Jump to content


Coordinates: 26°54′N 75°48′E / 26.9°N 75.8°E / 26.9; 75.8
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Pink City
Jaipur is located in Jaipur
Jaipur is located in Rajasthan
Location of Jaipur in Rajasthan
Jaipur is located in India
Location of Jaipur in India
Jaipur is located in Asia
Location of Jaipur in Asia
Coordinates: 26°54′N 75°48′E / 26.9°N 75.8°E / 26.9; 75.8
Country India
State Rajasthan
Founded18 November 1727; 296 years ago (1727-11-18)
Founded byJai Singh II
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyJaipur Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor (JMC Greater)Somya Gurjar (BJP)[1]
 • Mayor (JMC Heritage)Munesh Gurjar (INC)[2]
 • Commissioner (JMC Greater)Rukmani Riar, IAS[3]
 • Commissioner (JMC Heritage)Abhishek Surana, IAS[4]
 • Total467 km2 (180 sq mi)
 • Rank1st in Rajasthan
431 m (1,414 ft)
 • Total3,046,189
 • Rank10th India
 • Density6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
DemonymsJaipuri, Jaipuriya, Jaipurite
 • OfficialHindi[7]
 • Additional officialEnglish[7]
 • RegionalRajasthani[8]
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Area code(s)+91-141
Vehicle registrationRJ-14 (Jaipur South)
RJ-45 (Jaipur North)
GDP Nominal (Jaipur district)192,668 crore (US$23 billion)[9]
Budget₹895.60 crores
($121 million)[10]
AirportJaipur International Airport
Rapid transit systemJaipur Metro
(Jaipur Greater) jaipurmcheritage.org
(Jaipur Heritage)
Official nameJaipur City, Rajasthan
CriteriaCultural: (ii), (iv), (vi)
Designated2019 (43rd session)
Reference no.1605
RegionSouthern Asia

Jaipur (/ˈpʊər/ , Hindi: [ˈdʒeəpʊr]) is the capital and the largest city of the north-western Indian state of Rajasthan. As of 2011, the city has a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Located 268 km (167 miles) from the national capital New Delhi, Jaipur is also known as the Pink City due to the dominant color scheme of its buildings in old city.[11]

Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Sawai Jai Singh II, the Kachhwaha Rajput ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named.[12] It is one of the earliest planned cities of modern India, designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya.[13] During the British colonial period, the city served as the capital of Jaipur State. After Indian independence in 1947, Jaipur was made the capital of the newly formed state of Rajasthan in 1949.

Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India, forming a part of the west Golden triangle tourist circuit along with Delhi and Agra.[14] The city serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan like Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Udaipur, Kota, Mount Abu and has two World heritage sites of Amer Fort and Jantar Mantar. On 6 July 2019, the city was named to the World Heritage Cities list.[15] It is also known as Paris of India. Due to its beauty C.V. Raman called it "Island of Glory".


Jaipur derives its name from Sawai Jai Singh II (1693-1744), the ruler of Amer, who founded the city in 1727.[11] In Sanskrit, variations of the word "pur" or "pura" are commonly used to refer to a city or town with "Jaipur" essentially meaning "The City of Jai" or "Jai's City," paying homage to Maharaja Jai Singh II, who established the city.[16]


Sawai Jai Singh, the founder of Jaipur

Jaipur was founded by Rajput chief of Kachhwaha clan Jai Singh II on 18 November 1727, who ruled the region from 1699 to 1743. He planned to shift his capital from Amber, 11 kilometres (7 mi) to Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water.[17] Jai Singh consulted with several architects while planning the layout of Jaipur and established the city on the principles of Vastu Shastra and Shilpa Shastra under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya.[18] The construction of the city began in 1726. During the rule of Sawai Ram Singh II, the city was painted pink to welcome Albert Edward, Prince of Wales in 1876.[19] Many of the avenues still remain painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance and the epithet Pink city.[20]

