All Parties Hurriyat Conference

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Tehreek e Hurriyat
تحریک حریت
Leader Ghulam Mohammad Safi
Founder Mirwaiz Umar Farooq
Founded March 09, 1993
Ideology Kashmiri separatism
International affiliation None
Colors Green

All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) is an alliance of 26 political, social and religious organizations formed on March 9, 1993, as a united political front to raise the cause of Kashmiri separatism.[1] This alliance has historically been viewed positively by Pakistan as it contests the claim of the Indian government over the State of Jammu and Kashmir.[2][3][4] Ghulam Muhammad Safi was elected as its convener in January 2010.[5]


The origins of the Hurriyat are traced to the 1993 phase of the Kashmir insurgency. The initial euphoria of armed struggle against Indian security forces, which surrounded terrorist violence during the late 1980s and early 1990s, had subsided in the face of counter-insurgency operations launched by Indian security forces. The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) with its "pro-independence" ideology had been marginalised as a terrorist outfit and replaced by a network of extremist Islamic outfits sponsored and controlled by Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).[6]

Another version claims that the Hurriyat is a creation of the US interests in Kashmir and was formed through the efforts of a Washington-based think-tank - the US Institute of Peace (USIP)- under the then presidency of Robert Oakley, a former US ambassador to Pakistan. Certain developments do indicate that it has had active backing from US official sources, particularly the US embassy in India. (When prominent Hurriyat leader Abdul Ghani Lone was injured during a security force action in the early 1990s, he was reportedly rushed to New Delhi and visited each day by officials from the US embassy).[6][7][8]
When Robert Oakley, the retired US Ambassador in Pakistan, took over as the head of the USIP, the Kashmir issue became a project of the institute. The USIP, an instrument of US foreign policy, came into existence by an Act of the US Congress, which also undertook its funding without being answerable to the president. It cooperates closely with the US Administration and is known for getting involved in controversial problems. Its methodology has been identified as track II diplomacy since it receives tactical support from the US Government.[6][7][8][9]

Ideology and Role[edit]


According to the Hurriyat Conference, Jammu and Kashmir is a disputed territory and India's control of it is not justified. It supports the Pakistani claim that Kashmir is the "unfinished agenda of Partition" and needs to be solved "as per the aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir."[10]

The APHC perceives itself to be the sole representative of the Kashmiri people.[10]

The organisation's primary role has been to project a negative image of counter-insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and to mobilise public opinion against Indian security forces. The alliance has consistently followed up local allegations of security force excesses, and in several documented cases, allegedly distorted facts to suit its propaganda. For instance, the Haigam firing incident of February 16, 2001, was portrayed as an assault on a peaceful gathering whereas, as later indicated in news reports and official clarifications, the army contingent fired upon the mob only when they were blocked and prevented from moving.[10]

The APHC enjoys an observer's status in the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC). Incidentally, the OIC had dropped hard-line Hurriyat leader, Syed Ali Shah Geelani, from its guest list and instead invited Mirwaiz Umar Farooq for its June 2005 Foreign Ministers Conference in Yemen.[10][11]


There are currently two factions of the Hurriyat Conference led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq and Syed Ali Shah Geelani. The Mirwaiz-led group, also referred to as the "moderate faction" along with non-Hurriyat leaders like Yasin Malik undertook, between June 2–16, 2005, the first formal visit of Kashmiri separatists to Pakistan administered Kashmir (PaK) and subsequently, though unsanctioned by Indian authorities, to Pakistan.[10]

Internal fissures within the Hurriyat Conference culminated in a formal split on September 7, 2003,[12] with at least 12 of its 26 constituents "removing" the then Chairman Maulana Mohammad Abbas Ansari "replacing" him with Masarat Alam as its interim chief. The dissenters reportedly met at the residence of hardliner and pro-Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami (JeI) leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani and decided to depose Ansari and "suspend" the seven-member executive committee, the highest decision-making forum of the APHC. A five-member committee was formed to review the Hurriyat Constitution and suggest amendments to reverse what the dissenters perceived as "autocratic" decisions taken by the executive committee.[10]

