|Fate||Acquired by Bayer|
September 26, 1901|
(Spun off from Pharmacia & Upjohn)
|Founder||John Francis Queeny|
|Defunct||June 7, 2018|
|Headquarters||Creve Coeur, Missouri, U.S.|
Number of employees
The Monsanto Company was an American agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation that existed from 1901 until it was acquired by Bayer in 2018. It was headquartered in Creve Coeur, Greater St. Louis, Missouri. Monsanto developed Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide in the 1970s, and became a major producer of genetically engineered crops.
Monsanto was one of four groups to introduce genes into plants (1983), and was among the first to conduct field trials of genetically modified crops, (1987). It was one of the top 10 U.S. chemical companies until it divested most of its chemical businesses between 1997 and 2002, through a process of mergers and spin-offs that focused the company on biotechnology.
Monsanto was one of the first companies to apply the biotechnology industry business model to agriculture, using techniques developed by biotech drug companies.:2–6 In this business model, companies recoup R&D expenses by exploiting biological patents.
Monsanto's roles in agricultural changes, biotechnology products and lobbying of government agencies and roots as a chemical company resulted in controversies. The company once manufactured controversial products such as the insecticide DDT, PCBs, Agent Orange and recombinant bovine growth hormone. Its seed patenting model was criticized as biopiracy and a threat to biodiversity.
In September 2016, Bayer announced its intent to acquire Monsanto for US$63 billion. After gaining US and EU regulatory approval, the sale was completed on June 7, 2018.
- 1 History
- 1.1 "Pre-Pharmacia" Monsanto
- 1.2 "Post-Pharmacia" Monsanto
- 1.3 Sale to Bayer
- 2 Products and associated issues
- 3 Controversies and litigation
- 4 Government relations
- 5 Public relations
- 6 Awards
- 7 Documentaries
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
|Industry||Chemicals, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals|
|Fate||Acquired by Pharmacia & Upjohn|
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
|Founder||John Francis Queeny|
1901 to WWII
In 1901 Monsanto was founded in St. Louis, Missouri, as a chemical company. The founder was John Francis Queeny, a 30‑year veteran of the nascent pharmaceutical industry. He funded the firm with his own money and capital from a soft drink distributor. He used his wife's maiden name for the company. The company's first products were commodity food additives, such as the artificial sweetener saccharin, caffeine and vanillin.:6
Monsanto expanded to Europe in 1919 in a partnership with Graesser's Chemical Works at Cefn Mawr, Wales. The venture produced vanillin, aspirin and its raw ingredient salicylic acid, and later rubber processing chemicals. In the 1920s, Monsanto expanded into basic industrial chemicals such as sulfuric acid and PCBs. Queeny's son Edgar Monsanto Queeny took over the company in 1928. In 1926 the company founded and incorporated a town called Monsanto in Illinois (now known as Sauget). It was formed to provide minimal regulation and low taxes for Monsanto plants at a time when local jurisdictions had most of the responsibility for environmental rules. It was renamed in honor of Leo Sauget, its first village president.
In 1936, Monsanto acquired Thomas & Hochwalt Laboratories in Dayton, Ohio, to acquire the expertise of Charles Allen Thomas and Carroll A. Hochwalt. The acquisition became Monsanto's Central Research Department.:340–341 Thomas spent the rest of his career at Monsanto, serving as President (1951–1960) and Board Chair (1960–1965). He retired in 1970. In 1943, Thomas was called to a meeting in Washington, D.C., with Leslie Groves, commander of the Manhattan Project, and James Conant, president of Harvard University and chairman of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC). They urged Thomas to become co-director of the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos with Robert Oppenheimer, but Thomas was reluctant to leave Dayton and Monsanto. He joined the NDRC, and Monsanto's Central Research Department began to conduct related research.:vii To that end, Monsanto operated the Dayton Project, and later Mound Laboratories, and assisted in the development of the first nuclear weapons.
In 1946, Monsanto developed and marketed "All" laundry detergent, which they sold to Lever Brothers in 1957. In 1947, its styrene factory was destroyed in the Texas City Disaster. In 1949, Monsanto acquired American Viscose from Courtaulds. In 1954, Monsanto partnered with German chemical giant Bayer to form Mobay and market polyurethanes in the United States.
Monsanto began manufacturing DDT in 1944, along with some 15 other companies. This insecticide was critical to the fight against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Due to DDT's toxicity, it was banned in the United States in 1972. In 1977, Monsanto stopped producing PCBs; Congress banned PCB production two years later.
1960s and 1970s
In the mid‑1960s, William Standish Knowles and his team invented a way to selectively synthesize enantiomers via asymmetric hydrogenation. This was the first method for the catalytic production of pure chiral compounds. Knowles' team designed the "first industrial process to chirally synthesize an important compound"—L‑dopa, which is used to treat Parkinson's disease. In 2001, Knowles and Ryōji Noyori won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In the mid-1960s, chemists at Monsanto developed the Monsanto process for making acetic acid, which until 2000 was the most widely used production method. In 1964, Monsanto chemists invented AstroTurf (initially ChemGrass).
In the 1960s and 1970s, Monsanto was a producer of Agent Orange for United States Armed Forces operations in Vietnam, and settled out of court in a lawsuit brought by veterans in 1984.:6 In 1968, it became the first company to start mass production of (visible) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), using gallium arsenide phosphide. From 1968 to 1970, sales doubled every few months. Their products (discrete LEDs and seven-segment numeric displays) became industry standards. The primary markets then were electronic calculators, digital watches and digital clocks. Monsanto became a pioneer of optoelectronics in the 1970s. Between 1968 and 1974, the company sponsored the PGA Tour event in Pensacola, Florida, which was renamed the Monsanto Open.
In 1974, Harvard University and Monsanto signed a 10-year research grant to support the cancer research of Judah Folkman, which became the largest such arrangement ever made; medical inventions arising from that research were the first for which Harvard allowed its faculty to submit patent application.
1980 to 1989: Becoming an agribiotech
Monsanto scientists were among the first to genetically modify a plant cell, publishing their results in 1983. Five years later the company conducted the first field tests of genetically modified crops. Increasing involvement in agricultural biotechnology dates from the installment of Richard Mahoney as Monsanto's CEO in 1983. This involvement increased under the leadership of Robert Shapiro, appointed CEO in 1995, leading ultimately to the disposition of product lines unrelated to agriculture.
In 1985, Monsanto acquired G. D. Searle & Company, a life sciences company that focused on pharmaceuticals, agriculture and animal health. In 1993, its Searle division filed a patent application for Celebrex, which in 1998 became the first selective COX‑2 inhibitor to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Celebrex became a blockbuster drug and was often mentioned as a key reason for Pfizer's acquisition of Monsanto's pharmaceutical business in 2002.
1990 to 1999: Moving into the seed market & industry consolidation
In 1996, Monsanto purchased Agracetus, the biotechnology company that had generated the first transgenic cotton, soybeans, peanuts and other crops, and from which Monsanto had been licensing technology since 1991.
Monsanto first entered the maize seed business when it purchased 40% of Dekalb in 1996; it purchased the remainder of the corporation in 1998. In 1997, the company first published an annual report citing Monsanto's Law, a biotechnological take on Moore's Law, indicating its future directions and exponential growth in the use of biotechnology. In 1998, Monsanto purchased Cargill's international seed business, which gave it access to sales and distribution facilities in 51 countries. In 2005, it finalized the purchase of Seminis Inc, a leading global vegetable and fruit seed company, for $1.4 billion. This made it the world's largest conventional seed company.
In 1999 Monsanto sold off NutraSweet Co. In December of the same year, Monsanto agreed to merge with Pharmacia & Upjohn, in a deal valuing the transaction at $27 billion. The agricultural division became a wholly owned subsidiary of the "new" Pharmacia; Monsanto's medical research division, which included products such as Celebrex.
"Pre-Pharmacia" Monsanto overview
2000 to 2009: Birth of the "new" Monsanto
In 2000: Pharmacia spun off its agro-biotech subsidiary into a new company, the "new Monsanto". Monsanto agreed to indemnify Pharmacia against potential liabilities from judgments against Solutia. As a result, the new Monsanto continued to be a party to numerous lawsuits over the prior Monsanto. Pharmacia was bought by Pfizer in 2003.)
In 2005 Monsanto acquired Emergent Genetics and its Stoneville and NexGen cotton brands. Emergent was the third largest U.S. cotton seed company, with about 12% of the U.S. market. Monsanto's goal was to obtain "a strategic cotton germplasm and traits platform." The vegetable seed producer Seminis was purchased for $1.4 billion.
In June 2007, Monsanto purchased Delta and Pine Land Company, a major cotton seed breeder, for $1.5 billion. As a condition for approval from the Department of Justice, Monsanto was obligated to divest its Stoneville cotton business, which it sold to Bayer, and to divest its NexGen cotton business, which it sold to Americot. Monsanto also exited the pig-breeding business by selling Monsanto Choice Genetics to Newsham Genetics LC in November, divesting itself of "any and all swine-related patents, patent applications, and all other intellectual property".:108 In 2007, Monsanto and BASF announced a long-term agreement to cooperate in the research, development, and marketing of new plant biotechnology products.
In 2008, Monsanto purchased Dutch seed company De Ruiter Seeds for €546 million, and sold its POSILAC bovine somatotropin brand and related business to Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly & Co, in August for $300 million plus "additional contingent consideration".
