Kafi (raga)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kafi
ThaatKafi
Time of day2nd Prahar of the Night (9 p.m. - 12 a.m.)
ArohanaS R g m P D n S'
AvarohanaS' n D P m g R S
PakadS R g m P D n S' S' n D P m g R S
ChalanS R g m P D n S' S' n D P m g R S
VadiPa
SamavadiRe
SynonymBhimpalasi, Bageshri
SimilarKharaharapriya in Carnatic music

Kafi (IAST: Kāfi) is a raga in Hindustani classical music. It corresponds to Kharaharapriya in Carnatic music.

Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande classified most ragas into ten Thaats. Kafi Thaat is one of them. The raga Kafi is the principal raga of its Thaat. According to Bhatkhande, its name first appears in the Raga Tarangini of Lochana Pandit, who lived in the Mithila district around the 15th century CE.

Kafi has a direct lineage with the folk music of India. Folk music in Tappa, Hori, Dadra, Kirtan and Bhajans from different parts of India have been composed in this raga.

Many variations of Kafi exist. Contamination with vivadi swaras is common. This mixing has given rise to Mishra Kafi. Hence, a pure form of Kafi is seldom heard.

Description[edit]

Varna[edit]

Kafi is a sampoorna-sampoorna or heptatonic raga, with komal (half a note down) Gandhar (ga) and Nishad (ni). This is also referred to as the Bhairavi of night. Both Shuddha Nishad & Gandhar are occasionally used. The atmosphere created is most suitable for both types of Shringar (Separation & Union) and hence many Thumri & Hori compositions are sung in this Raag.

Aroha[edit]

Sa Re ga Ma Pa Dha ni Sa

(ga and ni are komal swaras)

Avarohana[edit]

Sa ni Dha Pa Ma ga Re Sa. (ga and ni komal)

Vadi and Samavadi[edit]

Pancham (Pa) is the vadi swara and Shadaj (Sa) is the samavadi swara.

Pakad[edit]

A typical improvisation of Kafi starts as M P D P M g R, g R S, n. D. S

The phrases below and termination in R are characteristic.

S R g M P D n

S, R g M P, M P D (M) g

Chalan[edit]

The typical chalan can be illustrated as:

S S R R g g M M P - - D M P g R R n D n P D M P S n D P M G R S.

M P D D n S - S R g R S N D S - S R S n D n D P M P D P g - R - R n D n P D M P S n D P M g R S

Organization and relationships[edit]

Various ragas, such as Bhimpalasi, Bageshree, Kafi Kanada, Bahar, and Brindabani Sarang are associated with this raga. Important tributaries of this raga include Sindhura, Barwa, Neelambari and Pilu.

In Western Classical Music, Kafi corresponds to the modern Dorian Mode.

Behavior[edit]

Samay (Time)[edit]

Raat ka dvitiya prahar or evening 9-12

Seasonality[edit]

The raga is performed during any season.

Rasa[edit]

The principal rasa for this raga is sringara.

Important recordings[edit]

Film Songs[edit]

Language:Tamil[edit]

Note that the following songs are composed in Kharaharapriya, the equivalent of raga Kafi in Carnatic music.