Since then, Geelani has formed his own faction of the Hurriyat called the Tehreek-e-Hurriyat Jammu and Kashmir. On October 12, 2004, he was elected unanimously as its chairman for a period of three years. A 25-member strong Majlis-e-Shoora (advisory council) to assist and advise the chairman was also announced on the same day. A statement released by the faction said 21 members were elected to the shoora and the chairman was authorised to nominate four members. It also said all 14 districts of the State were duly represented in the shoora, the highest decision-making body of the organisation. The Geelani reportedly has 16 constituents.[10]

The Hurriyat Conference again split in 2014. The moderate Hurriyat Conference led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq faced the split after four senior leaders raised a banner of revolt against the chairman and other members of the conglomerate.[13] Democratic Freedom Party president Shabir Ahmad Shah, National Front chairman Nayeem Ahmad Khan, Mahaz-e-Azadi chief Mohammad Azam Inqlabi and Islamic Political Party Mohommad Yousuf Naqash were up in arms against Mirwaiz after he dashed off a letter to the convener in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, Mohommad Yousuf Naseem, asking him not to entertain the leaders who have left the conglomerate on their own. On September 9, 2015, the leader Shabir Shah and his lieutenant Nayeem Khan along with Shia leader Agha Hassan joined Hurriyat Conference (G) led by Syed Ali Geelani.[13]

Views on right to self-determination[edit]

All JKLF factions support the right to self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47. Hurriyat, led by Syed Ali Shah Geelani, Shabir Shah, Nayeem Khan & Azam Inquilabi, demand the right to self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47. Members of the Executive Council of the original APHC were:

Criticism and controversies[edit]

Family members living abroad[edit]

Hurriyat leaders have been criticised for inciting young people to violent agitation while their family members live relatively well-off lives in other parts of India and abroad.[14] These include Syed Ali Shah Geelani and Asiya Andrabi. Syed Ali Shah Geelani's eldest son Nayeem Geelani and his wife are medical practitioners in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Geelani’s second son, Zahoor Geelani, along with his family lives in New Delhi. Izhaar Geelani, grandson of Geelani, is a crew member of a private airliner in India, while his daughter Farhat Geelani is a teacher in Jeddah; her husband is an engineer there.[14] Asiya Andrabi's eldest son Muhammad bin Qasim, lives with her sister in Malaysia.[15] Most of Asiya’s relatives have moved to Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, England, and Malaysia.[16] One nephew, Zulqarnain, is a captain in the Pakistan Army and her second nephew, Irtiyaz-un-Nabi, is an aeronautical engineer and lecturer at the International Islamic University, Islamabad.[16] Asiya Andrabi was criticized by Dr. Darakshan Andrabi the president of her party, the Socialistic Democratic Party of Jammu and Kashmir.[17]

Relations with Pakistani ISI[edit]

Sheikh Mustafa Kamal, a senior leader of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference and son of Sheikh Abdullah criticised Hurriyat leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani for working on "dictations" given by Pakistan. He accused Geelani of being "a double agent" on "the payroll of Pakistan's ISI".[18][19][20]

Kamal said "Geelani has tried to 'ignite and incite' people by 'hollow slogans and destructive emotionalism', whenever even a Pakistani clerk comes to India and summons this ex-lawmaker(Geelani), he rushes to Delhi to take dictation about how to ensure that uncertainty prevails in the state."[18][19][20][21][22]

Pakistan also openly supported Geelani and Hurriyat, and representatives have had several meetings with Hurriyat leaders. A three-member delegation from the Pakistan High Commission led by Abdul Basit met Geelani at his Malviya Nagar residence in March 2015. Pakistan High Commissioner Abdul Basit assured Geelani of complete support conveying that the country's stand on Kashmir remains unchanged despite the regime change in New Delhi.[23][24][25] Basit also invited Geelani for a Pakistan Day function on March 23. The Pakistan High Commission in New Delhi, ritually invites pro-separatist leadership of Jammu and Kashmir for the function every year.[22][24][25][26]

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the American government domestic intelligence and security agency, in their first ever open acknowledgement in 2011 in US Court said that ISI, Pakistan’s spy agency, sponsors terrorism in Kashmir and it oversees terrorist separatist groups in Kashmir.[27][28][28][29][30][31]

Alleged paid protests[edit]

Geelani and his Hurriyat has been accused by the Indian media of staging fake protests by paying money to local unemployed youth.[32] According to stone pelters who were arrested, each stone pelter is paid Rs 400($6–7) every Friday. Police said the money is being raised locally by Hurriyat hardliner Syed Ali Shah Geelani's followers. Most of the money comes from fruit markets and saw mills, Pakistan-based LeT terrorists also participate in stone peltings,[32] the police said.[32][33][34]

