All Parties Hurriyat Conference
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|Leader||Ghulam Mohammad Safi|
|Founder||Mirwaiz Umar Farooq|
|Founded||March 09, 1993|
All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) is an alliance of 26 political, social and religious organizations formed on March 9, 1993, as a united political front to raise the cause of Kashmiri separatism. This alliance has historically been viewed positively by Pakistan as it contests the claim of the Indian government over the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Ghulam Muhammad Safi was elected as its convener in January 2010.
The origins of the Hurriyat are traced to the 1993 phase of the Kashmir insurgency. The initial euphoria of armed struggle against Indian security forces, which surrounded terrorist violence during the late 1980s and early 1990s, had subsided in the face of counter-insurgency operations launched by Indian security forces. The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) with its "pro-independence" ideology had been marginalised as a terrorist outfit and replaced by a network of extremist Islamic outfits sponsored and controlled by Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).
Another version claims that the Hurriyat is a creation of the US interests in Kashmir and was formed through the efforts of a Washington-based think-tank - the US Institute of Peace (USIP)- under the then presidency of Robert Oakley, a former US ambassador to Pakistan. Certain developments do indicate that it has had active backing from US official sources, particularly the US embassy in India. (When prominent Hurriyat leader Abdul Ghani Lone was injured during a security force action in the early 1990s, he was reportedly rushed to New Delhi and visited each day by officials from the US embassy).
When Robert Oakley, the retired US Ambassador in Pakistan, took over as the head of the USIP, the Kashmir issue became a project of the institute. The USIP, an instrument of US foreign policy, came into existence by an Act of the US Congress, which also undertook its funding without being answerable to the president. It cooperates closely with the US Administration and is known for getting involved in controversial problems. Its methodology has been identified as track II diplomacy since it receives tactical support from the US Government.
Ideology and Role
According to the Hurriyat Conference, Jammu and Kashmir is a disputed territory and India's control of it is not justified. It supports the Pakistani claim that Kashmir is the "unfinished agenda of Partition" and needs to be solved "as per the aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir."
The APHC perceives itself to be the sole representative of the Kashmiri people.
The organisation's primary role has been to project a negative image of counter-insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and to mobilise public opinion against Indian security forces. The alliance has consistently followed up local allegations of security force excesses, and in several documented cases, allegedly distorted facts to suit its propaganda. For instance, the Haigam firing incident of February 16, 2001, was portrayed as an assault on a peaceful gathering whereas, as later indicated in news reports and official clarifications, the army contingent fired upon the mob only when they were blocked and prevented from moving.
The APHC enjoys an observer's status in the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC). Incidentally, the OIC had dropped hard-line Hurriyat leader, Syed Ali Shah Geelani, from its guest list and instead invited Mirwaiz Umar Farooq for its June 2005 Foreign Ministers Conference in Yemen.
There are currently two factions of the Hurriyat Conference led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq and Syed Ali Shah Geelani. The Mirwaiz-led group, also referred to as the "moderate faction" along with non-Hurriyat leaders like Yasin Malik undertook, between June 2–16, 2005, the first formal visit of Kashmiri separatists to Pakistan administered Kashmir (PaK) and subsequently, though unsanctioned by Indian authorities, to Pakistan.
Internal fissures within the Hurriyat Conference culminated in a formal split on September 7, 2003, with at least 12 of its 26 constituents "removing" the then Chairman Maulana Mohammad Abbas Ansari "replacing" him with Masarat Alam as its interim chief. The dissenters reportedly met at the residence of hardliner and pro-Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami (JeI) leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani and decided to depose Ansari and "suspend" the seven-member executive committee, the highest decision-making forum of the APHC. A five-member committee was formed to review the Hurriyat Constitution and suggest amendments to reverse what the dissenters perceived as "autocratic" decisions taken by the executive committee.
Since then, Geelani has formed his own faction of the Hurriyat called the Tehreek-e-Hurriyat Jammu and Kashmir. On October 12, 2004, he was elected unanimously as its chairman for a period of three years. A 25-member strong Majlis-e-Shoora (advisory council) to assist and advise the chairman was also announced on the same day. A statement released by the faction said 21 members were elected to the shoora and the chairman was authorised to nominate four members. It also said all 14 districts of the State were duly represented in the shoora, the highest decision-making body of the organisation. The Geelani reportedly has 16 constituents.
