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The Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana (also known as the Jaipur Gharana, Atrauli Gharana, Atrauli-Jaipur Gharana, Alladiya Gharana and Alladiyakhani Gayaki) is a Hindustani music apprenticeship fraternity (gharana), founded by Alladiya Khan (1855–1946) in the late-19th century.
Evolved from the dhrupad tradition, the Jaipur Gharana acquired its name and status in the early half of the 20th century as a result of the growing popularity of khayal singers such as Smt. Kesarbai Kerkar, Smt. Mogubai Kurdikar, and Pt. Mallikarjun Mansur. With the immense popularity of musicians like Smt. Kishori Amonkar, the Gharana earned repute as a leading representative of Hindustani classical music. The gharana is known for its distinctive vocal aesthetics, raga repertoire, and technical aptitude.
The Jaipur-Atrauli gharana emerged from Alladiya Khan's family which originated from Atrauli (near Aligarh) and migrated to Jaipur. This gharana mainly evolved from Dagar-bani of Dhrupad, however it also absorbed finer essence of Gauhar-bani and Khandar-bani.
Scholars say the hyphenated moniker of this gharana recognises that Jaipur-Atrauli gharana musicians originally came from Atrauli Village in Aligarh district and migrated to the court of the Maharaja of Jaipur, their principal patron. Others say they came to the Jaipur Maharaja's court and then dispersed to various other courts in the area, like Jodhpur, Uniyara, Bundi, Atrauli, and so on.
Roots in Haveli Sangeet
- "Deva Deva Satsang" in Savani Kalyan
- "Ey Pyari Pag Hole" in Bihari
- "Aadidata Ant" in Malkauns
- "Mero Piya Rasiya" in Nayaki Kanada
- "Anahat Aadi Naad" in Savani Nat
- "Devta Aadi Sab" in Kukubh Bilawal
- "Devi Durge" in Sukhiya Bilawal.
The gharana is known for its unique layakari (rhythmic aesthetics) and rich repertoire of ragas, especially jod ragas (compound ragas) and sankeerna ragas (mixed ragas). Most gharanas apply notes in simple succession in aalap and taan, whereas in the Jaipur gayaki, notes are applied in an oblique manner with filigree involving immediately neighbouring notes. Instead of the flat taan, gamak (taan sung with double notes with a delicate force behind each of the component double-notes of the taan) makes the taan spiral into seemingly never-ending cycles. Meend in aalap and gamak in taan are the hallmark of this gayaki. Sharp edged harkats and murkis (crisp, quick phrases to ornament the alaap) are relatively uncommon. Not only are the notes sung in rhythm with the taal but progress between the matras (beats) is in fractions of quarters and one-eighths. While being mindful of so many factors, musicians of this gharana still have a graceful way of arriving at the Sam without having matras to spare. This is particularly evident in the way bol-alaap or bol-taan is sung, where meticulous attention is given to the short and long vowels in the words of the bandish that are being pronounced, and the strict discipline of avoiding unnatural breaks in the words and in the meaning of the lyrics. No other gharana has paid so much attention to the aesthetics and laykari in singing bol-alaaps and bol-taans.
Specialty and Jod Raags
Signature and specialty ragas of this gharana (some revived or created by Alladiya Khan) include Sampoorna Malkauns, Basanti Kedar, Basant Bahar, Bihagda, Khat, Gandhari and Nat Kamod. A highlight of Jaipur gayaki is the mastery over Jod Ragas (mixed or hybrid Raags). Singers from other gharanas tend to sing one raga in aaroha (ascent) and the other in avaroha (descent). Some others sing one raga in the lower half of the octave and then switch to the other raga in the upper half. Alternatively, they may sing alternate phrases of the two component ragas. In Jaipur gayaki, the two ragas are fused so that it sounds like a homogeneous raga in its own right, giving the feel of both component ragas, not as a heterogeneous mixture cobbled together. The listener hears an amalgam of both ragas without losing their distinctive identity. Alladiya Khan introduced many lesser-known or obscure ragas in his repertoire such as Basanti Kedar, Jait Kalyan, Kafi Kanada, Raisa Kanada, Basanti Kanada, Savani Nat, Savani Kalyan, Bhoop Nat, Nat Kamod, Bihari, Khat, Khokar, and Sampoorna Malkauns.
