Jaipur-Atrauli gharana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana (also known as Jaipur Gharana, Atrauli-Jaipur Gharana, and Alladiyakhani Gayaki) is an Hindustani music apprenticeship fraternity (gharana), founded by Alladiya Khan in the late-19th century. Evolved from the dhrupad tradition, but known for khayal,[1] this gharana is known for producing acclaimed musicians like Kesarbai Kerkar, Mogubai Kurdikar, Mallikarjun Mansur, Kishori Amonkar, Shruti Sadolikar, Ashwini Bhide-Deshpande and Pandit Mityunjaya Agadi.[2] Consequently, this gharana developed a reputation for its distinctive vocal aesthetics, raga repertoire, and technical aptitude.[3]

History[edit]

The Jaipur-Atrauli gharana emerged from Alladiya Khan's family which originated from Atrauli (near Aligarh) and migrated to Jaipur.[4][5][6] This gharana mainly evolved from Dagar-bani of Dhrupad, however it also absorbed finer essence of Gauhar-bani and Khandar-bani.[7]

Etymology[edit]

A subgroup of the broader Atrauli gharana, the Jaipur-Atrauli gharana incluldes "Jaipur" to account for the geographical history of Alladiya Khan's family.[8]

Scholars say the hyphenated moniker of this gharana recognizes that Jaipur-Atrauli gharana musicians originally came from Atrauli Village in Aligarh district and migrated to the court of the Maharaja of Jaipur, their principal patron. Others say they came to the Jaipur Maharaja's court and then dispersed to various other courts in the area, like Jodhpur, Uniyara, Bundi, Atrauli.

Roots in Haveli Sangeet[edit]

Many of the ragas and compositions sung in the Jaipur gharana come from the tradition of Haveli Sangeet and dhrupad,[9] such as:[10]

Aesthetics[edit]

Gayaki[edit]

The gharana is known for its unique layakari (rhythmic aesthetics) and rich repertoire of ragas, especially jod ragas (compound ragas) and sankeerna ragas (mixed ragas). Most gharanas apply notes in simple succession in aalap and taan, whereas in the Jaipur gayaki, notes are applied in an oblique manner with filigree involving immediately neighbouring notes. Instead of the flat taan, gamak (taan sung with double notes with a delicate force behind each of the component double-notes of the taan) makes the taan spiral into seemingly never-ending cycles. Meend in aalap and gamak in taan are the hallmark of this gayaki. Sharp edged harkats and murkis (crisp, quick phrases to ornament the alaap) are relatively uncommon. Not only are the notes sung in rhythm with the taal but progress between the matras (beats) is in fractions of quarters and one-eighths. While being mindful of so many factors, musicians of this gharana still have a graceful way of arriving at the Sam without having matras to spare. This is particularly evident in the way bol-alaap or bol-taan is sung, where meticulous attention is given to the short and long vowels in the words of the bandish that are being pronounced, and the strict discipline of avoiding unnatural breaks in the words and in the meaning of the lyrics. No other gharana has paid so much attention to the aesthetics and laykari in singing bol-alaaps and bol-taans[citation needed].

Specialty and Jod Raags[edit]

Signature and specialty ragas of this gharana (some revived or created by Alladiya Khan) include Sampoorna Malkauns, Basanti Kedar, Basant Bahar, Bihagda, Khat, Gandhari and Nat Kamod. A highlight of Jaipur gayaki is the mastery over Jod Ragas (mixed or hybrid Raags). Singers from other gharanas tend to sing one raga in aaroha (ascent) and the other in avaroha (descent). Some others sing one raga in the lower half of the octave and then switch to the other raga in the upper half. Alternatively, they may sing alternate phrases of the two component ragas. In Jaipur gayaki, the two ragas are fused so that it sounds like a homogeneous raga in its own right, giving the feel of both component ragas, not as a heterogeneous mixture cobbled together. The listener hears an amalgam of both ragas without losing their distinctive identity. Alladiya Khan introduced many lesser-known or obscure ragas in his repertoire such as Basanti Kedar, Jait Kalyan, Kafi Kanada, Raisa Kanada, Basanti Kanada, Savani Nat, Savani Kalyan, Bhoop Nat, Nat Kamod, Bihari, Khat, Khokar, Pat bihag and Sampoorna Malkauns.

