Hyperthermophile

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A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments—from 60 °C (140 °F) upwards. An optimal temperature for the existence of hyperthermophiles is above 80 °C (176 °F).[1] Hyperthermophiles are often within the domain Archaea, although some bacteria are able to tolerate temperatures of around 100 °C (212 °F), as well. Some bacteria can live at temperatures higher than 100 °C at large depths in sea where water does not boil because of high pressure. Many hyperthermophiles are also able to withstand other environmental extremes such as high acidity or high radiation levels. Hyperthermophiles are a subset of extremophiles.

History[edit]

Hyperthermophiles isolated from hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were first reported by Thomas D. Brock in 1965.[2][3] Since then, more than 70 species have been established.[4] The most hardy hyperthermophiles live on the superheated walls of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, requiring temperatures of at least 90 °C for survival. An extraordinary heat-tolerant hyperthermophile is Strain 121,[5] which has been able to double its population during 24 hours in an autoclave at 121 °C (hence its name). The current record growth temperature is 122 °C, for Methanopyrus kandleri.

Although no hyperthermophile has shown to thrive at temperatures >122 °C, their existence is possible. Strain 121 survives 130 °C for two hours, but was not able to reproduce until it had been transferred into a fresh growth medium, at a relatively cooler 103 °C).

Research[edit]

Early research into hyperthermophiles speculated that their genome could be characterized by high guanine-cytosine content; however, recent studies show that "there is no obvious correlation between the GC content of the genome and the optimal environmental growth temperature of the organism."[6][7]

The protein molecules in the hyperthermophiles exhibit hyperthermostability—that is, they can maintain structural stability (and therefore function) at high temperatures. Such proteins are homologous to their functional analogues in organisms which thrive at lower temperatures, but have evolved to exhibit optimal function at much greater temperatures. Most of the low-temperature homologues of the hyperthermostable proteins would be denatured above 60 °C. Such hyperthermostable proteins are often commercially important, as chemical reactions proceed faster at high temperatures.[8][9]

Cell structure[edit]

The cell membrane contains high levels of saturated fatty acids to retain its shape at high temperatures.[citation needed]

Specific hyperthermophiles[edit]

Archaea[edit]

Gram-negative Bacteria[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stetter, K. (2006). "History of discovery of the first hyperthermophiles". Extremophiles. 10: 357–362. doi:10.1007/s00792-006-0012-7. 
  2. ^ Joseph Seckbach, et al.: Polyextremophiles - life under multiple forms of stress. Springer, Dordrecht 2013, ISBN 978-94-007-6487-3,preface; @google books
  3. ^ The Value of Basic Research: Discovery of Thermus aquaticus and Other Extreme Thermophiles
  4. ^ Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms
  5. ^ Microbe from depths takes life to hottest known limit
  6. ^ High guanine-cytosine content is not an adaptation to high temperature: a comparative analysis amongst prokaryotes
  7. ^ Zheng H, Wu H; Wu (December 2010). "Gene-centric association analysis for the correlation between the guanine-cytosine content levels and temperature range conditions of prokaryotic species". BMC Bioinformatics. 11: S7. PMC 3024870Freely accessible. PMID 21172057. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-11-S11-S7. 
  8. ^ "Analysis of Nanoarchaeum equitans genome and proteome composition: indications for hyperthermophilic and parasitic adaptation."
  9. ^ Saiki, R. K.; Gelfand, d. h.; Stoffel, S; Scharf, S. J.; Higuchi, R; Horn, G. T.; Mullis, K. B.; Erlich, H. A. (1988). "Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase". Science. 239 (4839): 487–91. PMID 2448875. doi:10.1126/science.2448875. 

Further reading[edit]

Stetter, Karl (Feb 2013). "A brief history of the discovery of hyperthermophilic life". Biochemical Society Transactions. 41 (1): 416–420. PMID 23356321. doi:10.1042/BST20120284.