The Hurriyat Conference again split in 2014. The moderate Hurriyat Conference led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq faced the split after four senior leaders raised a banner of revolt against the chairman and other members of the conglomerate. Democratic Freedom Party president Shabir Ahmad Shah, National Front chairman Nayeem Ahmad Khan, Mahaz-e-Azadi chief Mohammad Azam Inqlabi and Islamic Political Party Mohommad Yousuf Naqash were up in arms against Mirwaiz after he dashed off a letter to the convener in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, Mohommad Yousuf Naseem, asking him not to entertain the leaders who have left the conglomerate on their own. On September 9, 2015, the leader Shabir Shah and his lieutenant Nayeem Khan along with Shia leader Agha Hassan joined Hurriyat Conference (G) led by Syed Ali Geelani.
Views on right to self-determination
All JKLF factions support the right to self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47. Hurriyat, led by Syed Ali Shah Geelani, Shabir Shah, Nayeem Khan & Azam Inquilabi, demand the right to self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47. Members of the Executive Council of the original APHC were:
- Peoples Conference: Abdul Ghani Lone
- Jamat-e-Islami: Syed Ali Shah Geelani
- Awami Action Committee: Mirwaiz Umar Farooq
- People's League: Sheikh Yaqoob
- Itehad-ul-Muslimeen: Mohammad Abbas Ansari
- Muslim Conference: Abdul Ghani Bhat
- JKLF: Yasin Malik
- JKNF:  Nayeem Ahmad Khan
Criticism and controversies
Family members living abroad
Hurriyat leaders have been criticised for inciting young people to violent agitation while their family members live relatively well-off lives in other parts of India and abroad. These include Syed Ali Shah Geelani and Asiya Andrabi. Syed Ali Shah Geelani's eldest son Nayeem Geelani and his wife are medical practitioners in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Geelani’s second son, Zahoor Geelani, along with his family lives in New Delhi. Izhaar Geelani, grandson of Geelani, is a crew member of a private airliner in India, while his daughter Farhat Geelani is a teacher in Jeddah; her husband is an engineer there. Asiya Andrabi's eldest son Muhammad bin Qasim, lives with her sister in Malaysia. Most of Asiya’s relatives have moved to Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, England, and Malaysia. One nephew, Zulqarnain, is a captain in the Pakistan Army and her second nephew, Irtiyaz-un-Nabi, is an aeronautical engineer and lecturer at the International Islamic University, Islamabad. Asiya Andrabi was criticized by Dr. Darakshan Andrabi the president of her party, the Socialistic Democratic Party of Jammu and Kashmir.
Relations with Pakistani ISI
Sheikh Mustafa Kamal, a senior leader of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference and son of Sheikh Abdullah criticised Hurriyat leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani for working on "dictations" given by Pakistan. He accused Geelani of being "a double agent" on "the payroll of Pakistan's ISI".
Kamal said "Geelani has tried to 'ignite and incite' people by 'hollow slogans and destructive emotionalism', whenever even a Pakistani clerk comes to India and summons this ex-lawmaker(Geelani), he rushes to Delhi to take dictation about how to ensure that uncertainty prevails in the state."
Pakistan also openly supported Geelani and Hurriyat, and representatives have had several meetings with Hurriyat leaders. A three-member delegation from the Pakistan High Commission led by Abdul Basit met Geelani at his Malviya Nagar residence in March 2015. Pakistan High Commissioner Abdul Basit assured Geelani of complete support conveying that the country's stand on Kashmir remains unchanged despite the regime change in New Delhi. Basit also invited Geelani for a Pakistan Day function on March 23. The Pakistan High Commission in New Delhi, ritually invites pro-separatist leadership of Jammu and Kashmir for the function every year.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the American government domestic intelligence and security agency, in their first ever open acknowledgement in 2011 in US Court said that ISI, Pakistan’s spy agency, sponsors terrorism in Kashmir and it oversees terrorist separatist groups in Kashmir.