Elections boycott[edit]

Geelani and Hurriyat appealed to the people of Kashmir to boycott the 2014 Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly elections completely, arguing that: "India has been holding elections in the Valley using the power of gun and so such an exercise is not legitimate."[35] But despite repeated boycott appeals, the 2014 assembly election recorded record voter turnout of more than 65% which was the highest in 25 years of history and higher than normal voting percentages in other states of India.[36][37][38]

After record voting percentage in Kashmir, Hurriyat and its leaders have been heavily criticised by mainstream media for misleading the people of Kashmir and for not representing their true sentiments.[39][40][41][42]

India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi said of the high election voter turnout: "Separatist militants are frustrated because they are feeling that despite the use of guns and bombs and killing people, democracy is still alive in this state. I want to congratulate those voters of J&K who have voted in large numbers and made democracy victorious irrespective of the outcome."[43]

The European Parliament, on the behalf of European Union (EU), welcomed the smooth conduct of the State Legislative Elections in the Jammu and Kashmir.[44] The EU in its message said that: "The high voter turnout figure proves that democracy is firmly rooted in India. The EU would like to congratulate India and its democratic system for conduct of fair elections, unmarred by violence, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir."[44][45][46] The European Parliament also takes cognizance of the fact that a large number of Kashmiri voters turned out despite calls for the boycott of elections by certain separatist forces.[45]

Current members[edit]

Current members All Parties Hurriyat Conference include:

Number Name of the Party Leader
1 Aawami Action Committee Mirwaiz Umar Farooq
2 People's League Sheikh YAQOOB
3 Anjamani Auqafi Jama Masjid Mohammad Umar Farooq
4 Anjaman-e-Tablig-ul Islam Syed Qasim Shah Bukhari
5 Ummat Islami Qazi Ghulam Mohammad Islamabad Anantnag
6 Peoples Political Party Hilal Ahmed War And forazad jammu and kashmir n Pakistan chapter Mian Muzaffar Shah
7 Employees and Workers Confederation
8 Jammu Kashmir National Front) Nayeem Ahmed Khan
9 All Jammu & Kashmir Employees’ Confederation Ishtiaq Qadri
10 Jamiate Ulama-E-Islam Abdul Gani Azhari
11 Jamiat-e-Hamdania Moulana M. Yasin Hamdani
12 Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference Abdul Ghani Lone till 2002 assassination
13 Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front Muhammad Yasin Malik
14 Jammu and Kashmir Human Rights Committee Noor-Ul-Hassan
15 Jammu and Kashmir People's Basic Rights (Protection) Committee Mufti Bahauddin Farouqi
16 Liberation Council Azhar Bhat
17 Kashmir Bazme Tawheed Tajamul Bhat
18 Kashmir Bar Association Zaroon bhat
19 Muslim Khawateen Markaz Zaid Bhat
20 Muslim Conference Khokhar e aazam
21 Tehreek-e-Huriati Kashmiri Saqib Bhat
22 Jammu & Kashmir Peoples Conference Bilal Ghani Lone
23 Peoples Political Party Eng Hilal Ahmad War
24 Imam Ahmad Raza Islamic Mission Rafeeq Ahmad Mir
25 Saut-Ul-Aliya Moulana Abdul Rashid Dawoodi
26 Jammu and Kashmir People's Freedom League Muhammad Farooq Rehmani
27 Ittihadul Muslimeen Maulana Mohammad Abbas Ansari
28 Dukhtaran-e-Millat Asiya Andrabi
29 J & K Muslim League Masarat Alam
30 Difa-e-Pakistan Council Sami ul Haq