2010 to 2017: Further growth, Syngenta
In 2012 Monsanto purchased for $210 million Precision Planting Inc., a company that produced computer hardware and software designed to enable farmers to increase yield and productivity through more precise planting.
In 2013 Monsanto purchased San Francisco-based Climate Corp for $930 million. Climate Corp. makes local weather forecasts for farmers based on data modelling and historical data; if the forecasts were wrong, the farmer was compensated. In 2013, Swiss research firm Covalence released its annual ranking of the overall ethical performance of multinational corporations. The idea behind the Covalence research is that there is value—both for companies and consumers—in measuring corporations against an ethical standard. To complete its ethics index, Covalence compiled both quantitative and qualitative data, spanning seven years, for 581 companies. The data encompass 45 criteria that include labor standards, waste management and human rights records. And because it is a reputation index, the Covalence survey also incorporates media, industry and NGO documents into its evaluation. Monsanto was ranked last of 581 companies.
In 2015 Monsanto tried to acquire Swiss agro-biotechnology rival, Syngenta, for US$46.5 billion, but failed. In 2015 Monsanto was the world's biggest supplier of seeds, controlling 26% of the global seed market (Du Pont was second with 21%). Monsanto is the only manufacturer of white phosphorus for military use in the US.
"Post-Pharmacia" Monsanto overview
Sale to Bayer
In September 2016, Monsanto agreed to be acquired by Bayer for US$66 billion. In an effort to receive regulatory clearance for the deal, Bayer announced the sale of significant portions of its current agriculture businesses, including its seed and herbicide businesses, to BASF.
The deal was approved by the European Union on March 21, 2018, and approved in the United States on May 29, 2018. The sale closed on June 7, 2018; Bayer announced its intent to discontinue the Monsanto name, with the combined company operating solely under the Bayer brand.
Products and associated issues
Following its 1970 introduction, Monsanto's last commercially relevant United States patent on the herbicide glyphosate (brand name RoundUp) expired in 2000. Glyphosate has since been marketed by many agrochemical companies, in various solution strengths and with various adjuvants, under dozens of tradenames. As of 2009, glyphosate represented about 10% of Monsanto's revenue. Roundup-related products (which include genetically modified seeds) represented about half of Monsanto's gross margin.
As of 2015, Monsanto's line of seed products included corn, cotton, soy and vegetable seeds.
Many of Monsanto's agricultural seed products are genetically modified, such as for resistance to herbicides, including glyphosate and dicamba. Monsanto calls glyphosate-tolerant seeds Roundup Ready. Monsanto's introduction of this system (planting a glyphosate-resistant seed and then applying glyphosate once plants emerged) allowed farmers to increase yield by planting rows closer together. Without it, farmers had to plant rows far enough apart to allow the control of post-emergent weeds with mechanical tillage. Farmers widely adopted the technology—for example over 80% of maize (Mon 832), soybean (MON-Ø4Ø32-6), cotton, sugar beet and canola planted in the United States are glyphosate-tolerant. Monsanto developed a Roundup Ready genetically modified wheat (MON 71800) but ended development in 2004 due to concerns from wheat exporters about the rejection of genetically modified (GM) wheat by foreign markets.
Two patents were critical to Monsanto's GM soybean business; one expired in 2011 and the other in 2014. The second expiration meant that glyphosate resistant soybeans became "generic". The first harvest of generic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans came in 2015. Monsanto broadly licensed the patent to other seed companies that include glyphosate resistance trait in their seed products. About 150 companies have licensed the technology, including competitors Syngenta and DuPont Pioneer.
Monsanto invented and sells genetically modified seeds that make a crystalline insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, known as Bt. In 1995 Monsanto's potato plants producing Bt toxin were approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, following approval by the FDA, making it the first pesticide-producing crop to be approved in the United States. Monsanto subsequently developed Bt maize (MON 802, MON 809, MON 863, MON 810), Bt soybean and Bt cotton.
Monsanto produces seed that has multiple genetic modifications, also known as "stacked traits"—for instance, cotton that make one or more Bt proteins and is resistant to glyphosate. One of these, created in collaboration with Dow Chemical Company, is called SmartStax. In 2011 Monsanto launched the Genuity brand for its stacked-trait products.
As of 2012, the agricultural seed lineup included Roundup Ready alfalfa, canola and sugarbeet; Bt and/or Roundup Ready cotton; sorghum hybrids; soybeans with various oil profiles, most with the Roundup Ready trait; and a wide range of wheat products, many of which incorporate the nontransgenic "clearfield" imazamox-tolerant trait from BASF.
In 2013 Monsanto launched the first transgenic drought tolerance trait in a line of corn hybrids branded DroughtGard. The MON 87460 trait is provided by the insertion of the cspB gene from the soil microbe Bacillus subtilis; it was approved by the USDA in 2011 and by China in 2013.
The "Xtend Crop System" includes seed genetically modified to be resistant to both glyphosate and dicamba, and a herbicide product including those two active ingredients. In December 2014, the system was approved for use in the US. In February 2016, China approved the Roundup Ready 2 Xtend system. The lack of European Union approval led many American traders to reject the use of Xtend soybeans over concerns that the new seeds would become mixed with EU-approved seeds, leading Europe to reject American soybean exports.
In 2009, Monsanto scientists discovered insects that had developed resistance to the Bt Cotton planted in Gujarat. Monsanto communicated this to the Indian government and its customers, stating that "Resistance is natural and expected, so measures to delay resistance are important. Among the factors that may have contributed to pink bollworm resistance to the Cry1Ac protein in Bollgard I in Gujarat are limited refuge planting and early use of unapproved Bt cotton seed, planted prior to GEAC approval of Bollgard I cotton, which may have had lower protein expression levels." The company advised farmers to switch to its second generation of Bt cotton – Bolguard II – which had two resistance genes instead of one. However, this advice was criticized: "an internal analysis of the statement of the Ministry of Environment and Forests says it 'appears that this could be a business strategy to phase out single gene events [that is, the first-generation Bollgard I product] and promote double genes [the second generation Bollgard II] which would fetch higher price.'"
Monsanto's GM cotton seed was the subject of NGO agitation because of its higher cost. Indian farmers crossed GM varieties with local varieties, using plant breeding, violating their agreements with Monsanto. In 2009, high prices of Bt Cotton were blamed for forcing farmers of Jhabua district into debt when the crops died due to lack of rain.
In 2012 Monsanto was the world's largest supplier of non-GE vegetable seeds by value, with sales of $800M. 95% of the research and development for vegetable seed is in conventional breeding. The company concentrates on improving flavor. According to their website they sell "4,000 distinct seed varieties representing more than 20 species". Broccoli, with the brand name Beneforté, with increased amounts of glucoraphanin was introduced in 2010 following development by its Seminis subsidiary.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Until it ended production in 1977, Monsanto was the source of 99% of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used by U.S. industry. They were sold under brand names including Aroclor and Santotherm; the name Santotherm is still used for non-chlorinated products. PCBs are a persistent organic pollutant, and cause cancer in both animal and humans, among other health effects. PCBs were initially welcomed due to the electrical industry's need for durable, safer (than flammable mineral oil) cooling and insulating fluid for industrial transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also commonly used as stabilizing additives in the manufacture of flexible PVC coatings for electrical wiring and in electronic components to enhance PVC heat and fire resistance. As transformer leaks occurred and toxicity problems arose near factories, their durability and toxicity became recognized as serious problems. PCB production was banned by the U.S. Congress in 1979 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001.
Monsanto, Dow Chemical, and eight other chemical companies, made Agent Orange for the U.S. Department of Defense.:6 It was given its name from the color of the orange-striped barrels in which it was shipped, and was by far the most widely used of the so-called "Rainbow Herbicides".
Monsanto developed and sold recombinant bovine somatotropin (also known as rBST and rBGH), a synthetic hormone that increases milk production by 11–16% when injected into cows. In October 2008, Monsanto sold this business to Eli Lilly for $300 million plus additional considerations.
The use of rBST remains controversial with respect to its effects on cows and their milk.
In some markets, milk from cows that are not treated with rBST is sold with labels indicating that it is rBST-free: this milk has proved popular with consumers. In reaction to this, in early 2008 a pro-rBST advocacy group called "American Farmers for the Advancement and Conservation of Technology" (AFACT), made up of dairies and originally affiliated with Monsanto, formed and began lobbying to ban such labels. AFACT stated that "absence" labels can be misleading and imply that milk from cows treated with rBST is inferior.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2016)
Genetic use restriction technology, colloquially known as "terminator technology", produces plants with sterile seeds. This trait would prevent the spread of those seeds into the wild. It also would prevent farmers from planting seeds they harvest, requiring them to purchase seed for every planting, allowing the company to enforce its licensing terms via technology. Farmers have been buying hybrid seeds for generations, instead of replanting their harvest, because second-generation hybrid seeds are inferior. Nevertheless, most seed companies contract only with farmers who agree not to plant harvested seeds.
Terminator technology has been developed by governmental labs, university researchers and companies. The technology has not been used commercially. Rumors that Monsanto and other companies intended to introduce terminator technology caused protests, for example in India.
In 1999, Monsanto pledged not to commercialize terminator technology. The Delta & Pine Land Company of Mississippi intended to commercialize the technology, but D&PL was acquired by Monsanto in 2007.
Monsanto developed several strains of genetically modified wheat, including glyphosate-resistant strains, in the 1990s. Field tests were done in the United States between 1998 and 2005. As of 2017, no genetically modified wheat has been released for commercial use.
