MON 863 is a genetically engineered variety of maize produced by Monsanto. It is genetically altered to express a modified version of Cry3Bb1, a delta endotoxin which originates from Bacillus thuringiensis. This protects the plant from corn rootworm. Unlike MON 810, Bt 11, and Bt 176 which each produce a modified Cry1Ab, MON 863 instead produces a modified Cry3Bb1 toxin and contains nptII, a marker gene for antibiotic resistance.
In 2004, Monsanto sought approval in Europe to introduce MON 863. Approval was granted in 2005 for use in feed and in 2006 for use in food. There was controversy over acceptance by regulatory bodies of industry-funded toxicity studies and over the design of those studies led by Pr Gilles-Éric Séralini, who was on the committee that reviewed MON863 for the French government.
See Genetically modified food controversies for details of this controversy, which extended beyond MON 863.
As of 2015, MON 863 is approved for cultivation in three countries: the United States, Japan, and Canada. The corn is approved for use in Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States.
- "The MON863 case - a chronicle of systematic deception" (PDF). Greenpeace. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
MON863 is a genetically modified corn that expresses a Bt-toxin. This toxin is a modified version of the delta endotoxin Cry3Bb1 which originates from the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis. The genetic manipulation is aimed at protecting maize plants against a pest called corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.). MON863 differs from other Bt-corns already placed on the market (MON810, BT11, Bt176), which produce a modified Cry1Ab toxin conferring resistance to a pest called European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), in that it produces an artificial Cry3Bb1 toxin. In addition to the modified Cry3Bb1 toxin gene MON863 contains an antibiotic resistance marker gene.
- Doull, J.; Gaylor, D.; Greim, H.A.; Lovell, D.P.; Lynch, B.; Munro, I.C. (2007). "Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863)". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45 (11): 2073–85. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.033. PMID 17900781.
- Coghlan, Andy (2010-01-22). "Engineered maize toxicity claims roundly rebuffed". New Scientist. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- Lorch, Antje (2005-09-30). "EFSA's Opinion on MON863 hybrids" (PDF). ifrik. Greenpeace. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
MON863 contains an GM antibiotic resistance gene (nptII) against kanamycin and neomycin.
- Staff (8 August 2005) concerning the placing on the market, in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of a maize product (Zea mays L., line MON 863) genetically modified for resistance to corn rootworm Commission of the European Communities, Official Journal, Retrieved 17 November 2012
- Staff (13 January 2006) concerning the placing on the market, in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of a maize product (Zea mays L., line MON 863) genetically modified for resistance to corn rootworm and in 2006 in food Commission of the European Communities, Official Journal, Retrieved 17 November 2012
- Seralini bio on CRIIGEN
- Reilly, Michael (2010-01-23). "Is Genetically Modified Corn Toxic?". Discovery News. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- Staff, ISAAA. Last updated July 27, 2015 Event Name: MON863 See Authorizations tab. Accessed June 2, 2016