Jaipur-Atrauli gharana

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The Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana (also known as the Jaipur Gharana, Atrauli Gharana, Atrauli-Jaipur Gharana, Alladiya Gharana and Alladiyakhani Gayaki) is a Hindustani music apprenticeship fraternity (gharana), founded by Alladiya Khan (1855–1946) in the late-19th century.

Evolved from the dhrupad tradition,[1] the Jaipur Gharana acquired its name and status in the early half of the 20th century as a result of the growing popularity of khayal singers such as Smt. Kesarbai Kerkar, Gaanatapaswini Mogubai Kurdikar, and Pt. Mallikarjun Mansur. With the immense popularity of musicians like Surashri Kesarbai Kerkar, the Gharana earned repute as a leading representative of Hindustani classical music. The gharana is known for its distinctive vocal aesthetics, raga repertoire, and technical aptitude.

History[edit]

The Jaipur-Atrauli gharana emerged from Alladiya Khan's family which originated from Atrauli (near Aligarh) and migrated to Jaipur.[2][3][4] This gharana mainly evolved from Dagar-bani of Dhrupad, however it also absorbed finer essence of Gauhar-bani and Khandar-bani.[5]

Name[edit]

Scholars say the hyphenated moniker of this gharana recognises that Jaipur-Atrauli gharana musicians originally came from Atrauli Village in Aligarh district and migrated to the court of the Maharaja of Jaipur, their principal patron. Others say they came to the Jaipur Maharaja's court and then dispersed to various other courts in the area, like Jodhpur, Uniyara, Bundi, Atrauli.

Roots in Haveli Sangeet[edit]

Many of the ragas and compositions sung in the Jaipur gharana come from the tradition of Haveli Sangeet and dhrupad,[6] such as:[7]

Aesthetics[edit]

Gayaki[edit]

The gharana is known for its unique layakari (rhythmic aesthetics) and rich repertoire of ragas, especially jod ragas (compound ragas) and sankeerna ragas (mixed ragas). Most gharanas apply notes in simple succession in aalap and taan, whereas in the Jaipur gayaki, notes are applied in an oblique manner with filigree involving immediately neighbouring notes. Instead of the flat taan, gamak (taan sung with double notes with a delicate force behind each of the component double-notes of the taan) makes the taan spiral into seemingly never-ending cycles. Meend in aalap and gamak in taan are the hallmark of this gayaki. Sharp edged harkats and murkis (crisp, quick phrases to ornament the alaap) are relatively uncommon. Not only are the notes sung in rhythm with the taal but progress between the matras (beats) is in fractions of quarters and one-eighths. While being mindful of so many factors, musicians of this gharana still have a graceful way of arriving at the Sam without having matras to spare. This is particularly evident in the way bol-alaap or bol-taan is sung, where meticulous attention is given to the short and long vowels in the words of the bandish that are being pronounced, and the strict discipline of avoiding unnatural breaks in the words and in the meaning of the lyrics. No other gharana has paid so much attention to the aesthetics and laykari in singing bol-alaaps and bol-taans[citation needed].

Specialty and Jod Raags[edit]

Signature and specialty ragas of this gharana (some revived or created by Alladiya Khan) include Sampoorna Malkauns, Basanti Kedar, Basant Bahar, Bihagda, Khat, Gandhari and Nat Kamod. A highlight of Jaipur gayaki is the mastery over Jod Ragas (mixed or hybrid Raags). Singers from other gharanas tend to sing one raga in aaroha (ascent) and the other in avaroha (descent). Some others sing one raga in the lower half of the octave and then switch to the other raga in the upper half. Alternatively, they may sing alternate phrases of the two component ragas. In Jaipur gayaki, the two ragas are fused so that it sounds like a homogeneous raga in its own right, giving the feel of both component ragas, not as a heterogeneous mixture cobbled together. The listener hears an amalgam of both ragas without losing their distinctive identity. Alladiya Khan introduced many lesser-known or obscure ragas in his repertoire such as Basanti Kedar, Jait Kalyan, Kafi Kanada, Raisa Kanada, Basanti Kanada, Savani Nat, Savani Kalyan, Bhoop Nat, Nat Kamod, Bihari, Khat, Khokar, and Sampoorna Malkauns.