Controversies and litigation
Monsanto is notable for its involvement in high-profile lawsuits, as both plaintiff and defendant. It defended lawsuits mostly over its products' health and environmental effects. Monsanto used the courts to defend its patents, particularly in agricultural biotechnology, as have other companies in the field, such as Dupont Pioneer and Syngenta.
Argentina approved Roundup Ready soy in 1996. Between 1996 and 2008 soy production grew from 14 million acres to 42 million acres. The growth was driven by Argentine investors' interest in export markets. The consolidation led to a decrease in production of many staples such as milk, rice, maize, potatoes and lentils. As of 2004 about 150,000 small farmers had left the countryside; including 50% as of 2009 in the Chaco region.
The Guardian reported that a Monsanto representative had said, "any problems with GM soya were to do with use of the crop as a monoculture, not because it was GM. If you grow any crop to the exclusion of any other you are bound to get problems."
In 2005 and 2006, Monsanto attempted to enforce its patents on soymeal imported into Spain from Argentina by having Spanish customs officials seize the soymeal shipments. This has been an attempt made by Monsanto to put pressure on the Argentinian government for allowing them to enforce their seed patents in Argentina as well.
In 2013 environmentalist groups objected to a Monsanto corn seed conditioning facility in Malvinas Argentinas, Córdoba. Neighbours objected to the risk of environmental impact. Court rulings supported the project, but environmentalist groups organised demonstrations and opened an online petition for the subject to be decided in a popular referendum. The court rulings stipulated that while construction could continue, the facility could not begin operating until the environmental impact report required by law had been duly presented.
In 2016 Monsanto reached an agreement with Argentina’s government on soybean seed royalty payments. Monsanto agreed to give the Argentine Seed Institute (Inase) oversight over crops grown from Monsanto's Intacta genetically modified soybean seeds. Before the agreement, Argentine farmers generally avoided royalties by using seeds from previous harvests or purchased from non-registered suppliers. Inase agreed to delegate testing to grain exchanges. About 6 million sample tests were to be conducted annually. Seeds that appear to be GMOs may be tested again using a polymerase chain reaction test.
Brazil is the second largest producer of GMO soy. Expanding soy cultivation led to large-scale deforestation and displacement of small-scale rural farmers. Brazil approved GM crops in 1998, but advocacy groups successfully sued to overturn the approval. In 2003 Brazil allowed a one-year exemption when GM soy was found in fields planted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This was a controversial decision, and in response, the Landless Workers' Movement protested by invading and occupying several Monsanto farm plots used for research, training and seed-processing. In 2005 Brazil passed a law creating a regulatory pathway for GM crops. Agriculture minister Roberto Rodrigues stated, "Brazilian soy farmers, who have used cloned or smuggled versions of the biotechnology company's Roundup Ready variety for years, will no longer have to worry about breaking the law or facing legal action from Monsanto as long as regulators approve the seeds for planting."
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, public attention was drawn to suicides by indebted farmers following crop failures. For example, in the early 2000s, farmers in Andhra Pradesh (AP) were in economic crisis due to high-interest rates and crop failures, leading to widespread unrest and farmer suicides. Monsanto was one focus of protests with respect to the price and yields of Bt seed. In 2005, the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee, the Indian regulatory authority, released a study on field tests of certain Bt cotton strains in AP and ruled that Monsanto could not market those strains in AP because of poor yields. At about the same time, the state agriculture minister barred the company from selling Bt cotton seed, because Monsanto refused a request by the state government to provide pay about Rs 4.5 crore (about one million US$) to indebted farmers in some districts, and because the government blamed Monsanto's seeds for crop failures. The order was later lifted.
In 2006, AP tried to convince Monsanto to reduce the price of Bt seeds. Unsatisfied, the state filed several cases against Monsanto and its Mumbai-based licensee, Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds. Research by International Food Policy Research Institute found no evidence supporting an increased suicide rate following the introduction of Bt cotton and that Bt cotton. The report stated that farmer suicides predated commercial introduction in 2002 (and unofficial introduction in 2001) and that such suicides had made up a fairly constant portion of the overall national suicide rate since 1997. The report concluded that while Bt cotton may have been a factor in specific suicides, the contribution was likely marginal compared to socio-economic factors. As of 2009, Bt cotton was planted in 87% of Indian cotton-growing land.
Critics including Vandana Shiva said that the crop failures could "often be traced to" Monsanto's Bt cotton, that the seeds increased farmer indebtedness and argued that Monsanto misrepresented the profitability of their Bt Cotton, causing losses leading to debt. In 2009, Shiva wrote that Indian farmers who had previously spent as little as ₹7 (rupees) per kilogram were now paying up to ₹17,000 per kilo per year for Bt cotton. In 2012 the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and the Central Cotton Research Institute (CCRI) stated that for the first time farmer suicides could be linked to a decline in the performance of Bt cotton, and advised, "cotton farmers are in a deep crisis since shifting to Bt cotton. The spate of farmer suicides in 2011–12 has been particularly severe among Bt cotton farmers."
In 2004, in response to an order from the Bombay High Court the Tata Institute produced a report on farmer suicides in Maharashtra in 2005. The survey cited "government apathy, the absence of a safety net for farmers, and lack of access to information related to agriculture as the chief causes for the desperate condition of farmers in the state."
Various studies identified the important factors as insufficient or risky credit systems, the difficulty of farming semi-arid regions, poor agricultural income, absence of alternative income opportunities, a downturn in the urban economy which forced non-farmers into farming and the absence of suitable counseling services. ICAR and CCRI stated that the cost of cotton cultivation had jumped as a consequence of rising pesticide costs, while total Bt cotton production in the five years from 2007 to 2012 had declined.
Brofiscin Quarry was used as a waste site from about 1965 to 1972 and accepted waste from BP, Veolia and Monsanto. A 2005 report by Environmental Agency Wales (EAW) found that the quarry contained up to 75 toxic substances, including heavy metals, Agent Orange and PCBs.
In February 2011 Monsanto agreed to help with the costs of remediation, but did not accept responsibility for the pollution. In 2011 EAW and the Rhondda Cynon Taf council announced that they had decided to place an engineered cap over the waste mass and stated that the cost would be 1.5 million pounds; previous estimates had been as high as £100 million.
In the late 1960s, the Monsanto plant in Sauget, Illinois, was the nation's largest producer of PCBs, which remained in the water along Dead Creek there. An EPA official referred to Sauget as "one of the most polluted communities in the region" and "a soup of different chemicals".
In Anniston, Alabama, plaintiffs in a 2002 lawsuit provided documentation showing that the local Monsanto factory knowingly discharged both mercury and PCB-laden waste into local creeks for over 40 years. In 1969 Monsanto dumped 45 tons of PCBs into Snow Creek, a feeder for Choccolocco Creek, which supplies much of the area's drinking water, and buried millions of pounds of PCB in open-pit landfills located on hillsides above the plant and surrounding neighborhoods. In August 2003, Solutia and Monsanto agreed to pay plaintiffs $700 million to settle claims by over 20,000 Anniston residents.
As of November 2013, Monsanto was associated with nine "active" Superfund sites and 32 "archived" sites in the US, in the EPA's Superfund database. Monsanto was sued and settled multiple times for damaging the health of its employees or residents near its Superfund sites through pollution and poisoning.
In 2013 a Monsanto-developed strain of glyphosate-resistant wheat (a GMO) was discovered on a farm in Oregon, growing as a weed or "volunteer plant". The final Oregon field test had occurred in 2001. As of May 2013, the GMO seed source was unknown. Volunteer wheat from a former test field two miles away was tested and was not found to be glyphosate-tolerant. Monsanto faced penalties up to $1 million over potential violations of the Plant Protection Act. The discovery threatened world-leading US wheat exports, which totaled $8.1 billion in 2012. This wheat variety was rarely exported to Europe and was more likely destined for Asia. Monsanto said it had destroyed all the material it held after completing trials in 2004 and it was "mystified" by its appearance. On June 14, 2013, the USDA announced: "As of today, USDA has neither found nor been informed of anything that would indicate that this incident amounts to more than a single isolated incident in a single field on a single farm. All information collected so far shows no indication of the presence of GE wheat in commerce." As of August 30, 2013, while the source of the GM wheat remained unknown, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan had all resumed placing orders.
Cancer risks of Roundup
Over 8,000 cancer patients are suing Monsanto in numerous state courts for failure to warn the public about the risk of cancer associated with Roundup weedkiller. The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer published a report linking glyphosate (the primary ingredient in Roundup) to cancer for humans. Monsanto denies that Roundup is carcinogenic.
On August 10, 2018, a San Francisco jury in a superior court, awarded Dewayne Johnson $289 million dollars in damages for linking his terminal cancer (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) to RoundUp weedkiller.
There is limited evidence human cancer risk might increase as a result of occupational exposure to large amounts of glyphosate, such as agricultural work, but no good evidence of such a risk from home use, such as in domestic gardening. The consensus among national pesticide regulatory agencies and scientific organizations is that labeled uses of glyphosate have demonstrated no evidence of human carcinogenicity. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization, European Commission, Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment have concluded that there is no evidence that glyphosate poses a carcinogenic or genotoxic risk to humans. The EPA has classified glyphosate as Group E, meaning "evidence of non-carcinogenicity in humans". Only one international scientific organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), affiliated with the WHO, has made claims of carcinogenicity in research reviews. The IARC has been criticized for its assessment methodology by failing to consider the broad literature and only assessing hazard rather than risk.
