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|Hindustani classical music|
In Hindustani music, a gharānā is a system of social organization linking musicians or dancers by lineage or apprenticeship, and by adherence to a particular musical style. A gharana also indicates a comprehensive musicological ideology. This ideology sometimes changes substantially from one gharana to another. It directly affects the thinking, teaching, performance and appreciation of music.
The word gharana comes from the Urdu/Hindi word 'ghar', which means 'family' or 'house'. It typically refers to the place where the musical ideology originated; for example, some of the gharanas well known for singing khyals are: Agra, Gwalior, Indore, Jaipur, Kirana, and Pattiala.
The gharana system in khyal was rooted in the guru-shishya tradition and was similar to the Dhrupad Bani system. The gharana system was greatly influenced by the gradual fall of the Mughal Empire, which forced musicians to move from Delhi to princely states such as Gwalior, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Patiala and Rampur.
The gharanas have distinct styles of presenting the khyal — how much to emphasize and how to enunciate the words of the composition, when to sing the sthayi and antara, whether to sing an unmetered alap in the beginning, what kinds of improvisations to use, how much importance to give to the rhythmic aspect, and so on. However, an individual performer from a gharana may choose to borrow appealing stylistic aspects of another gharana in his or her gayaki. The prominent khyal gharanas are:
|Gharana||Founding Artists||Approximate founding date||Revived by||Approximate revival date||Features|
|Gwalior Gharana||Nathan Pir Baksh, Nathu Khan||Mid-16th Century||Bol-baant, bol-taan, no sargam, wide range in taans, alankarik taans, descending sapaat taans, roughly similar emphasis on melody and rhythm, preference for simple (as opposed to compound) ragas, repertoire of bandishes, variety of taans|
|Agra Gharana||Ghagghe Khudabaksh||Mid-19th century||Faiyaz Khan||Early 20th century||Closer to dhrupad with nom-tom type alap and other elements, rhythmic play, frequent use of tisra jati in teentaal, emphasis on voice culture to achieve wide range and powerful throw of voice, bol-baant, bol-taan, rare use of sargam, slower taans, use of jabda taan, repertoire of traditional and self-composed bandishes|
|Kirana Gharana||Nayak Gopal||Late 17th century||Abdul Karim Khan, Abdul Wahid Khan, Sawai Gandharva and his students||Early 20th century||Slow-tempo raga development, emphasis on melody, long and sustained pitches, usually traditional ragas, use of sargam, very little bol-baant, clarity of text pronunciation, use of some Carnatic ragas and raga features, emphasis on vocal as opposed to instrumental form|
|Bhendi Bazaar Gharana||Chhajju Khan, Nazeer Khan, Khadim Hussain Khan||Late 19th century||Emphasis on breath control to be able to sing long passages in a single breath, use of merukhand for extended alaps, use of gamak taan and sargam, use of some Carnatic ragas|
|Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana||Alladiya Khan||Late 19th century||Repertoire of rare and complex ragas, based on Agra gharana, use of aakaar for badhat, heavy use of teentaal, rupak, jhaptaal and ada-chautaal, rhythmic play, use of bol-baant and bol-taan, rippling taans, heavy emphasis on taans|
|Patiala Gharana||Bade Fateh Ali Khan, Ali Baksh Khan||Late 19th century||Emphasis on voice development, roughly similar emphasis on melody and rhythm, bol-baant-like sargam with occasional tonic transpositions, occasional use of bol-taan, variety of taans, fast sargam and taan patterns, may or may not include antara, influence of tappa style|
|Rampur-Sahaswan Gharana||Inayat Hussain Khan||Mid-19th century||Emphasis on melody, little bol-baant or bol-taan, use of sargam, sapaat taans|
|Indore Gharana||Amir Khan||Mid-20th century||Slow-tempo raga development, improvisation mostly in lower and middle octaves, tendency towards serious and expansive ragas, emphasis on melody, judicious use of pause between improvisations, bol alap and sargam using merukhand patterns, sparing application of murki, use of kan swaras in all parts of performance, controlled use of embellishments to preserve introspective quality, rare use of tihai, careful enunciation of text, may or may not include antara, multiple laya jatis in a single taan, mixture of taan types in a single taan, known for ruba'idar tarana (considered similar to chhota khyal)|
|Delhi Gharana||Qawwaliyas||Late 18th century||Sangi Khan, Mamman Khan||Extensive use of sargam and taan patterns in both vilambit and drut|
|Jodhpur-Mewati Gharana||Ghagghe Nazir Khan||Mid-19th century||Jasraj||Late 20th century||Emphasis on melody, known for bhajans, sapaat taans and gamak taans, use of sargam|
|Sham Chaurasia Gharana||Miyan Chand Khan, Miyan Suraj Khan||16th century||Salamat Ali and Nazakat Ali Khan||Mid-20th century||Emphasis on layakari using bol-baant and tihai, fast sargam and taan patterns|
|This section requires expansion with: more details similar to section on khyal gharanas above. (May 2010)|
- Dagarvani Gharana, founded by the Dagar family
- Bishnupur Gharana, founded by Kirtankars in West Bengal (13th Century)
- Darbhanga Gharana, Darbhanga, Bihar - known for style known as Gaurhar Vani and also has good command on Khandar Vani
- Bettiah gharana, founded in Bettiah, Bihar
In the Benares Thumri Gharana, the words in the text of a song are musically embellished to bring out their meaning, while the Lucknow gharana presents intricately embellished and delicate thumris that are explicit in their eroticism. The principal feature of the thumri of the Patiala gharana is its incorporation of the tappa from the Punjab region. It is with this tappa element that the Patiala gharana makes its impact, departing from the khyal-dominated Benaras thumris and the dance-oriented Lucknow thumris.