Song Movie Composer Singer
Enna Seidhaalum Irumbu Thirai S. V. Venkatraman Radha Jayalakshmi
Ariyaa Paruvamadaa Missiamma S. Rajeshwara Rao P. Susheela
Maayavalaiyil Gulebakavali Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy T. M. Soundararajan
Annan Kaatiya Vazhiyamma Padithal Mattum Podhuma
Maharajan Karnan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Aagaya Pandhalile Ponnunjal M. S. Viswanathan
Madhavi Pon Mayilaal Iru Malargal T. M. Soundararajan
Ponmagal Vandhaal Sorgam
Attamenna Solladi (I will sing for you) Manidharil Manikkam
Malligai En Mannan Dheerga Sumangali Vani Jayaram
Aayiram Nilave Vaa Adimai Penn K. V. Mahadevan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela
Isaiyai Thamizhai Agathiyar Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan Sirkazhi Govindarajan, T. R. Mahalingam
Poo Malarinthida Tik Tik Tik Ilaiyaraaja K. J. Yesudas, Jency Anthony
Thaana Vantha Santhaname Ooru Vittu Ooru Vanthu S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Vaazhavaikum Kaathalukku Jey Apoorva Sagodharargal
Adukku Malli Yeduthu Aavarampoo
Pattu Onna Kumbakarai Thangaiah
Mappillaikku Netrikkan Malaysia Vasudevan, P. Susheela
Kannukkulle Yaaro Kai Kodukkum Kai S. P. Sailaja, P. Susheela
Maalai Karukkalil Neethiyin Marupakkam K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
Roja Poo Adivanthathu Agni Natchathiram S. Janaki
Karutha Machan Pudhu Nellu Pudhu Naathu
Iravu Nilavu Anjali
Kaala kaalamaaga Vaazhum Punnagai Mannan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra
Aethamayya Aetham Ninaive Oru Sangeetham Malaysia Vasudevan, K.S. Chitra
Ilam Vayasu Ponna Paandi Nattu Thangam
Nethu Oruthara Oruthara Puthu Paatu Ilaiyaraaja, K.S. Chitra
Poongatru Thirumbuma Muthal Mariyathai Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Katti Vechukko Enthan Anbu Manasu En Jeevan Paduthu
Anandham Pongida Pongida Sirai Paravai K. J. Yesudas,Sunanda
Thooliyile Ada Vantha Chinna Thambi Mano, K.S. Chitra
Unnai Vaazhtha Vanthen Unnai Vaazhthi Paadugiren K. J. Yesudas
Elangaathu Veesudhey Pithamagan Sriram Parthasarathy, Shreya Ghoshal
Kai Veesi Nandalala Vijay Yesudas, Swetha Mohan, Madhu Balakrishnan,Raagul,Chandrasekar
Ilavenirkala Panjami Manam Virumbuthe Unnai Hariharan
Aanenna Pennena Dharma Durai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Neela Vana Odayil Vazhvey Maayam Gangai Amaran
Indralogathu Sundari Uyirullavarai Usha T. Rajendar
Atho Vanile Nila Oorvalam Thandanai Chandrabose S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Pachchai Nirame (Sakiye) Alaipayuthey A. R. Rahman Hariharan, Clinton Cerejo
Urvasi Urvasi Kadhalan A. R. Rahman,Suresh Peters,Shahul Hameed
Kilimanjaro Enthiran Javed Ali, Chinmayi
Mayiliragae Mayiliragae Anbe Aaruyire Naresh Iyer, Madhushree
Gulmohar Malare Majunu Harris Jayaraj Hariharan
Mudhal Mazhai Bheemaa Hariharan, Mahathi, R. Prasanna
Suttum Vizhi Ghajini Sriram Parthasarathy, Bombay Jayashree
Yaaridamum Thotti Jaya Ramesh Vinayagam, Harini
Uyirile Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu Mahalakshmi Iyer, Srinivas
Meela Mudiyamal(Unreleased track) Vaaranam Aayiram Benny Dayal, Srimathumitha,Rathika
Sangeetha Swarangal Azhagan Maragathamani S. P. Balasubrahmanyam,Sandhya
Kamban Engu Jaathi Malli S. P. Balasubrahmanyam,K.S. Chitra
Janaki Devi Samsaram Adhu Minsaram Shankar–Ganesh K.S. Chitra
Rendu Kannam Santhana Kinnam Sivappu Malli K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Panivilum Paruvanila Paneer Nadhigal K. J. Yesudas
Rosappu Chinna Rosappu Suryavamsam S. A. Rajkumar Hariharan(vers 1),Sujatha Mohan(vers 2)
Edho Oru Paattu Unnidathil Ennai Koduthen
Kanava Ninaiva Aasal Bharadwaj V. V. Prasanna, Manjari
Santhikkadha Kangalil Inbangal 180 Sharreth Unni Menon, K.S. Chitra, S. Sowmya
En Raasi Enakkoru Magan Pirappan Karthik Raja Sujatha Mohan,P. Unni Krishnan
Inni Naanum Naanilai Yai! Nee Romba Azhaga Irukke! Srinivas Srinivas, Sujatha Mohan, Sunitha Sarathy
Yamini Yamini Arvind-Shankar Harish Raghavendra
Aathadi Manasudhan Kazhugu Yuvan Shankar Raja Priya Himesh, Karthik Raja
Ayyayyo Paruthiveeran Shreya Ghoshal,Krishnaraj,Manikka Vinayagam,Yuvan Shankar Raja(Humming)
Dheivangal Ellam Kedi Billa Killadi Ranga Vijay Yesudas
Kadhal Vaithu Deepavali
Un Mela Oru Kannu Rajinimurugan D. Imman Jithin Raj,Mahalakshmi Iyer
Muzhumadhi Muzhumadhi Kanimozhi Satish Chakravarthy Vijay Yesudas,Bela Shende
Ithanai Dhooram Koottam James Vasanthan Haricharan, Shweta Mohan
Vinmeen Vithaiyil Thegidi Nivas K. Prasanna Abhay Jodhpurkar,Saindhavi

References[edit]

See also[edit]