Alleged paid protests
Geelani and his Hurriyat has been accused by the Indian media of staging fake protests by paying money to local unemployed youth. According to stone pelters who were arrested, each stone pelter is paid Rs 400($6–7) every Friday. Police said the money is being raised locally by Hurriyat hardliner Syed Ali Shah Geelani's followers. Most of the money comes from fruit markets and saw mills, Pakistan-based LeT terrorists also participate in stone peltings, the police said.
Geelani and Hurriyat appealed to the people of Kashmir to boycott the 2014 Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly elections completely, arguing that: "India has been holding elections in the Valley using the power of gun and so such an exercise is not legitimate." But despite repeated boycott appeals, the 2014 assembly election recorded record voter turnout of more than 65% which was the highest in 25 years of history and higher than normal voting percentages in other states of India.
After record voting percentage in Kashmir, Hurriyat and its leaders have been heavily criticised by mainstream media for misleading the people of Kashmir and for not representing their true sentiments.
India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi said of the high election voter turnout: "Separatist militants are frustrated because they are feeling that despite the use of guns and bombs and killing people, democracy is still alive in this state. I want to congratulate those voters of J&K who have voted in large numbers and made democracy victorious irrespective of the outcome."
The European Parliament, on the behalf of European Union (EU), welcomed the smooth conduct of the State Legislative Elections in the Jammu and Kashmir. The EU in its message said that: "The high voter turnout figure proves that democracy is firmly rooted in India. The EU would like to congratulate India and its democratic system for conduct of fair elections, unmarred by violence, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir." The European Parliament also takes cognizance of the fact that a large number of Kashmiri voters turned out despite calls for the boycott of elections by certain separatist forces.
Current members All Parties Hurriyat Conference include:
|Number||Name of the Party||Leader|
|1||Aawami Action Committee||Mirwaiz Umar Farooq|
|2||People's League||Sheikh YAQOOB|
|3||Anjamani Auqafi Jama Masjid||Mohammad Umar Farooq|
|4||Anjaman-e-Tablig-ul Islam||Syed Qasim Shah Bukhari|
|5||Ummat Islami||Qazi Ghulam Mohammad Islamabad Anantnag|
|6||Peoples Political Party Hilal Ahmed War And forazad jammu and kashmir n Pakistan chapter||Mian Muzaffar Shah|
|7||Employees and Workers Confederation|
|8||Jammu Kashmir National Front)||Nayeem Ahmed Khan|
|9||All Jammu & Kashmir Employees’ Confederation||Ishtiaq Qadri|
|10||Jamiate Ulama-E-Islam||Abdul Gani Azhari|
|11||Jamiat-e-Hamdania||Moulana M. Yasin Hamdani|
|12||Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference||Abdul Ghani Lone till 2002 assassination|
|13||Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front||Muhammad Yasin Malik|
|14||Jammu and Kashmir Human Rights Committee||Noor-Ul-Hassan|
|15||Jammu and Kashmir People's Basic Rights (Protection) Committee||Mufti Bahauddin Farouqi|
|16||Liberation Council||Azhar Bhat|
|17||Kashmir Bazme Tawheed||Tajamul Bhat|
|18||Kashmir Bar Association||Zaroon bhat|
|19||Muslim Khawateen Markaz||Zaid Bhat|
|20||Muslim Conference||Khokhar e aazam|
|21||Tehreek-e-Huriati Kashmiri||Saqib Bhat|
|22||Jammu & Kashmir Peoples Conference||Bilal Ghani Lone|
|23||Peoples Political Party||Eng Hilal Ahmad War|
|24||Imam Ahmad Raza Islamic Mission||Rafeeq Ahmad Mir|
|25||Saut-Ul-Aliya||Moulana Abdul Rashid Dawoodi|
|26||Jammu and Kashmir People's Freedom League||Muhammad Farooq Rehmani|
|27||Ittihadul Muslimeen||Maulana Mohammad Abbas Ansari|
|29||J & K Muslim League||Masarat Alam|
|30||Difa-e-Pakistan Council||Sami ul Haq|
Hurriyat Conference has three factions: Hurriyat led by SAS Geelani, Hurriyat led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, Hurriyat led by Shabir Shah, Azam Inquilabi & Nayeem KHan. JKLF is not part of these factions.
- Syed Ali Shah Geelani
- Asiya Andrabi
- Kashmir conflict
- Burhan Muzaffar Wani
- Timeline of the Kashmir conflict
- Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
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