To his immense credit, the great exponent of Kirana gharana, Bhimsen Joshi is one of the very few singers outside the Jaipur gharana, who tried to adopt the gamak taan to some extent, but he has not quite achieved the intricacy and grace of gamak that is the signature of Jaipur.
- Alladiya Khan (1855–1946), Gharana founder; learned from uncle Jehangir Khan.
- Haider Ali Khan (Brother of Alladiya Khan)
- Bhaskarbuwa Bakhale (1869–1922), learned from Alladiya Khan and Natthan Khan
- Manji Khan (1888–1937), second son of Alladiya Khan. Learned from Alladiya Khan.
- Bhurji Khan (1890–1956), third son of Alladiya Khan. Learned from Alladiya Khan.
- Gulubhai Jasdanwalla, learned from Alladiya Khan.
- Kesarbai Kerkar (1892–1977), learned from Alladiya Khan.
- Mohanrao Palekar(1898–1962), learned from Ahmed Khan and Bhurji Khan.
- Laxmibai Jadhav (1901-1979), learned from Haider Ali Khan.
- Mogubai Kurdikar (1904–2001), learned from Alladiya Khan and Haider Ali Khan.
- Wamanrao Sadolikar (1907–1986) learned from Bhurji Khan and attended many of Alladiya Khan's lessons to his disciples.
- Vamanrao Deshpande (1907–1990), learned from Natthan Khan and Mogubai Kurdikar.
- Mallikarjun Mansur (1910–1992), learned from Manji Khan and Bhurji Khan and later from Azizuddin Khan.
- Gajananrao Joshi (1911-1987), learned from Bhurji Khan.
- Nivruttibuwa Sarnaik (1912-1994), learned from Alladiya Khan.
- Panchakshari Swami Mattigatti (1927-2013), learned from Mallikarjun Mansur.
- Babanrao Haldankar (1927-2016), learned from Mogubai Kurdikar.
- Dhondutai Kulkarni (1927–2014), learned from Natthan Khan, Manji Khan, Bhurji Khan, Laxmibai Jadhav, Azizuddin Khan and Kesarbai Kerkar.
- Ratnakar Pai (1928–2009), learned from Gulubhai Jasdanwalla and Mohanrao Palekar.
- Kishori Amonkar (1932–2017), daughter and disciple of Mogubai Kurdikar, Anwar Hussein Khan of Agra Gharana, Anjanibai Malpekar of Bhindi-Bazar Gharana.
- Dinkar Panshikar (born 1936), learned from Nivruttibuwa Sarnaik.
- Rajshekhar Mansur (born 1942), learned from father Mallikarjun Mansur.
- Padma Talwalkar (born 1948), learned from Mogubai Kurdikar and Gajananrao Joshi.
- Shruti Sadolikar (born 1951), learned from father Wamanrao Sadolikar, Baba Azizuddin Khan, and later Gulubhai Jasdanwalla.
- Bharati Vaishampayan (born 1954), learned from Nivruttibuwa Sarnaik.
- Vijaya Jadhav Gatlewar (born 1955), learned from Nivruttibuwa Sarnaik.
- Ashwini Bhide Deshpande (born 1960), learned from mother Manik Bhide and later from Ratnakar Pai
- Raghunandan Panshikar (born 1963) learned from Kishori Amonkar and Mogubai Kurdikar
- Sanjay Dixit (born 1964), learned from Madhusudan Kanetkar, Bhaskarbua Shaligram, and Dhondutai Kulkarni
- Majiri Asnare-Kelkar (born 1971), learned from Mohanrao Palekar.
- Aditya Khandwe (born 1983), learned from Ratnakar Pai and Dhondutai Kulkarni.
- Sharma, Manorma (2006). Tradition of Hindustani music. New Delhi: A.P.H. Pub. Corp. p. 49. ISBN 81-7648-999-9.
- Manorma Sharma (2006). Tradition of Hindustani Music. APH Publishing. pp. 49–51. ISBN 978-81-7648-999-7.
- Jeffrey Michael Grimes (2008). The Geography of Hindustani Music: The Influence of Region and Regionalism on the North Indian Classical Tradition. ProQuest. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-109-00342-0.
- Kumāraprasāda Mukhopādhyāẏa (2006). The Lost World of Hindustani Music. Penguin Books India. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-0-14-306199-1.