Legacy[edit]

To his immense credit, the great exponent of Kirana gharana, Bhimsen Joshi is one of the very few singers outside the Jaipur gharana, who tried to adopt the gamak taan to some extent, but he has not quite achieved the intricacy and grace of gamak that is the signature of Jaipur.

Lineage[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nath Vishwambhar
(ancestor)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Swami Haridas
(ancestor)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mantol
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Natthu
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Karimbux
 
Jahur
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gulam Gaus
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chamman
Khan
 
Jehangir
Khan
 
Ahmad
Khan
 
Natthan
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mohammad
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ghulam Ahmad
"Alladiya" Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Govindrao
Tembe
 
 
Haider Ali
Khan
Bhaskarbuwa
Bakhale
 
 
 
Govindbuwa
Shaligram
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tribhuvandas
Jariwala
Shankarrao
Sarnaik
 
 
 
Ahmad
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Azmat Hussain
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Naththan
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Badruddin
"Manji" Khan
 
Nasiruddin
"Badeji" Khan
 
Shamsuddin
"Bhurji" Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mohanrao
Palekar
 
Gulubhai
Jasdanwalla
 
 
Abdul Majid
Khan
(sarangiya)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kesarbai
Kerkar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wamanrao
Sadolikar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leelabai
Shirgaonkar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mogubai
Kurdikar
 
 
Smt. Laxmibai Jadhav
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mallikarjun
Mansur
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Madhukar
Sadolikar
 
Nivruttibuwa
Sarnaik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gajananrao
Joshi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tilak
Master
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vamanrao
Deshpande
 
 
Sushila Rani
Patel
 
 
 
 
 
Padmavati
Shaligram-Gokhale
 
 
 
 
 
 
Madhusudan
Kanetkar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anandrao
Limayebuwa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Baba" Azizuddin
Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ratnakar
Pai
 
 
 
 
Mohd. Sayeed &
Mohd. Rashid Khan
 
 
 
 
Babanrao
Haldankar
 
Dhondutai
Kulkarni
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sudhakarbuwa
Digrajkar
 
 
Dinkar
Panshikar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jitendra
Abhisheki
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kaushalya
Manjeshwar
Kishori
Amonkar
Kamal
Tambe
Suhasini
Mulgaonkar
 
 
 
 
 
 
Panchakshari Swami
Mattigati
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bhalchandra
Tilak
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Smt. Manik Bhide
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Milind
Malshe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Arun
Dravid
 
Padma
Talwalkar
 
 
 
 
 
Rajshekhar
Mansur
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vijaya
Jadhav-Gatlewar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ulhas
Kashalkar
Shruti
Sadolikar-Katkar
Bharati
Vaishampayan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ashwini
Bhide-Deshpande
 
 
Arati
Ankalikar-
Tikekar
 
 
Raghunandan
Panshikar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nandini
Bedekar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manjiri
Asnare-Kelkar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gauri
Pathare
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aditya
Khandwe
 
 
Tejashree
Amonkar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bhupal
Panshikar
 

Prominent Musicians[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sharma, Manorma (2006). Tradition of Hindustani music. New Delhi: A.P.H. Pub. Corp. p. 49. ISBN 81-7648-999-9.
  2. ^ Manorma Sharma (2006). Tradition of Hindustani Music. APH Publishing. pp. 49–51. ISBN 978-81-7648-999-7.
  3. ^ Jeffrey Michael Grimes (2008). The Geography of Hindustani Music: The Influence of Region and Regionalism on the North Indian Classical Tradition. ProQuest. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-109-00342-0.
  4. ^ Kumāraprasāda Mukhopādhyāẏa (2006). The Lost World of Hindustani Music. Penguin Books India. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-0-14-306199-1.
  5. ^ http://www.swarmanttra.com/vocal/gharanas/jaipur-atrauli-gharana/
  6. ^ http://ustadalladiyakhan.blogspot.com/p/about-jaipur-atrauli.html
  7. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aG9kQ5gAlJU
  8. ^ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hubballi/Vocalist-Mattigatti-dead/articleshow/23558138.cms
  9. ^ https://mio.to/album/Manik+Bhide/The+Sanctity+Of+Parampara
  10. ^ https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/classical-singer-manik-bhide-chosen-f Mohanrao Palekaror-bhimsen-joshi-award/1155162

Bibliography[edit]