March Against Monsanto
A worldwide protest against Monsanto and GMOs took place on May 25, 2013. The number of protesters who took part is uncertain; figures of "hundreds of thousands" or "two million" were variously cited. According to organizers, protesters in 436 cities and 52 countries took part.
Organizers planned a second day of protests in May 2014, and in a statement released before the event said that millions of activists would join marches in over 400 cities in 52 countries on six continents. The day of protest took place on May 24.
Improper accounting for incentive rebates
From 2009 to 2011, Monsanto improperly accounted for incentive rebates. The actions inflated Monsanto's reported profit by $31 million over the two years. Monsanto paid $80 million in penalties pursuant to a subsequent settlement with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. Monsanto materially misstated its consolidated earnings in response to losing market share of Roundup to generic producers. Monsanto overhauled its internal controls. Two of their top CPAs were suspended and Monsanto was required to hire, at their expense, an independent ethics/compliance consultant for two years.
Alleged ghostwriting controversy
A review of glyphosate's carcinogenic potential by four independent expert panels, with a comparison to the IARC assessment, was published in September 2016. Using emails released in August 2017 by plaintiffs' lawyers who are suing Monsanto, Bloomberg Business Week reported that "Monsanto scientists were heavily involved in organizing, reviewing, and editing drafts submitted by the outside experts." A Monsanto spokesperson responded that Monsanto had provided only non-substantive cosmetic copyediting.
Monsanto regularly lobbies the US government with expenses reaching $8.8 million in 2008 and $6.3 million in 2011. In comparison, the 20th highest spender, Pfizer, spent $12.9 million. $2 million was spent on matters concerning "Foreign Agriculture Biotechnology Laws, Regulations, and Trade". Some US diplomats in Europe at other times worked directly for Monsanto.
Monsanto made political contributions of $186,250 to federal candidates in the 2008 election cycle through its political action committee (PAC) (42% to Democrats, 58% to Republicans) and $305,749 in the 2010 election cycle (48% Democrat, 52% Republicans).
California's 2012 Proposition 37 would have mandated the disclosure of genetically modified crops used in the production of California food products. Monsanto spent $8.1 million opposing passage, making it the largest contributor against the initiative. The proposition was rejected by a 53.7% majority. Labeling is not required in the US.
Monsanto is a member of the Washington D.C based Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), the world's largest biotechnology trade association, which provides "advocacy, business development, and communications services." Between 2010 and 2011 BIO spent a total of $16.43 million on lobbying.
As of October 2013, Monsanto and DuPont Co. continued backing an anti-labeling campaign, spending roughly $18 million. The state of Washington, along with 26 other states, made proposals in November to require GMO labeling.
In the US regulatory environment, many individuals move back and forth between positions in the public and private sectors, including at Monsanto. Critics argued that the connections between the company and the government allowed Monsanto to obtain favorable regulations at the expense of consumer safety. Supporters of the practice point to the benefits of competent and experienced individuals in both sectors and to the importance of appropriately managing potential conflicts of interest.:16–23 The list of such people includes:
- Earle H. Harbison Jr., Central Intelligence Agency Deputy Director, then President, Chief Operating Officer, and Director, from 1986 to 1993.
- Michael A. Friedman, MD—FDA deputy commissioner.
- Linda J. Fisher—EPA assistant administrator, then Monsanto VP from 1995 to 2000. then EPA deputy administrator.
- Michael R. Taylor—assistant to the FDA commissioner, then attorney for King & Spalding, then FDA deputy commissioner for policy on food safety between 1991 and 1994. He was cleared of conflict of interest accusations. Then he became Monsanto's VP for Public Policy, becoming Senior Advisor to the FDA Commissioner for the Obama administration.
- Clarence Thomas—Supreme Court Justice who worked as an attorney for Monsanto in the 1970s, then wrote the majority opinion in J. E. M. Ag Supply, Inc. v. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. finding that "newly developed plant breeds are patentable under the general utility patent laws of the United States."
- Mickey Kantor—US trade representative, then Monsanto board member.
- William D. Ruckelshaus—EPA Administrator, then acting Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and then Deputy Attorney General of the United States, then EPA administrator, then Monsanto Board member.
- Blanche Lincoln—US Senator and chair of Agriculture Committee, then founder of lobbying firm Lincoln Policy Group
- Robert Holifield—chief of staff of Senate Agriculture Committee, then partner in Lincoln Policy Group.
During the late 1990s, Monsanto lobbied to raise permitted glyphosate levels in soybeans and was successful in convincing Codex Alimentarius and both the UK and US governments to lift levels 200 times to 20 milligrams per kilogram of soya.:265 When asked how negotiations with Monsanto were conducted, Lord Donoughue, then the Labour Party Agriculture minister in the House of Lords, stated that all information relating to the matter would be "kept secret".:265 During the 24 months prior to the 1997 British election Monsanto representatives had 22 meetings at the departments of Agriculture and the Environment.:266 Stanley Greenberg, an election advisor to Tony Blair, later worked as a Monsanto consultant.:266 Former Labour spokesperson David Hill, became Monsanto's media adviser at the lobbying firm Bell Pottinger.:266 The Labour government was challenged in Parliament about "trips, facilities, gifts and other offerings of financial value provided by Monsanto to civil servants", but only acknowledged that Department of Trade and Industry had two working lunches with Monsanto.:267 Peter Luff, then a Conservative Party MP and Chairman of the Agriculture Select Committee, received up to £10,000 a year from Bell Pottinger on behalf of Monsanto.:266
In January 2011, WikiLeaks documents suggested that US diplomats in Europe responded to a request for help from the Spanish government. One report stated, "In addition, the cables show US diplomats working directly for GM companies such as Monsanto. 'In response to recent urgent requests by [Spanish rural affairs ministry] state secretary Josep Puxeu and Monsanto, post requests renewed US government support of Spain's science-based agricultural biotechnology position through high-level US government intervention.'" The leaked documents showed that in 2009, when the Spanish government's policy approving MON810 was under pressure from EU interests, Monsanto's Director for Biotechnology for Spain and Portugal requested that the US government support Spain on the matter. The leaks indicated that Spain and the US had worked closely together to "persuade the EU not to strengthen biotechnology laws". Spain was viewed as a key GMO supporter and a leading indicator of support across the continent. The leaks also revealed that in response to an attempt by France to ban MON810 in late 2007, then-US ambassador to France, Craig Roberts Stapleton, asked Washington to "calibrate a targeted retaliation list that [would cause] some pain across the EU", targeting countries that did not support the use of GM crops. This activity transpired after the US, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India, Mexico and New Zealand had brought an action against Europe via the World Trade Organization with respect to the EU's banning of GMOs; in 2006, the WTO had ruled against the EU.
Monsanto was a member of EuropaBio, the leading biotechnology trade group in Europe. One of EuropaBio's initiatives is "Transforming Europe's position on GM food". It found "an urgent need to reshape the terms of the debate about GM in Europe". EuropaBio proposed the recruitment of high-profile "ambassadors" to lobby EU officials.
In September 2017 Monsanto lobbyists were banned from the European parliament after the Monsanto refused to attend a parliamentary hearing into allegations of regulatory interference.
After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Monsanto donated $255,000 for disaster relief and 60,000 seed sacks (475 tons) of hybrid (non-GM) corn and vegetable seeds worth $4 million. However, a Catholic Relief Services (CRS) rapid assessment of seed supply and demand for the five most common food security crops found that the Haitians had enough seed and recommended that imported seeds be introduced only on a small scale. Emmanuel Prophete, head of Haiti's Ministry of Agriculture's Service National Semencier (SNS), stated that SNS was not opposed to the hybrid maize seeds because they at least double yields. Louise Sperling, Principal Researcher at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) told HGW that she was not opposed to hybrids, but noted that most hybrids required extra water and better soils and that most of Haiti was not appropriate for hybrids.
Activists objected that some of the seeds were coated with the fungicides Maxim or thiram. In the United States, pesticides containing thiram are banned in home garden products because most home gardeners do not have adequate protection. Activists wrote that the coated seeds were handled in a dangerous manner by the recipients.
The donated seeds were sold at a reduced price in local markets. However, farmers feared that they were being given seeds that would "threaten local varieties" and an estimated 8,000–12,000 farmers attended a protest of the donation on June 4, 2010, organized by a Haitian farmers' association, the Peasant Movement of Papay, where a small pile of seeds was symbolically burned.
Monsanto has engaged in various public relations campaigns to improve its image and public perception of some of its products. These include developing a relationship with scientist Richard Doll with respect to Agent Orange. Other campaigns include the joint funding with other biotech companies for the website GMO Answers.
- Disneyland attractions, namely:
- Monsanto has donated $10 million to the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis since the 1970s, which named its 1998 plant science facility the 'Monsanto Center'.
- Field Museum
- Gregor Mendel exhibit and "Underground Adventures" since 2011 "about the importance and fragility of the ecosystem within soil".
