Immigration in Île-de-France

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2011 Census Paris Region[1][2]
Country/territory of birth Population
France Metropolitan France 9,112,301
Algeria Algeria 285,703
Portugal Portugal 240,445
Morocco Morocco 224,787
Tunisia Tunisia 107,549
Unofficial flag of Guadeloupe (local).svg Guadeloupe 80,265
Drapeau aux serpents de la Martinique.svg Martinique 74,565
Turkey Turkey 68,703
China China 59,734
Italy Italy 55,443
Mali Mali 54,525
Spain Spain 46,486
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire 45,870
Senegal Senegal 44,356
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of Congo 41,497
Poland Poland 39,307
Cameroon Cameroon 36,538
Vietnam Vietnam 36,008
Romania Romania 35,495
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 34,702
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 32,718
Cambodia Cambodia 32,270
Haiti Haiti 32,017
 Blason Réunion DOM.svg Réunion 30,824
Serbia Serbia 27,373
Germany Germany 23,334
India India 23,232
Lebanon Lebanon 19,769
Mauritius Mauritius 19,646
United Kingdom United Kingdom 19,583
Madagascar Madagascar 17,723
United States United States 17,596
Russia Russia 15,483
Pakistan Pakistan 15,312
Belgium Belgium 15,146
United Nations Other countries and territories 785,821

The Île-de-France region is a magnet for immigrants, hosting one of the largest concentrations of immigrants in Europe. As of 2006, about 35% of people (4 million) living in the region were either immigrant (17%) or born to at least one immigrant parent (18%).[3]

If the region, primary seat of French political and economic power for centuries, has always attracted immigrants, modern immigration can be traced back to the second half of the 19th century when France emerged as an immigration destination[4] with Eastern European Jews fleeing persecutions, and Southern Europeans (mostly Italians) and Belgians seeking better economic conditions. During the first half of the 20th century, immigrants were mostly Europeans, but after decolonisation, and during the French post-war economic boom, many immigrants came from former French colonies (chiefly the Magreb and West Africa). At the 2010 census, 23.0% of the total population in the Île-de-France region were born outside of Metropolitan France, up from 19.7% at the 1999 census.[5]

Among these people born outside Metropolitan France, 1,611,989 were immigrants (see definition below the table), making up 14.7% of the region's total population.[6] INSEE estimated that on 1 January 2005, the number of immigrants in the region had reached 1,916,000, making up 16.7% of its total population.[7] This is an increase of 304,000 immigrants in slightly less than six years.

According to a study in 2009, nearly 56% of all newborns in the region in 2007 had at least one parent originated from sub-Saharan Africa, Turkey, Maghreb or Overseas departments and territories of France.[8]

People under 18 of foreign origin[edit]

In 2005, 37% of young people under 18 were of foreign origin (at least one immigrant parent) in Île-de-France, including a quarter of African origin (Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa).[9][10]

People under 18 of Maghrebi, sub-Saharan and Turkish origin became a majority in several cities of the region (Clichy-sous-Bois, Mantes-la-Jolie, Grigny, Saint-Denis, Les Mureaux, Saint-Ouen, Sarcelles, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Garges-lès-Gonesse, Aubervilliers, Stains, Gennevilliers et Épinay-sur-Seine). Young people of Maghrebi origin comprised about 12% of the population of the region, 22% of that of département of the Seine-Saint-Denis district, and 37% of the 18th arrondissement of Paris. In Grigny, 31% of young people are of sub-Saharan origin[11]

In the département of Seine-Saint-Denis (population 1.5 million), 56.7% of people under 18 are of foreign origin, including 38% of African origin. Islam is the main religion.[12]

% people under 18 (2005) Paris Seine-Saint-Denis Val-de-Marne Val-d'Oise France
All origins 41.30% 56.7% 39.90% 37.90% 18.10%
Maghreb 12.1% 22.0% 13.2% 13.0% 6.9%
Sub-Saharan Africa 9.9% 16.0% 10.8% 9.1% 3.0%
Turkey 0.6% 2.7% 1.2% 3.1% 1.4%
South Europe 4.0% 4.0% 5.5% 4.8% 2.6%
Place of birth of residents of Île-de-France
(at the 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, and 2010 censuses)
Census Born in Île-de-France Born in the rest of
Metropolitan France
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign
countries with French
citizenship at birth
[a]
Immigrants[b]
2010 56.2% 20.8% 1.8% 3.5% 17.7%
from Europe from the Maghreb[c] from the rest of Africa from the rest of the world
4.9% 5.2% 3.5% 4.1%
1999 55.4% 24.9% 1.8% 3.2% 14.7%
from Europe from the Maghreb[c] from the rest of Africa from the rest of the world
5.1% 4.3% 2.2% 3.1%
1990 54.1% 26.3% 1.9% 3.7% 14.0%
1982 52.7% 28.4% 1.7% 3.9% 13.3%
1975 51.7% 31.2% 1.0% 3.9% 12.2%
1968 52.1% 33.2% 0.5% 4.0% 10.2%
^a Persons born abroad of one or two French parents, such as Pieds-Noirs, children of French expatriates, and children of dual-citizens.
^b An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.
^c Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia
Source: INSEE[13][14][15]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ (in French) "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2011". INSEE. Retrieved 2014-10-26. 
  2. ^ (in French) "IMG1B - Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance (Pays de naissance détaillé)". INSEE. Retrieved 2014-10-26. 
  3. ^ Les descendants d'immigrés vivant en Île-de-France Archived 2011-10-28 at the Wayback Machine., IAU Idf, Note rapide Société, n° 531
  4. ^ Large and dynamic economy with high human rights standards (and extensive social benefits after 1945) and a tradition of assimilation, France has widely been seen as a magnet for immigrants
  5. ^ "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2010" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  6. ^ INSEE, Government of France. "IMG2 – Lieux de naissance à l'étranger selon la nationalité" (in French). Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  7. ^ INSEE, Government of France. "Tableau de synthèse sur le nombre d'étrangers et d'immigrés" (XLS) (in French). Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  8. ^ Bardakdjian-Michau J, Bahuau M, Hurtrel D, et al. (January 2009). "Neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in France". J. Clin. Pathol. 62 (1): 31–3. doi:10.1136/jcp.2008.058867. PMID 19103855. 
  9. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°127
  10. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Les yeux grands fermés, Denoël, 2010
  11. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Immigration et démographie des pays d’accueil, in Christophe Jaffrelot et Christian Lequesne L'Enjeu mondial, Presses de Sciences Po | Annuels 2009, pages 29 à 35
  12. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Michèle Tribalat : "L'islam reste une menace", Le Monde, 13 octobre 2011
  13. ^ INSEE. "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2010" (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-01. 
  14. ^ INSEE. "IMG1B – Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance" (in French). Retrieved 2014-02-25. 
  15. ^ INSEE. "D_FD_IMG2 – Base France par départements – Lieux de naissance à l'étranger selon la nationalité" (in French). Retrieved 2013-06-26.