Legacy[edit]

To his immense credit, the great exponent of Kirana gharana, Bhimsen Joshi is one of the very few singers outside the Jaipur gharana, who tried to adopt the gamak taan to some extent, but he has not quite achieved the intricacy and grace of gamak that is the signature of Jaipur.

Pedagogical Genealogy[edit]

Ancestral Pedagogy of Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana[edit]

The following visualization is based on several historical accounts.[11][12]

Dagarbani
Parampara
Nath
Vishwambhar
Miyan Bade Karim
Baksh Khan
Haridas
Dagar
Miyan Mantol
Khan
Miyan Bhopat
Khan
Miyan
Tansen
Miyan Zahoor
Khan
Miyan Gulab
Khan
Gauharbani
Parampara
Sikandrabad
Gharana
Miyan Hande Imam
Baksh Khan
Miyan Hussain
Khan
Ramzan Khan
"Rangile"
Qadar
Khan
Rangile
Gharana
Miyan Chhajjoo
Khan
Miyan Dilawar
"Dallooo" Khan
Nauharbani
Parampara
Jahangir
Khan
Khwaja Ahmed
Khan
Chiman
Khan
Ahmed
Khan
Zahoor Baksh
Khan "Ramdas"
Khairat Ali
Khan
Amrunnissa
Begum
Mohammed
Khan
Ghulam Ahmed
"Alladiya" Khan
Haider
Khan
Agra
Gharana
Jaipur-Atrauli
Gharana
Khurja
Gharana

Recent Pedagogy of Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana[edit]

This tree is based on the scholastic consensus published at "Anand Parva" in 2018.[13]

Jaipur-
Atrauli
Guru
Parampara
Mohammed
Khan
Ghulam
Ahmed
"Alladiya" Khan
Ahmed
Khan
Haider
Khan
Bhaskarbuwa
Bakhle
Tanibai
Ghorpade
"Ghorpadebai"
Govindbuwa
Shaligram
Govindrao
Tembe
Wamanrao
Sadolikar
Azmat
Hussain
Khan
Tribhuvandas
Jariwala
Shankarrao
Sarnaik
Qamaruddin
"Natthan"
Khan
Badruddin
"Manji" Khan
Nasiruddin
"Badeji" Khan
Shamsuddin
"Bhurji" Khan
Madhukarrao
Sadolikar
Khurja
Gharana
Mohanrao
Palekar
Gulubhai
Jasdanwalla
Abdul
Majid
Khan