Hurriyat Conference has three factions: Hurriyat led by SAS Geelani, Hurriyat led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, Hurriyat led by Shabir Shah, Azam Inquilabi & Nayeem KHan. JKLF is not part of these factions.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Hurriyat: Its History, Role and Relevance". The Indian Express. 2015-08-31. Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  2. ^ "All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC)". Retrieved 2015-03-10. 
  3. ^ "All Parties Hurriyat Conference". Retrieved 2015-03-10. 
  4. ^ Retrieved December 9, 2007.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  5. ^ "Associated Press Of Pakistan ( Pakistan's Premier NEWS Agency ) - Kashmiri organisation felicitate Safi on his election". Retrieved 2015-03-10. 
  6. ^ a b c "All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC)". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  7. ^ a b " -". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  8. ^ a b "::: Kashmir Forum ::: Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, Greater Kashmir, Gulmarg, Gilgit, Azad Kashmir". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  9. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Editorial". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "All Parties Hurriyat Conference". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  11. ^ "Mirwaiz gets OIC invite: Hurriyat". Retrieved 1 April 2015.  External link in |work= (help)
  12. ^ "Seven reasons why Hurriyat’s sun is setting in Kashmir". 
  13. ^ a b "Another split stares at moderate Hurriyat". dna. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  14. ^ a b "As Valley kids suffer, separatists’ wards thrive in safe havens". The Tribune. 19 September 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  15. ^ "For the first family of militancy, a troubled road - Times of India". Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  16. ^ a b "Asiya Andrabi’s 3 nephews arrested in Pakistan for "terror links"". 11 September 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2016 – via The Hindu. 
  17. ^ ""Omar has failed Kashmir", "Asiya is adopting duality".". Indian Express. 29 August 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  18. ^ a b "Geelani on ISI Payroll: NC Leader". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  19. ^ a b "geelani on payroll of isi, says nc leader -". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  20. ^ a b "Geelani on payroll of ISI, says NC leader". IBNLive. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  21. ^ "Hurriyat Leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani's Arrest - ISI Funding for Kashmiri Militants". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  22. ^ a b "NIA nails Hurriyat's links with the ISI". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  23. ^ "Pakistani high commissioner meets Hurriyat leader Geelani". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  24. ^ a b "Pakistan assures Syed Ali Geelani of complete support". dna. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  25. ^ a b "Pakistan mischief again: Envoy meets Syed Ali Geelani". The Asian Age. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  26. ^ "Pakistan envoy Abdul Basit meets separatist leader Geelani, invites him for Pakistan Day". IBNLive. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  27. ^ "ISI sponsors terror activities in Kashmir, FBI tells US court". Firstpost. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  28. ^ a b "'US exposes ISI subversion of Kashmir issue; FBI arrests US-based lobbyist'". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  29. ^ "ISI gives arms to Kashmir terrorists: Rana to FBI". 7 June 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  30. ^ "ISI funneled millions to influence US policy on Kashmir: FBI". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  31. ^ "Two charged in Pakistani spy services’ alleged funneling of money via U.S. group". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  32. ^ a b c "‘Hurriyat paid Rs 400 for J&K stone-pelting, LeT terrorist participated’". Zee News. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  33. ^ "stone pelters paid Rs 400/week by Hurriyat". The Times of India. 
  34. ^ "Only Kashmir". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  35. ^ "Syed Ali Shah Geelani's J&K election boycott call resonates in his hometown Sopore". IBNLive. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  36. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir Registers Highest Voter Turnout in 25 Years, Jharkhand Breaks Records". 20 December 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  37. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir registers highest voter turnout in 25 years, Jharkhand breaks records". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  38. ^ "J&K polls: 76 per cent voter turnout recorded in the final phase". IBNLive. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  39. ^ "High Voter Turnout in Jammu & Kashmir Assembly Elections  : A Debilitating Blow to Separatists and Resilient Boost for Indian Democracy". EP TODAY. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  40. ^ "Welcome To India Africa Connect - Panorama - Braving bullets, Kashmiris embrace ballot for development". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  41. ^ "J&K polls: Valley opts for ballot over bullet with 71 per cent voting in first phase". The Indian Express. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  42. ^ "Ballot over bullet: Brisk voting in J&K and Jharkhand showcases faith in democracy". Times Of India Blogs. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  43. ^ "People of Jammu and Kashmir have rejected bullet for ballot: PM Narendra Modi". timesofindia-economictimes. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  44. ^ a b The Office of MEP Kosma Zlotowski (10 December 2014). "The European Parliament Welcomes the Elections in Jammu & Kashmir". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  45. ^ a b ANI (11 December 2014). "European Parliament welcomes elections in Jammu and Kashmir". Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  46. ^ "EU hails huge turnout in J&K". Jammu Kashmir Latest News - Tourism - Breaking News J&K. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 

External links[edit]