- "Monsanto Environmental Education Initiative", led by Gregory M. Mueller
- Chair of the Department of Botany and Associate Curator of Mycology
- Staff of the Field Museum, such as Curator Mark W. Westneat, attended Monsanto meetings
- Monsanto Insectarium at the St. Louis Zoo, in St. Louis, Missouri
In 2009 Monsanto was chosen as Forbes magazine's company of the year. In 2010 Swiss research firm Covalence rated Monsanto least ethical of 581 multinational corporations based on their EthicalQuote reputation tracking index which "aggregates thousands of positive and negative news items published by the media, companies, and stakeholders". without attempt to validate sources. The journal Science ranked Monsanto in it's Top 20 Employers list between 2011 and 2014. In 2012, it described the company as "innovative leader in the industry", "makes changes needed" and "does important quality research". Monsanto executive Robert Fraley won the World Food Prize for "breakthrough achievements in founding, developing, and applying modern agricultural biotechnology".
- Biological patents in the United States
- DuPont Pioneer
- Genetically modified food controversies
- Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories
- Monsanto legal cases
- Temporal analysis of products
- "US SEC: Form 10-K Monsanto Company". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- "The race towards the first genetically modified plant". Plant Biotech News. 19 June 2013.
- Dorothy Leonard-Barton, Gary P. Pisano. January 29, 1990. Harvard Business Review: Case Studies. Monsanto's March into Biotechnology
- "Competition Issues in the Seed Industry and the Role of Intellectual Property". Choicesmagazine.org. November 21, 2009. Archived from the original on March 2, 2013.
- Schneider, Keith (June 10, 1990) Betting the Farm on Biotech. The New York Times.
- Burrone, Esteban (2006) Patents at the Core: the Biotech Business. WIPO
- Economic Research Service/USDA The Seed Industry in U.S. Agriculture: An Exploration of Data and Information on Crop Seed Markets, Regulation, Industry Structure, and Research and Development Archived November 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Shiva, Vandana (February 6, 2012) The seed emergency: The threat to food and democracy, Aljazeera.
- Parsai, Gargi (February 5, 2012). "Opposition to Monsanto patent on Indian melons". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- Vidal, John (November 15, 2000). "Biopirates who seek the greatest prizes". London: The Guardian.
- Barboza, David. "Monsanto and Pharmacia to Join, Creating a Pharmaceutical Giant". Retrieved 2018-06-15.
- Glick, J. Leslie (September 1, 2015). "Biotech Firms Need Innovation Strategies". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. p. 11. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Erik Simani, World Resources Institute. 2001. The Monsanto Company: Quest for Sustainability
- "Our history - Early years". Monsanto official website. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- Marc S. Reisch for Chemical & Engineering News. January 12, 1998 From Coal Tar to Crafting a Wealth of Diversity
- Robert Ancuceanu. Saccharin – urban myths and scientific data Practica Farmaceutică 2011 4(2):69-72
- Warner, Deborah Jean (2011). Sweet Stuff: An American History of Sweeteners from Sugar to Sucralose. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. pp. 182–190. ISBN 978-1935623052.
- Spain, William (2006-10-03). "Yes, in My Backyard: Tiny Sauget, Illinois, Likes Business Misfits". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
- "Poisoned By PCBs: 'A Lack of Control'". Chemical Industry Archives. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Head, Thomas R., III (Spring 2005). "PCBs—The Rise and Fall of an Industrial Miracle" (PDF). Natural Resources & Environment: 18. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Montague, Peter. "How We Got Here -- Part 1: The History of Chlorinated Diphenyl (PCB's)". HudsonWatch.net.
- Ralph Landau, "Charles Allen Thomas," Memorial Tributes, vol. 2, National Academy of Engineering
- David Bird, "Charles Thomas, Ex-Chairman of Monsanto" (obituary), The New York Times, March 31, 1982.
- Dayton Daily News. September 18, 1983 "Building the Bomb in Oakwood".
- Harvey V. Moyer, ed., Polonium. TID-5221, Atomic Energy Commission U.S.A., July 1956
- Published: September 15, 2003 (September 15, 2003). "Unilever (Lever Brothers Co.) | AdAge Encyclopedia of Advertising – Advertising Age". Adage.com.
- "Fire on the Grandcamp". Texas City, TX: Moore Memorial Public Library. n.d. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Wallace, Cynthia Day (1982). Legal control of the multinational enterprise : national regulatory techniques and the prospects for international controls. The Hague: Nijhoff. p. 188. ISBN 9789024726684.
- Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). EPA.gov (June 28, 2006).
- "PCBs: Production, Import/Export, Use, and Disposal", Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, at 467.
- William S. Knowles. ASYMMETRIC HYDROGENATIONS. Nobel Lecture, December 8, 2001
- Yun, O. (November 22, 2005). "Profile of William S. Knowles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (47): 16913–16915. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507546102. PMC . PMID 16286647.
- "June - 1964 - AstroTurf". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Agent Orange" entry in Encyclopedia of United States National Security, edited by Richard J. Samuel. SAGE Publications, 2005. ISBN 9781452265353
- E. Fred Schubert (2003). "1". Light-Emitting Diodes. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-8194-3956-8.
- Patricia K Donahoe. Judah Folkman: 1933–2008. A Biographical Memoir National Academy of Sciences, 2014
- Harvard Medical School Bio at Harvard Medical School
- Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations. accessdata.fda.gov
- "Patent US5466823 – Substituted pyrazolyl benzenesulfonamides – Google Patents".
- "Drug Approval Package: Celebrex (Celecoxib) NDA# 20-998". Accessdata.fda.gov.
- Frank, Robert & Hensley, Scott (July 16, 2002). "Pfizer to Buy Pharmacia For $60 Billion in Stock". The Wall Street Journal.
- "General information – Posilac". Monsanto. 2007. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008.
- "WR Grace Sells Agracetus to Monsanto for $150M" (PDF) (Press release). W. R. Grace. April 8, 1996 – via BiotechProfiles.
- "Justice Department Approves Monsanto's Acquisition of Dekalb Genetics Corporation" (Press release). United States Department of Justice. November 30, 1998. Archived from the original on February 18, 2004.
- "Monsanto closes $1.4 billion buy of Seminis". St. Louis Business Journal. 23 March 2005. Retrieved 2018-01-06.
- Deogun, Nikhil; Langreth, Robert; Burton, Thomas M. (20 December 1999). "Pharmacia & Upjohn, Monsanto Boards Approve $27 Billion Merger of Equals". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2018-01-06.
- Barboza, David (20 December 1999). "Monsanto and Pharmacia to Join, Creating a Pharmaceutical Giant". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-01-06.
- "Monsanto Raises $700 Million in IPO". Los Angeles Times. Bloomberg News. October 18, 2000.
- Sorkin, Andrew Ross (2002-07-15). "Pfizer Said to Buy Large Drug Rival in $60 Billion Deal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
- Staff, CNN/Money. April 16, 2003 It's official: Pfizer buys Pharmacia
- "Monsanto to Acquire Emergent Genetics, Stoneville and NexGen Cotton Brands". Seed Today. February 17, 2005. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013.
- Ian Berry Journal (2012-06-26). "Monsanto Digs Into Seeds". The Wall Street.
- "Monsanto Company Completes Acquisition of Delta and Pine Land Company, Seeks Approval of Related Divestitures". June 1, 2007.
- "Monsanto reaches agreement with Department of Justice to acqui". Hpj.com. June 7, 2007.
- Twine, Richard (2010). Animals As Biotechnology: Ethics, Sustainability and Critical Animal Studies. Earthscan. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-1-84977-635-6.
- No Till Farmer. May 1, 2007 Monsanto Further Extends Reach Into Biotech With BASF Deal
- "BASF-Gruppe: Interview Dr. Jürgen Hambrecht zur Zusammenarbeit mit Monsanto". Corporate.basf.com. March 21, 2007.
- "De Ruiter Seeds Acquisition". Reuters. March 31, 2008.
- "Eli Lilly and Company to Acquire Monsanto's POSILAC Brand Dairy Product and Related Business". August 20, 2008. Archived from the original on June 3, 2010.
- Berry, Ian (23 May 2012) Monsanto to Buy Planting Technology Company The Wall Street Journal, Retrieved 16 July 2014
- Gillam, Carey (2 October 2013). "Monsanto posts deeper fourth-quarter loss, unveils acquisition". Reuters.
- Vance, Ashlee (2 October 2013) Monsanto's Billion-Dollar Bet Brings Big Data to the Farm Bloomberg Business Week, Technology, Retrieved 16 July 2014
- Gara, Antoine. "Monsanto Drops $46.5B Bid For Syngenta, Paving Way For Stock Buyback Amid Market Rout". Forbes. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Jones, David (2015-12-10). "Dow-DuPont merger could create global farm supply giant". Farmers Weekly. Retrieved 2016-09-07.
- "Department of the Army Justification and Approval for Other Than Full and Open Competition". www.fbo.gov. January 29, 2013.
- "Devgen to Acquire Rice, Sunflower, Sorghum and Pearl Millet Businesses in India and Other Asian Countries From Monsanto". monsanto.com.
- "Newsham Genetics Acquiring Monsanto Choice Genetics". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto Company Acquires Agroeste Sementes, a Brazilian Corn Seed Company". monsanto.com.
- "Eli Lilly and Company to Acquire Monsanto's POSILAC Brand Dairy Product and Related Business". monsanto.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017.
- "Monsanto Company to Invest in Technologies for Sugarcane With Acquisitions of CanaVialis and Alellyx". monsanto.com.
- "Syngenta to Acquire Monsanto's Global Sunflower Assets". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto Acquires Agricultural Technology Leader Divergence, Inc". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto Acquires Targeted-Pest Control Technology Start-Up". monsanto.com.
