni F. Agricultural Technology and the Right to Food. Oxford: Hart Publishing. ISBN 1-84113-703-0.
- "Saved Seed and Farmer Lawsuits". Monsanto. 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Schubert R (9 September 2002). "Schmeiser Wants to Take It to The Supreme Court". CropChoice News.
- Pollack A (17 December 2009). "As Patent Ends, a Seed's Use Will Survive". New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Canadian Supreme Court Decision". Scc.lexum.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- McHughen A, Wager R (December 2010). "Popular misconceptions: agricultural biotechnology". New Biotechnology. 27 (6): 724–8. PMID 20359558. doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2010.03.006.
The fear about a company claiming ownership of a farmer's crop based on the inadvertent presence of GM pollen grain or seed is...widespread and ...unfounded.
- Simon B (May 22, 2004). "Monsanto Wins Patent Case On Plant Genes". The New York Times.
- Sheldon M (2002). "Regulation of Biotechnology: will we ever 'freely' trade GMOs?". Eur Rev Agric Econ. 29 (1): 155–176. doi:10.1093/erae/29.1.155.
- Siekierski BJ (2 February 2011). "Agriculture Committee continues study on biotechnology while Bill C-474 is debated". iPolitics.
- "Private Member's Bill C-474". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Bill to Reform Approval Process for GM Seeds Voted Down" (PDF). This Week in Canadian Agriculture Issue 4. USDA Foreign Agriculture Service: Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN). February 7, 2011.
- "GE Food Labeling Laws". Center for Food Safety.
- Hallenbeck T (April 27, 2014). "How GMO labeling came to pass in Vermont". Burlington Free Press.
- Van Eenennaam A, Chassy BM, Kalaitzandonakes N, Redick TP (April 2014). "CAST Issue Paper Number 54: The Potential Impacts of Mandatory Labeling for Genetically Engineered Food in the United States".
- "Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 On Genetically Modified Food And Feed" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. 2003.
The labeling should include objective information to the effect that a food or feed consists of, contains or is produced from GMOs. Clear labeling, irrespective of the detectability of DNA or protein resulting from the genetic modification in the final product, meets the demands expressed in numerous surveys by a large majority of consumers, facilitates informed choice and precludes potential misleading of consumers as regards methods of manufacture or production.
- "Regulation (EC) No 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 concerning the traceability and labeling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms and amending Directive 2001/18/EC". Official Journal L 268, 18/10/2003 P. 0024 - 0028. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. 2003.
(3) Traceability requirements for GMOs should facilitate both the withdrawal of products where unforeseen adverse effects on human health, animal health or the environment, including ecosystems, are established, and the targeting of monitoring to examine potential effects on, in particular, the environment. Traceability should also facilitate the implementation of risk management measures in accordance with the precautionary principle. (4) Traceability requirements for food and feed produced from GMOs should be established to facilitate accurate labeling of such products.
- "Food Labeling for Processed Foods". Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fish. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015.
- Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2012). "Labeling of GM Foods". Retrieved 2013-03-14.
- "Duma approves tougher GMO labeling rules". RT English.
- "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: China". loc.gov.
- Anne Sewell for the DIgital Journal. Jan 11, 2013 GMO labeling signed into law in India
- Library of Congress. Page updated February 27, 2015 Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: Israel Page accessed March 21, 2015. Quote: As discussed above, labeling requirements apply to the marketing of transgenic plants, propagation material, and organisms. Labeling requirements for distribution of processed food products containing GMO components do not apply at this time."
- "Labeling/Marketing Requirements - Israel" (PDF). US Department of Commerce, Middle East, North Africa Business Information Center. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- Labeling of Genetically Engineered Fish – Alaska | Institute for Local Self-Reliance
- Vermont’s GMO Labeling Law Is Now In Effect. Here Are The Labels The Senate Is Trying To Get Rid Of – Consumerist
- How Little Vermont Got Big Food Companies To Label GMOs : The Salt : NPR
- Vermont GMO law leads to fewer products on shelves | Washington Examiner
- Why the GMO Food Labeling Debate Is Not Over | Observer
- National bioengineered food disclosure standard - full text
- Congress Just Passed A GMO Labeling Bill. Nobody's Super Happy About It : The Salt : NPR
- Scatasta S, Wesseler J, Hobbs J (2007). "Differentiating the consumer benefits from labeling of GM food products". Agricultural Economics. 37 (2–3): 237–242. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2007.00269.x.
- Ball M (May 14, 2014). "Want to Know If Your Food Is Genetically Modified? Across the country, an aggressive grassroots movement is winning support with its demands for GMO labeling. If only it had science on its side". The Atlantic.