- Benares Thumri Gharana, revived by Siddheshwari Devi, Rasoolan Bai, Badi Moti Bai, Mahadev Mishra, Girija Devi(mid-20th Century), founded by Kirtankars (13th-Century).
- Patiala Thumri Gharana, founded by Ustad Fateh Ali Khan and Ustad Ali Baksh Khan in Patiala, Punjab (18th Century).
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The following are the six widely accepted Tabla Gharanas. The prominent Tabla Gharanas are in bold (ordered based on chronology of founding):
- Delhi gharana is the oldest of the Tabla Gharanas.
- Ajrara gharana is an offshoot of and closely associated with the Delhi Gharana
- Lucknow gharana has rhythmic development through Kathak
- Hariprasad Chaurasria Gharana emphasizes the use of thumb and the nam Bol. Popularized by Sri.
- Punjab gharana, popularized by Alla Rakha and Zakir Hussain, developed through its original Pakhawaj repertoire
- Farukhabad gharana is the youngest accepted Tabla Gharana, and an offshoot of all of the Gharanas, featuring their main concepts
|Gharana||Founding artists||Approximate founding date||Founding location||Famous exponents|
|Delhi Gharana||Siddhar Khan||Early 18th century||Delhi||Ustad Ghami khan saheb, Ustad Imam Ali Khan,ustad munnu khan saheb, Ustad Latif Ahmed Khan saheb, Ustad Shafaat Ahmed Khan|
|Ajrara gharana||Kallu Khan, Miru Khan||Early 19th century||Meerut||Ustad Habibuddin Khan,Ustad Mehboob Hussain Khan, Prof. Sudhirkumar Saxena, Ustad Manju Khan s/o late Ustad Habibuddin Khan, (Ustad Yusuf Khan, Pandit Babu Ram Parvesh Singh, Ustad Ramjan Khan Sahib, Pandit Bal Krishan Sharma - disciples of Ustad Habibuddin Khan), Aman Ali, Athar Hussain, Anil Kumar,all are disciples of ustad manju khan s/o late ustad habibudin khan,Ustad Sarwar Sabri and Ustad Akram Khan.|
|Lucknow gharana||Miyan Bakshu||19th century||Lucknow||Ustad Ilmas Hussain Khan son of Ustad Afaq Hussain Khan,Mr. Timir Roy Chowdhury (Deciple of Khalifa Ustad Afq Hussain Khan), Pt. Achchan Maharaj (Jagannath Maharaj),Late Pandit Anil Bhattacharjee, Prof.Biswajit Bhattacharjee.(R.B.U.),Pt. Santosh Biswas, Pt. Swapan Chaudhuri Ustaad Faiyaz Khan. Mrs.Nibedita Bhattacharjee[Bagchi].|
|Benares gharana||Ram Sahai||Late 18th century||Benaras||Ram Sahai, Anokhelal Mishra, Shamta Prasad, Kishen Maharaj, Nandan Mehta, Kumar Bose, Shashanka Shekhar Bakshi, Samar Saha, Sharda Sahai, Sukhwinder Singh Namdhari, Ramkumar Mishra|
|Farukhabad gharana||Haji Vilayat Ali Khan||19th century||Farukhabad||Ustad Masit Khan, Ustad Ahmedjan Thirakwa, Pandit Jnan Prakash Ghosh, Ustad Keramatullah Khan, Pandit Kanai Dutta, Pandit Shyamal Bose, Pandit Shankar Ghosh, Pt. Anindo Chatterjee, Pandit Abhijit Banerjee,Ustad Sabir Khan, Pandit Nayan Ghosh, Ustad Amir Hussain Khan, Pt Pandharinath Nageshkar, Pandit Bickram Ghosh|
|Punjab gharana||Miyan Qader Baksh||19th century||Punjab||Ustad Qadeer Buksh, Ustad Shaukat Hussein Khan, Ustad Abdul Sattar Tari Khan, Ustad Alla Rakha Khan, Ustad Zakir Hussain, Pandit Yogesh Samsi|
Wind and string instruments
- Imdadkhani (Etawah) Gharana, founded by Imdad Khan (Sitar, Surbahar)
- Maihar gharana, Maihar
- Bishnupur gharana
- Sufiana Gharana of Kashmir (Santoor)
- Imdadkhani gharana
- Senia Gharana
- Indore Gharana(Beenkar Gharana)
- Maihar gharana
- Jaipur Gharana
- Bishnupur Gharana
In Kathak performers today generally draw their lineage from three major schools of Kathak: the Jaipur gharana, the Lucknow gharana and the Banaras gharana (born in the courts of the Kachwaha Rajput kings, the Nawab of Oudh, and Varanasi respectively); there is also a less prominent (and later) Raigarh gharana which amalgamated technique from all three preceding gharanas but became famous for its own distinctive compositions.
The Lucknow gharana remains the most popular throughout the country. However, in recent times the Jaipur gharana has caught up and today most performers throughout India perform techniques belonging to both styles. With amalgamation of the techniques and poses from other dance forms, the purity of the movements and gestures may be diluted or modified along with the contemporary trends.