- "The Climate Corporation Acquires 640 Labs, Team to Bolster Industry-Leading Data Science Capabilities". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto Acquires Select Assets of Agradis, Inc. to Support Work in Agricultural Biologicals". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto Acquires Plant Trait Developer Rosetta Green". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto's American Seeds, Inc. Announces Five Acquisitions to Support Locally-Oriented Business Model". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto's American Seeds, Inc. Announces Two Strategic Acquisitions to Support Locally-Oriented Business Model". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto Adds NC+ Hybrids to American Seeds, Inc., Bolstering Regional Seed Company Approach to Serve Farmers". monsanto.com.
- "New Additions to American Seeds, Inc. Accelerate Growth in Monsanto's Regional Seed Company Approach". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto Forms American Seeds, Inc., an Investment Vehicle for Regional Seed Companies". monsanto.com.
- "Monsanto Forms Holding Company to Invest in International Fruit and Vegetable Seed Companies". monsanto.com.
- Alessi, Christopher (May 23, 2016). "Bayer Makes $62 Billion Bid for Monsanto". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- "Bayer confirms $66bn Monsanto takeover". BBC News. September 14, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
- Shevlin, Anthony; Drozdiak, Natalia (2017-10-13). "Bayer to Sell Assets to BASF for $7 Billion Amid Scrutiny of Monsanto Megadeal". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
- "Competition Bureau asks Bayer to divest some Canadian assets to win Monsanto deal approval". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
- White, Aoife (March 21, 2018). "Bayer Clears EU Hurdle for Monsanto Deal With BASF Sale". Bloomberg News. New York City: Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- "US set to approve Bayer-Monsanto deal with divestures". Financial Times. Retrieved 2018-06-05.(subscription required)
- "Bayer Wins U.S. Approval for Monsanto After Two-Year Quest". Bloomberg.com. 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
- "Bayer to ditch Monsanto name after closing €54bn deal". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
- Daniels, Jeff (2018-06-07). "Germany's Bayer closes $63 billion Monsanto takeover, plans to drop US company's name". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
- Farm Chemicals International Glyphosate entry in Crop Protection Database
- Mitchem W. "Mirror or Mirror on the Wall Show Me the Best Glyphosate Formulation of All" (PDF). North Carolina State University Extension. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- Hartzler B. "ISU Weed Science Online - Glyphosate - A Review". Iowa State University Extension.
- Tu M, Hurd C, Robison R, Randall JM (November 1, 2001). "Glyphosate" (PDF). Weed Control Methods Handbook. The Nature Conservancy.
- "The debate over whether Monsanto is a corporate sinner or saint". The Economist. November 19, 2009. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- Cavallaro M (June 26, 2009). "The Seeds Of A Monsanto Short Play". Forbes. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- Latzke, Jennifer M. (August 10, 2010). "Roundup Ready soybean trait patent nears expiration in 2014". High Plains Journal.
- Person, Daniel (28 September 2009). "Sale could change wheat industry: WestBred's owner Monsanto looks to develop 'genetically modified' varieties". Missoulian. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- Patently-O Blog, September 26, 2011. When Monsanto's Patents Expire
- Andrew Pollack, "As Patent Ends, a Seed's Use Will Survive", The New York Times. December 17, 2009.
- Illinois Soybean Association Get Ready: Post-Patent Roundup Ready 1 Era Coming
- Monsanto Official Website Roundup Ready Soybean Patent Expiration
- "Monsanto Will Let Bio-Crop Patents Expire". Business Week. January 21, 2010.
- Monsanto. Roundup Ready Soybean Patent Expiration
- "Monsanto ~ Licensing". Monsanto.com. November 3, 2008.
- Monsanto GMO Ignites Big Seed War. NPR.
- "User Agreement and Legal Information". Syngenta.com.
- "Agronomy Library – Pioneer Hi-Bred Agronomy Library". Pioneer.com.
- Genetically Altered Potato Ok'd For Crops Lawrence Journal-World, May 6, 1995.
- Crop Biotech Update (August 27, 2010). "Monsanto's Bt Roundup Ready 2 Yield Soybeans Approved for Planting in Brazil – Crop Biotech Update (8/27/2010) | ISAAA.org/KC". Isaaa.org.
- "Agribusiness: Monsanto unveils Genuity branding". SE Farm News, March 2, 2009.
- "The CLEARFIELD Production System for Wheat". Agproducts.basf.us.
- "Monsanto ~ Agricultural Seeds". Monsanto.com. November 3, 2008.
- OECD BioTrack Database. MON87460
- Federal Register, Vol. 76, No. 248, December 27, 2011.
- Michael Eisenstein "Plant breeding: Discovery in a dry spell" Nature 501, S7–S9 (26 September 2013) Published online September 25, 2013.
- Roundup Ready Xtend Crop System Accessed May 11, 2013
- "Roundup Ready 2 Xtend Finally Approved by China". AgWeb - The Home Page of Agriculture. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Bunge, Jacob (2016-05-02). "Grain Traders Rejecting New Soybeans Developed by Monsanto". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- "Monsanto ~ Cotton In India". Monsanto.com. November 3, 2008.
- "Bt cotton ineffective against pest in parts of Gujarat, admits Monsanto". The Hindu. Chennai, India. March 6, 2010.
- "Monsanto 'admission' has business motives?". The Hindu. Chennai, India. March 12, 2010.
- Ghosh, Pallab (June 17, 2003), "India's GM seed Piracy", BBC News.
- "Jhabua on its way to becoming Vidarbha-II?". Chennai, India: Hindu.com. August 25, 2009.
- "Monsanto ~ Monsanto Vegetable Seeds". Monsanto.com. Archived from the original on June 10, 2012.
- Wired (2015). "Monsanto is going organic in a quest for the perfect veggie".
- Erickson, Mitchell D.; Kaley, II, Robert G. "Applications of polychlorinated biphenyls" (pdf). Springer-Verlag. Retrieved 2015-03-03.
- Crompton, T R (1 June 2002). Determination of Organic Compounds in Natural and Treated Waters. CRC Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-203-01635-0.
- "Health Effects of PCBs", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
- Karlyn Black Kaley; Jim Carlisle; David Siegel; Julio Salinas (October 2006). Health Concerns and Environmental Issues with PVC-Containing Building Materials in Green Buildings (PDF). Integrated Waste Management Board, California Environmental Protection Agency, USA. p. 11.
- "PCB's in NYC Schools - Region 2 - US EPA". Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "International Agreements and Treaties on Pesticides", Pesticides: International Activities, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015.
- Hay, Alastair (1 September 1982). The Chemical Scythe: Lessons of 2,4,5-T and Dioxin. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-0-306-40973-8.
- Dohoo, I. R.; Leslie, K.; Descôteaux, L.; Fredeen, A.; Dowling, P.; Preston, A.; Shewfelt, W. (2003). "A meta-analysis review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin. 1. Methodology and effects on production". Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire. 67 (4): 241–251. PMC . PMID 14620860.
- Dohoo, I. R.; Descôteaux, L.; Leslie, K.; Fredeen, A.; Shewfelt, W.; Preston, A.; Dowling, P. (2003). "A meta-analysis review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin. 2. Effects on animal health, reproductive performance, and culling". Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire. 67 (4): 252–264. PMC . PMID 14620861.
- "Eli Lilly to Buy Monsanto's Dairy Cow Hormone for $300 million – DealBook Blog". The New York Times. August 20, 2008.
- Dobson, William D. (June 1996) The BST Case. University of Wisconsin-Madison Agricultural and Applied Economics Staff Paper Series No. 397
- Fighting on a Battlefield the Size of a Milk Label, The New York Times, March 9, 2008
- "AFACT: American Farmers for the Advancement and Conservation of Technology". Itisafact.org.
- "RAFI on new Terminator patent". Ngin.tripod.com.
- "Context of 'July 20, 1999: USDA and Delta & Pine Land Secure New Patent for Improvements in Terminator Genetic Seed Sterilization Technology'". Historycommons.org.
- Warwick, Hugh (October 2000). Wijeratna, Alex; Meienberg, François; Meienberg, eds. "Syngenta – Switching off farmers' rights?" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2011.
- "Monsanto ~ Is Monsanto Going to Develop or Sell "Terminator" Seeds?". Monsanto.com. November 3, 2008.
- "Introduction / The Issues /". Ban Terminator. June 1, 2007.
- "Farmers welcome halt of 'terminator'". BBC News. October 5, 1999.
- "CAS 38-4 24 Oct 2006.vp" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 31, 2013.
- Vidal, John (October 5, 1999). "World braced for terminator 2". London: Guardian.
- "Monsanto Company History" monsanto.com
- Reuters (2013-05-29). "Unapproved Monsanto GMO Wheat Found in Oregon". CNBC. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- Regalado, Antonio. "These are not your father's GMOs". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- "Pioneer Hi Bred International v. Does 1–5". Scribd.com. May 14, 2012.
- "J.E.M. Supply v. Pioneer Hi-Bred International | The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law". Oyez.org.
- "Syngenta sues to stop illegal sales of COKER seed varieties". Hpj.com.
- The Soy Republic of Argentina. Towardfreedom.com (September 2, 2009).
- GM soya 'miracle' turns sour in Argentina. The Guardian (April 16, 2004).
- Carlos Reboratti (2010) "A sea of soybean: Consequences of the new agriculture in Argentina (Un mar de soja: La nueva agricultura en Argentina y sus consecuencias)". Norte Grande Geography Journal Revista de geografía Norte Grande 45: 63–76.