- Van Eenennaam A, Chassy B, Kalaitzandonakes N, Redick T (2014). "The Potential Impacts of Mandatory Labeling for Genetically Engineered Food in the United States" (PDF). Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST). 54 (April 2014). ISSN 1070-0021. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
To date, no material differences in composition or safety of commercialized GE crops have been identified that would justify a label based on the GE nature of the product.
- Associated Press (22 February 2012). "Conn. bill looks to add labels to engineered food". Wall Street Journal.
- The Editors (September 6, 2013). "Editorial: Mandatory labels for genetically modified foods are a bad idea". Scientific American.
- Colorado, Oregon Reject GMO Labeling : The Salt : NPR
- Malloy signs state GMO labeling law in Fairfield - Connecticut Post
- Herling DJ (12 January 2014). "As Maine Goes, So Goes The Nation? Labeling for Foods Made with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs).". The National Law Review. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- Gruère GP, Rao SR (2007). "A Review of International Labeling Policies of Genetically Modified Food to Evaluate India's Proposed Rule". AgBioForum. 10 (1): 51–64.
- "GM labelling advisory". Food Standards Agency. 7 April 2008.
- Schiffman R (13 June 2012). "How California's GM food referendum may change what America eats". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Gruère GP, Rao SR (2007). "A review of international labeling policies of genetically modified food to evaluate India's proposed rule". AgBioForum. 10 (1): 51–64.
- "Support of the Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods". Policy Number: 200111. American Public Health Association. 2001.
- "Genetically modified food and health: A second interim statement" (PDF). British Medical Association Board of Science and Education. March 2004.
- "Genetically Modified Foods" (PDF). PHAA AGM. Public Health Association of Australia. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-01-20.
- "Noted Food Safety Expert Michael R. Taylor Named Advisor to FDA Commissioner". FDA News Release. 7 July 2009.
- Prudham S, Morris A (2006). "Making the Market 'Safe' for GM Foods: The Case of the Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee". Studies in Political Economy. 78: 145–75.
- Chen M, Shelton A, Ye GY (2011). "Insect-resistant genetically modified rice in China: from research to commercialization". Annual Review of Entomology. 56: 81–101. PMID 20868281. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-120709-144810.
- McHughen A, Smyth S (January 2008). "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant Biotechnology Journal. 6 (1): 2–12. PMID 17956539. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7652.2007.00300.x.
- Pollack A (13 August 2010). "Judge Revokes Approval of Modified Sugar Beets". The New York Times.
- Supreme Court of the United States (21 June 2010). "Monsanto et al. v Geertson Seed Farms et al." (PDF). Decision no 09-475. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. (25 February 2011). "No. 10-17719, D.C. No. 3:10-cv-04038-JSW" (PDF). Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Staff (7 August 2012). "Roundup Ready® Sugar Beet News] USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Biotechnology". Archived from the original on 13 October 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "USDA - Roundup Ready® Alfalfa Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)". United States Department of Agriculture. December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Post election struggles in the courts". SHAKA Movement. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
- Joaquin T (October 7, 2014). "Voters to decide on Maui GMO debate in one month". Hawaii News Now. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
- Shikina R (November 5, 2014). "Voters adopt GMO ban". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Retrieved November 5, 2014. (Subscription required (. ))
- Colicchio T (December 15, 2015). "Are You Eating Frankenfish?". New York Times.
- Bohrer B (December 17, 2015). "Legislation Includes 'Frankenfish' Labeling Provisions". ABC News. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015.
- "Labeling of Genetically Modified salmon search results". Google Scholar.
- Lynch D, Vogel D (2001). "The Regulation of Gmos in Europe and the United States: A Case-Study of Contemporary European Regulatory Politics".
- "U.S. vs. EU: An Examination of the Trade Issues Surrounding Genetically Modiﬁed Food" (PDF). Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology. December 2005.
- Staff (23 May 2007). "EU GMO ban was illegal, WTO rules". Euractive.com. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- Staff. "EC – Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products (Disputes DS291, 292, 293)]" (PDF). World Trade Organization. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- Ludwig M (21 December 2010). "WikiLeaks: US Ambassador Planned "Retaliation" Against France Over Ban on Monsanto Corn". Truthout. Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Stapleton, Craig (14 December 2007). "France and the WTO ag biotech case". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 07PARIS4723. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- "Majority of EU nations seek opt-out from growing GM crops". Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- "It's Official: 19 European Countries Say ‘No’ to GMOs". Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- "Greenpeace EU". Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Bettles C, Hinkley B (28 May 2014). "Baxter wins GM case". The Land.
- Supreme Court of Western Australia (2014). "Supreme Court of Western Australia Judgement Summary: Marsh v Baxter" (PDF). WASC 187 (Civ 1561 Of 2012).