(sarangiya)
Kesarbai
Kerkar
Leelabai
Shirgaonkar
Mogubai
Kurdikar
Laxmibai
Jadhav
Sushila Rani
Patel
Mallikarjun
Mansur
Nivruttibuwa
Sarnaik
Vidya
Pisal
"Azambai"
Madhusudan
Kanetkar
Gajananrao
Joshi
C. Balaji
Babanrao
Haldankar
Vamanrao
Deshpande
Kamal
Pathare
G. T. Tilak
"Tilak Master"
Krishnarao
Chonkar
Anandrao
Limayebuwa
Padmavati
Shaligram-
Gokhale
Appsaheb
Deshpande
Menakabai
Shirodkar
"Baba"
Azizuddin
Khan
Manohar
Potdar
Suresh
Haldankar
Ratnakar
Pai
Jitendra
Abhisheki
Agra
Gharana
Baburao
Joshi
Dhondutai
Kulkarni
Dinkar
Panshikar
Prasad
Savkar
Vijaya
Jadhav-
Gatlewar
Sayeed &
Rasheed
"Khan Bandhu"
Shripad
Bhirdikar
Bhalchandra
Patekar
Atrauli
Gharana
Kishori
Amonkar
Suhasini
Mulgaonkar
Kamal
Tambe
Kausalya
Manjeshwar
Sudhir
Pote
Sukhada
Kane
Shobha
Gurtu
Madhusudan
Apte
Ladkujan
Nandanikar
Jayashree
Patanekar
Sardarbai
Kardgekar
Rajshekhar
Mansur
Panchakshariswami
Mattigati
Aundh
Gharana
Arun
Kulkarni
Bhalchandra
Tilak
Milind
Malshe
Manik
Bhide
Arun
Dravid
Padma
Talwalkar
Kumudini
Katdare
Siddharaj
Jambaldini
Mrityunjaya
Agadi
Sulabha
Mohile
Jyotsna
Mohile
Vijaya
Joglekar
Sudha Bakhre-
Athalye
M. G.
Patwardhan
Ulhas
Kashalkar
Shruti
Sadolikar-
Katkar
Sudhakar
Digrajkar
Neelakshi
Juvekar
Prasad
Gulvani
Ashwini
Bhide-
Deshpande
Devaki
Pandit
Arati
Ankalikar-
Tikekar
Raghunandan
Panshikar
Bharati
Vaishampayan
Vishwas
Shirgaonkar
Nagarajarao
Havaldar
Geeta
Javadekar
Alka
Deo-
Marulkar
Manjiri
Karve
Alegaonkar
Priyadarshini
Kulkarni
Shalmalee
Joshi
Meena
Joshi
Meera
Panshikar
Nandini
Bedekar
Yashaswi
Sirpotdar
Pratima
Tilak
Namita
Devidayal
Smita
Bhagwat
Umesh
Munavalli
Ninad
Deo
Manjiri
Asnare-
Kelkar
Bharati
Vaishampayan
Lata
Godse
Vandana
Bhagwat
Milind
Raikar
Gauri
Pathare
Sanjay
Dixit
Omkarnath
Havaldar
Vasanti
Tembe
Madhuvanti
Deo
Varsha
Joshi-
Sohoni
Revati
Kamat
Saniya
Patankar
Tejashree
Amonkar
Aditya
Khandwe
Rutuja
Lad
Deepika
Bhide-
Bhagwat
Bhupal
Panshikar

Exponents[edit]

20th Century[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sharma, Manorma (2006). Tradition of Hindustani music. New Delhi: A.P.H. Pub. Corp. p. 49. ISBN 81-7648-999-9.
  2. ^ Suryanarayan, Renuka (8 August 2019). "Conveying the essence of Jaipur-Atrauli gharana". The Hindu.
  3. ^ Haḷadaṇakara, Babanarāva (2001). Aesthetics of Agra and Jaipur Traditions. Popular Prakashan. p. 15. ISBN 9788171546855.
  4. ^ Manorma Sharma (2006). Tradition of Hindustani Music. APH Publishing. pp. 49–51. ISBN 978-81-7648-999-7.
  5. ^ Jeffrey Michael Grimes (2008). The Geography of Hindustani Music: The Influence of Region and Regionalism on the North Indian Classical Tradition. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-109-00342-0.
  6. ^ Kumāraprasāda Mukhopādhyāẏa (2006). The Lost World of Hindustani Music. Penguin Books India. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-0-14-306199-1.
  7. ^ http://www.swarmanttra.com/vocal/gharanas/jaipur-atrauli-gharana/
  8. ^ Nair, Jyoti (9 November 2017). "His gayaki set up a tradition". The Hindu.
  9. ^ "Official Website: Sangeet Samrat Ustad Alladiya Khan(Emperor of Music): About Us".
  10. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Haveli sangeet and Jaipur-Atrauli gharana". YouTube.
  11. ^ Neuman, Daniel M. (1990). The Life of Music in North India: The Organization of an Artistic Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 9780226575162.
  12. ^ "Azmat Hussain Khan Dilrang ( 1911 1975)" – via Internet Archive.
  13. ^ Sinha, Manjari (17 November 2018). "Ashwini Bhide Deshpande: Nurturing the covalent bonds of music". The Hindu.
  14. ^ "Vocalist Mattigatti dead | Hubballi News - Times of India".
  15. ^ "The Sanctity of Parampara - Manik Bhide".
  16. ^ https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/classical-singer-manik-bhide-chosen-f Mohanrao Palekaror-bhimsen-joshi-award/1155162
  17. ^ Nadadhur, Srivathsan (14 July 2016). "Yashaswi Sirpotdar: On a graceful note". The Hindu.
  18. ^ https://www.outlookindia.com/magazine/story/tejashree-amonkar/298144,[bare URL]
  19. ^ "Understanding sam - G5A".

Bibliography[edit]