- Seeds of conflict take root in debate over Michigan farming bill. Cropchoice.com, January 31, 2006.
- "Monsanto podrá continuar con obra civil pero no con operativa" (in Spanish). La Voz. April 23, 2013.
- Marín, Emiliom (December 2, 2013). "Monsanto contamina el medio ambiente y también la democracia". Argenpress.info.
- "Ratifican que Monsanto podrá continuar con la obra civil" (in Spanish). La Voz. October 10, 2013.
- Gonzalez, Pablo Rosendo (2016-06-14). "Monsanto-Argentina Seed Pact Said to Become Effective Next Week". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2016-12-15.
- Chu, Henry; Hirsh, Jerry (21 August 2005). "The High Costs of Brazil Turning into an Agro-Export Superpower". www.organicconsumers.org. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
- "Monsanto's GM Soybeans Drive Toxics, Deforestation, and Social Conflict in Latin America".
- "GM crops in Brazil: An amber light for agri-business". The Economist (October 2, 2003).
- Americas | Brazil activists target Monsanto. BBC News (June 3, 2003).
- "Brazil Approves Law to Legalize Genetically Modified Crops". Enn.com (March 4, 2005).
- "郎咸平：孟山都的转基因帝国-大豆、玉米与棉花". Wyzxsx.com. January 28, 2010. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010.
- FRONTLINE/WORLD. Rough Cut. Seeds of Suicide. PBS (July 26, 2005).
- "India PM pledge over suicide farmers". BBC News. July 1, 2004.
- The Hindu Business Line. May 26, 2005 Nuziveedu launches Bt cotton strains
- "Angry Andhra uproots Monsanto". financialexpress.com. Hyderabad. June 23, 2005.
- A.P. Government files contempt petition before MRTPC against Monsanto, The Hindu, June 27, 2006.
- Gruère, Guillaume; Sengupta, Debdatta (2011). "Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: An Evidence-based Assessment". The Journal of Development Studies. 47 (2): 316–37. doi:10.1080/00220388.2010.492863. PMID 21506303. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Doubts surround link between Bt cotton failure and farmer suicide : Article : Nature Biotechnology". Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- Guillaume P. Gruère, Purvi Mehta-Bhatt and Debdatta Sengupta (2008). "Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: Reviewing the Evidence" (PDF). International Food Policy Research Institute.
- Choudhary, B. & Gaur, K. 2010. Bt Cotton in India: A Country Profile. ISAAA Series of Biotech Crop Profiles. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY.
- Vandana Shiva on Farmer Suicides, the U.S.-India Nuclear Deal, Wal-Mart in India and More. Democracy Now! (December 13, 2006).
- Peled, M. X. (Producer and Director) (2011, September 1). Bitter Seeds (motion picture). United States: Teddy Bear Films.
- Scott, Daniel James (February 9, 2012). "Director Micha X. Peled on Bitter Seeds". Filmmaker. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- Shiva, Vandana (April 28, 2009). "Vandana Shiva: From Seeds of Suicide to Seeds of Hope: Why Are Indian Farmers Committing Suicide and How Can We Stop This Tragedy?". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Times, Hindustan. "Ministry blames Bt cotton for farmer suicides - Hindustan Times". Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Staff, InfoChange August 2005. 644 farmer suicides in Maharashtra since 2001, says TISS report
- Dandekar A., et al., Tata Institute. "Causes of Farmer Suicides in Maharashtra: An Enquiry. Final Report Submitted to the Mumbai High Court March 15, 2005". Archived August 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Nagraj, K. (2008). "Farmers suicide in India: magnitudes, trends and spatial patterns" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2011.
- Mishra, Srijit (2007). "Risks, Farmers' Suicides and Agrarian Crisis in India: Is There A Way Out?" (PDF). Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR).
- Staff, Wales Online. 17 Oct, 2011 Remedial work to start on quarry
- Burges Salmon LLP. 12 April 2012 Changes to the contaminated land regime Archived September 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- BBC 15 June 2011 Brofiscin Quarry pollution at Groesfaen to be cleaned
- "Monsanto agrees to clean up toxic chemicals in South Wales quarry". The Guardian. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "EA responsibility". Environment Agency Wales. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Rhondda Cynon Taf County Borough Council RCTCBC "Brofiscin" site Archived September 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 1 September 2014
- BBC, 12 February 2007, 22:48 £100m site clean up cost denied
- Spain, William (October 3, 2006). "Tiny Sauget, Illinois, likes business misfits". Post-gazette.com.
- Grunwald, Michael (January 1, 2002). "Monsanto Hid Decades Of Pollution". Washington Post.
- Sack, Kevin (January 27, 2002). "PCB Pollution Suits Have Day in Court in Alabama". The New York Times.
- "$700 million deal announced in Anniston PCBs cases". Associated Press. August 19, 2003.
- EPA superfund search engine Search for "Monsanto" in "Alias/Alternative Site Name" field, first in "active" sites, then "archived" sites, October 20, 2012
- "Monsanto Held Liable For PCB Dumping". The Washington Post. February 22, 2002.
- "The Inside Story: Anniston, AL In-depth: Monsanto knew about PCB toxicity for decades". Chemicalindustryarchives.org.
- Alan Bjerga, "Monsanto Modified Wheat Not Approved by USDA Found in Field", Bloomberg News. May 29, 2013.
- Andrew Pollack, "Modified Wheat Is Discovered in Oregon", The New York Times, May 29, 2013.
- Andy Coghlan (2013-06-03). "Monsanto modified wheat mystery deepens in Oregon". New Scientist.
- Staff, Food Safety News. June 17, 2013. GMO Wheat Found in Oregon Was Isolated Incident, Says USDA
- Associated Press. August 30, 2013. "Source of GMO wheat in Oregon remains mystery".
- "Bayer's Monsanto faces 8,000 lawsuits on glyphosate". Reuters. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (2017). IARC Monographs, Volume 112. Glyphosate, in: Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides (PDF). Lyon: IARC/WHO. pp. 321–412.
- CNN, Story by Holly Yan, CNN Photographs by John Francis Peters for. "Patients: Roundup gave us cancer as EPA official helped the company". CNN. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- CNN, Holly Yan,. "Jurors give $289 million to a man they say got cancer from Monsanto's Roundup weedkiller". CNN. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- "Food Controversies—Pesticides and organic foods". Cancer Research UK. 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- Ibrahim, Yehia A (2015). "A regulatory perspective on the potential carcinogenicity of glyphosate". Journal of Toxicology and Health. 2 (1): 1. doi:10.7243/2056-3779-2-1.
- Tarazona, Jose V.; Court-Marques, Daniele; Tiramani, Manuela; Reich, Hermine; Pfeil, Rudolf; Istace, Frederique; Crivellente, Federica (3 April 2017). "Glyphosate toxicity and carcinogenicity: a review of the scientific basis of the European Union assessment and its differences with IARC". Archives of Toxicology. 91 (8): 2723–2743. doi:10.1007/s00204-017-1962-5. PMC . PMID 28374158.
- "The BfR has finalised its draft report for the re-evaluation of glyphosate - BfR". Retrieved 2018-08-18.
- US EPA, OCSPP (2017-12-18). "EPA Releases Draft Risk Assessments for Glyphosate" (Announcements and Schedules). US EPA. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
- Associated Press. May 25, 2013, Protesters Rally Against U.S. Seed Giant And GMO Products. The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Harmon, Amy (2013-07-27). "A Race to Save the Orange by Altering Its DNA". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
- "Protesters Around the World March Against Monsanto". USA Today. Associated Press. May 26, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Note: Editors have been unable to locate any reliable source that applied crowd counting techniques to estimate the crowds. A few sources reported numbers in the hundreds of thousands; most sources followed an AP article that used the organizers' number of 2 million.
- "Challenging Monsanto: Over two million march the streets of 436 cities, 52 countries". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Millions march against Monsanto in over 400 cities". Yahoo News. May 25, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Quick, David (May 26, 2013). "More than 100 participate in Charleston's March Against Monsanto, one of 300+ in world on Saturday". The Post and Courier. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- March Against Monsanto press release, May 24, 2014. MAM Press Release.
- Bruggerrs, James. "Rally participants demand GMO labeling". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
- Morgenson, Gretchen (2016-09-09). "Monsanto Whistle-Blower: $22 Million Richer, but Not Satisfied". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
- "ORDER INSTITUTING ADMINISTRATIVE AND CEASE-AND-DESIST PROCEEDINGS PURSUANT TO SECTION 8A OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECTIONS 4C AND 21C OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, AND RULE 102(e) OF THE COMMISSION'S RULES OF PRACTICE, MAKING FINDINGS AND IMPOSING REMEDIAL SANCTIONS AND A CEASE-AND-DESIST ORDER" (PDF). SEC.gov. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "Monsanto Was Its Own Ghostwriter for Some Safety Reviews". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- Monsanto spent $2 million lobbying gov't in 3Q, Associated Press December 15, 2011, ©2012 BLOOMBERG L.P.
- Monsanto lobbying expenses, Open Secrets.
- "Lobbying Spending Database – Monsanto Co, 2011". OpenSecrets. September 17, 2012.
- Open Secrets Database Top Twenty Spenders in 2011
- Vidal, John (January 3, 2011). "WikiLeaks: US targets EU over GM crops". The Guardian. London, UK.