- Walker I (February 2014). "Steve Marsh and the Bad Seeds". Global Mail. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
- Walter M (June 18, 2014). "Media statement: Marsh v Baxter appeal". Slater & Gordon Lawyers.
- Bettles C (25 March 2015). "GM cost appeal on hold". Farm Weekly. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Hawkins B (28 March 2015). "GM canola farmer says Pastoralists and Graziers Association set up 'fighting fund' to 'help with legal costs'". ABC News.
- "Court of Appeals decision" (PDF). Republic of the Philippines Court of Appeals.
- "Notice of decision" (PDF). Republic of the Philippines Court of Appeals.
- "Resolution" (PDF). Republic of the Philippines Court of Appeals.
- "Philippines' Supreme Court bans development of genetically engineered products". Greenpeace International. December 11, 2015.
- Pollack A (1 January 2015). "By ‘Editing’ Plant Genes, Companies Avoid Regulation". New York Times.
- Ledford H (20 August 2013). "US regulation misses some GM crops Gaps in oversight of transgenic technologies allow scientists to test the waters for speciality varieties.". Nature News.
- Godoy M (March 21, 2013). "Did Congress Just Give GMOs A Free Pass In The Courts?". NPR. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Boerma L (March 28, 2013). "Critics slam Obama for "protecting" Monsanto". CBS News. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- "What's Next for the ‘Monsanto Protection Act’?". Yahoo! News. April 4, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Lewin AC (2007). "Zambia and Genetically Modified Food Aid. Case Study #4-4 of the Program: "Food Policy for Developing Countries: The Role of Government in the Global Food System"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2014.
- "Agriculture: GM Technology to Counter World Starvation?". Asia-Pacific Biotech News. 7 (25): 1613–1620. 2003. doi:10.1142/S0219030303002623.
- Kikulwe EM, Wesseler J, Falck-Zepeda J (October 2011). "Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda". Appetite. 57 (2): 401–13. PMID 21704665. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.06.001.
- Kikulwe EM, Birol E, Wesseler J, Falck-Zepeda J (2011). "A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda". Agricultural Economics. 42 (5): 547–560. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2010.00529.x.
- Zerbe N (January 2004). "Feeding the famine? American food aid and the GMO debate in Southern Africa" (PDF). Food Policy. 29 (6): 593–608. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2004.09.002. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
- Sainath P (14 July 2014). "Have India's farm suicides really declined?". BBC News.
- Jha P, Gajalakshmi V, Gupta PC, Kumar R, Mony P, Dhingra N, Peto R (February 2006). "Prospective study of one million deaths in India: rationale, design, and validation results". PLoS Medicine. 3 (2): e18. PMC . PMID 16354108. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030018.
- Gruère G, Sengupta D (2011). "Bt cotton and farmer suicides in India: an evidence-based assessment". The Journal of Development Studies. 47 (2): 316–337. PMID 21506303. doi:10.1080/00220388.2010.492863.
- Schulman R (2013). "Shadow space: suicides and the predicament of rural India". Journal of Peasant Studies. 40 (3): 597–601.
- Das A (2011). "Farmers’ suicide in India: implications for public mental health". International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 57 (1): 21–29.
- Sainath P (2006). Everybody Loves a Good Drought. New Delhi, India: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-025984-8.
- Sainath P (1 August 2014). "How states fudge the data on declining farmer suicides".
- Qaim M, Subramanian A, Naik G, Zilberman D (2006). "Adoption of Bt Cotton and Impact Variability: Insights from India". Review of Agricultural Economics. 28: 48–58. JSTOR 3700846. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9353.2006.00272.x.
- James C (2011). "ISAAA Brief 43, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2011". ISAAA Briefs. Ithaca, New York: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA). Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Bennett R, Ismael Y, Kambhampati U, Morse S (2005-01-26). "Economic Impact of Genetically Modified Cotton in India". Agbioforum.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Subramanian A, Qaim M (2010). "The Impact of Bt Cotton on Poor Households in Rural India". Journal of Development Studies. 46 (2): 295–311. doi:10.1080/00220380903002954.
- Kathage J, Qaim M (July 2012). "Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (29): 11652–6. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10911652K. PMC . PMID 22753493. doi:10.1073/pnas.1203647109.
- "Maharashtra State Revokes Monsanto's Cotton Seed License". Environment News Service. 9 August 2012.
- "India says no to first GM food crop". Agence France-Presse (AFP). New Delhi. 9 February 2010.
- "India puts on hold first GM food crop on safety grounds". BBC. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Govt says no to Bt brinjal for now". The Times of India. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- Sharma DC (1 January 2013). "GM food labelling comes into force amid fears over 'lack of planning'". The Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- Mohan V (21 March 2014). "Govt regulator paves way for field trials of GM food crops including wheat, rice and maize". The Times Of India.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Genes, Technology and Policy|