- 2008 PAC Summary Data, Open Secrets.
- Vaughan, Adam (November 7, 2012). "Prop 37: Californian voters reject GM food labelling". London: The Guardian.
- "California Heads for Vote on Modified Food Labeling". Businessweek. May 2, 2012.
- Gillam, Carey (August 16, 2012). "Prop 37: California GMO Fight Pits Big Food Against Activists". The Huffington Post.
- "Noted Food Safety Expert Michael R. Taylor Named Advisor to FDA Commissioner". Fda.gov. July 7, 2009.
- Hoffmann, Sandra; Taylor, Michael R. (30 September 2010). Toward Safer Food: Perspectives on Risk and Priority Setting. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-52451-6.
- "Woodrow Wilson Center bio" (PDF). Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- FDA News Release July 7, 2009 Noted Food Safety Expert Michael R. Taylor Named Advisor to FDA Commissioner
- Kenfield, Isabella (August 14, 2009). "The Return of Michael Taylor: Monsanto's Man in the Obama Administration". Counterpunch.
- "Modified crops increase herbicide use, WSU researcher says | Local News | The Seattle Times".
- "About BIO | BIO".
- "Lobbying Spending Database-Biotechnology Industry Organization, 2010 | OpenSecrets".
- "Lobbying Spending Database-Biotechnology Industry Organization, 2011 | OpenSecrets".
- Staff, National Institute on Money in State Politics. Retrieved July 22, 2013 Monsanto page at FollowTheMoney.org
- Staff, Monsanto. Retrieved July 22, 2013 Monsanto's official "Political Disclosures" page
- Federal Election Commission. FEC Form 3x: Report of Receipts and Disbursements, Monsanto Company Citizenship Fund aka Monsanto Citizenship Fund, generated 7/8/2013 Archived May 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- "COMMITTEE DETAILS FOR COMMITTEE ID C00042069". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "LibertyFF report on the Monsanto Citizenship Fund PAC".
- "Monsanto Bets $5 Million in Fight Over Gene-Altered Food". Bloomberg.
- Ferrara, Jennifer (September–October 1998). "Revolving Doors: Monsanto and the Regulators". The Ecologist. 28 (5): 280–286.
- Lewis, Hunter (November 9, 2013). "Monsanto's Friends in High Places". Mises Daily. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- Shen, Aviva (April 10, 2013). "The Real Monsanto Protection Act: How The GMO Giant Corrupts Regulators And Consolidates Its Power". ThinkProgress. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- Stephanie Armour for Bloomberg News. Feb 29, 2012. Food Safety Official's Past Work for Monsanto Spurs Petition for Ouster
- OECD Aug 23 2010 Post-Public Employment: Good Practices for Preventing Conflict of Interest ISBN 9789264056701
- Langreth, Robert and Herper, Matthew, (19 January 2010) The Planet Versus Monsanto Forbes magazine
- "Dr. Michael Friedman, After Serving at the NCI, FDA, and Pharmacia, Returns to Academia as CEO of City of Hope". Journals.lww.com. June 25, 2003. doi:10.1097/01.COT.0000289833.46951.54.
- "Monsanto's Harvest of Fear".
- Layton, Lyndsey (January 14, 2010). "New FDA deputy to lead food-safety mandate". The Washington Post.
- Palast, Gregory (February 21, 1999) Soured milk of Monsanto's 'kindness', The Guardian
- "J. E. M. Ag Supply, Inc. V. Pioneer Hi-Bredinternational, Inc". Law.cornell.edu.
- "Key Supreme Court ruling on plant patents – McEowen, Harl March 2002". Extension.iastate.edu. January 18, 2002.
- "William D. Ruckelshaus". Ruckelshauscenter.wsu.edu.
- "Monsanto Hires Former Sen. Blanche Lincoln As Lobbyist", The Huffington Post.
- Monbiot, George (11 July 2013). Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4472-5247-4.
- Barnett, Antony (July 4, 1999). "Monsanto's lobby firm pays key MP". London: The Guardian.
- Barnett, Antony (July 11, 1999). "Resign call over MP's link with GM food firm". London: The Guardian.
- "U.S. targeted EU on GM foods: WikiLeaks". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. March 9, 2011.
- "Spain's biotech crop under threat (Wikileaks telegram 09MADRID482)". U.S. Department of State. May 19, 2009. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011.,
- "Spain a key ally of pro-GMO America, cables reveal". EUobserver. December 20, 2010.
- Estabrook, Barry (January 17, 2011). "U.S. Presses Europe to Worship Genetically Modified Foods".
- "EE UU: "España nos pide que presionemos a Bruselas a favor de los transgénicos"". El Pais. December 19, 2010.
- Vidal, John (January 3, 2011). "WikiLeaks: US targets EU over GM crops". The Guardian. London, UK.
- Euractive.com EU GMO ban was illegal, WTO rules, euractiv.com (updated May 23, 2007)
- EC – Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products (Disputes DS291, 292, 293), World Trade Organisation.
- Transforming Europe's position on GM food – ambassadors programme executive summary The Guardian, October 20, 2011
- Biotech group bids to recruit high-profile GM 'ambassadors' John Vidal and Hanna Gersmann, The Guardian, October 20, 2011
- Draft letter from EuropaBio to potential GM ambassadors (Draft letter from EuropaBio to potential GM ambassadors seeking their involvement in the outreach programme), The Guardian, October 20, 2011
- Neslen, Arthur (September 28, 2017). "Monsanto banned from European parliament". The Guardian.
- Haitian farmers protest Monsanto seed donations, Hinche, Haiti (AFP) June 4, 2010
- Katz, Jonathan M. (May 14, 2010). "Monsanto gives Haiti $4 million in hybrid seeds". BusinessWeek.
- "A Rapid Seed Assessment in the Southern Department of Haiti." Catholic Relief Services, March 2010
- US EPA: Pesticides – RED Facts Thiram. (PDF).
- "Monsanto in Haiti". Truth-out.org.
- Skorbach, Kristina (June 24 – July 7, 2010). "Haiti GM food aid is a 'trojan horse'" (PDF). The Epoch Times.
- Jenny Hopkinson, "Monsanto's makeover", Politico, 29 November 2013.
- John Vidal, "We forgot to listen, says Monsanto", The Guardian, 6 October 1999.
- Sarah Boseley, "Renowned cancer scientist was paid by chemical firm for 20 years"; The Guardian, 8 December 2006.
- "Industry ‘paid top cancer expert'", BBC, 8 December 2006.
- Tweedale, Geoffrey (2007-04-01). "Hero or Villain?—Sir Richard Doll and Occupational Cancer". International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. 13 (2): 233–235. doi:10.1179/oeh.2007.13.2.233. ISSN 1077-3525. PMID 17718181.
- Eric Lipton, "Food Industry Enlisted Academics in G.M.O. Lobbying War, Emails Show", The New York Times, 9 September 2015.
- Monsanto Hall of Chemistry. Yesterland.com.
- Houses: Make Mine Small, Modular, and Made of Plastic. Alum.mit.edu (April 30, 2010)
- "The Future Won't Wait". Yesterland.com.
- Adventure Thru Inner Space. Yesterland.com.
- Press release "Missouri Botanical Garden receives $3 million gift from Monsanto Company toward development of a World Flora Online." Missouri Botanical Garden, 5 June 2012
- 2007 Annual Report Field Museum, page 10, 2007: "Restricted gifts and grants 100,000 to $249,999"
- Press Release Underground Adventure Field Museum, 2011
- FIELD MUSEUM 1999 ANNUAL REPORT TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES Office of Academic Affairs, The Field Museum, March 20, 2000, page 53
- Office of Collections and Research, The Field Museum The field museum 2012 annual report to the board of trustees page 64.
- Weiner, Juli (2010-10-07). "How Seed Giant Monsanto Went from 2009 Company of the Year to Worst Stock of 2010". The Hive. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- "Covalence Ethical Rankings 2009". 2010-01-26. Archived from the original on 2010-03-17. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "About-Us". Covalence EthicalQuote. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "Methodology". Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
Covalence does not see some sources as more reliable than others. Any source is considered equally. Covalence does not validate information sources, neither the content of information.
- "Across Sectors". 2010-01-26. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- Cesca, Bob (April 9, 2010). "Monsanto leads in genetically modified agriculture, trails in ethics". Daily Finance. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
And where was Monsanto on the list? Dead last. 581 out of 581.
- "Annual Top Employers Survey: Stability in the Face of Change". Science Careers. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Unglesbee, Ben (2014-10-14). "Monsanto makes top 10 on Science's list of best employers". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- "2013 - Van Montagu, Chilton, Fraley". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Executive at Monsanto Wins Global Food Honor". The New York Times. June 20, 2013.
- on YouTube
- Forrestal, Dan J. (1977). Faith, Hope & $5000: The Story of Monsanto, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-22784-X.
- Pechlaner, Gabriela, Corporate Crops: Biotechnology, Agriculture, and the Struggle for Control, University of Texas Press, 2012, ISBN 0292739451
- Robin, Marie-Monique, The World According to Monsanto: Pollution, Corruption, and the Control of the World's Food Supply, New Press, 2009, ISBN 1595584269
- Spears, Ellen Griffith, Baptized in PCBs: Race, Pollution, and Justice in an All-American Town, The University of North Carolina Press, 2014, ISBN 1469611716
- Shiva, Vandana, Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply, South End Press, 2000, ISBN 0896086070.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Monsanto Company.|