In the 19th century, the city grew rapidly and had a population of 160,000 in 1900. The wide boulevards were paved and its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868.[21] In August 1981, large areas of the city including the airport were flooded due to heavy rains from a cloud burst, resulting in the death of eight people and much damage to the city's Dravyavati River.[22][23] On 6 July 2019, the city was named to the World Heritage Cities list.[24]



Jaipur is located in the northeastern part of Rajasthan and covers a total area of 467 square kilometres (180 sq mi). The city is surrounded by fertile alluvial plains to the east and south and hill chains and desert areas to the north and west.[25][26] Jaipur generally slopes downwards from north to south and then to the southeast.[27] The city is surrounded by the Nahargarh hills in the north and Jhalana in the east, which is a part of the Aravalli range.[27]

The Dravyavati River is the primary drainage channel, which by 2014 had degenerated into an untreated sewage nallah. To address this issue, a plan for the rejuvenation of the river was developed by Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) in 2015.[28] A 13 km (8.1 mi) stretch of Dravyavati riverfront out of 47.5 km (29.5 mi) was opened after rejuvenation in 2018 and the remaining project was completed in 2022.[29]


Jaipur has a monsoon-influenced hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with long, extremely hot summers and short, mild to warm winters. Annual precipitation is over 625 millimetres or 25 inches, falling mostly in July and August due to the southwest monsoon, causing the average temperatures in these two months to be lower compared to drier May and June. During the monsoon, there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The highest temperature ever recorded was 49.0 °C (120.2 °F), on 23 May 1994. The city's average temperature remains below 20 °C or 68 °F between December and February. These months are mild, dry, and pleasant, sometimes chilly. The lowest temperature ever recorded was −2.2 °C (28.0 °F) on 31 January 1905, 1 February 1905 and 16 January 1964. Jaipur, like many other major cities of the world, is a significant urban heat island zone with surrounding rural temperatures occasionally falling below freezing in winters.[30]

Climate data for Jaipur (Jaipur International Airport) 1991–2020, extremes 1952–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.7
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 22.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 8.4
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
Average rainfall mm (inches) 5.9
Average rainy days 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.3 4.2 9.8 9.4 4.8 1.2 0.2 0.3 34.3
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 38 31 22 18 19 35 62 69 52 32 34 39 38
Average dew point °C (°F) 6
Average ultraviolet index 5 7 9 11 12 12 12 12 10 8 6 5 9.1
Source 1: India Meteorological Department[31][32][33][34][35] Climate of Jaipur[36] Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005–2015)[37]
Source 2: Weather Atlas,[38] Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1991–2020)[39]


Historical population
±%—    +11.4%+0.7%−14.3%−12.3%+20.0%+21.9%+65.5%+38.6%+32.2%+19.4%+57.8%+51.1%+53.0%+32.3%
Source: Census of India[40][41][42]

According to the provisional report of 2011 census, Jaipur city had a population of 3,073,350.[42] The overall literacy rate for the city is 84.34%.[42] The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males and the child sex ratio was 854.[42]


The official language of Jaipur is Hindi and the additional official language is English.[8] The native and main dialect of the city is Dhundari with Marwari and Standard Hindi dialects are also spoken, along with English.[43]


Religion in Jaipur City (2011)
Religion Percent(%)

According to the 2011 census, Hindus form the majority religious group accounting for 87.9% of the city's population, followed by Muslims (8.6%), Jains (2.4%) and others (1.2%).[44]

Government and politics


Jaipur Development Authority is the main planning authority of the city.[45] Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC) was established in the year 1994.[46] The area of the municipal corporation is 467 km2 (180 sq mi) and is headed by a mayor.[47] In 2020, JMC was bifurcated into two Municipal Corporations, namely Greater Jaipur Municipal Corporation and Jaipur Heritage Municipal Corporation with 150 and 100 wards respectively.[48][49] The latest elections were held in October 2020.[50][51] The current mayor of Greater JMC is Somya Gurjar and the mayor for Heritage JMC is Munesh Gurjar since 10 November 2020.[52] The administration duties are carried out by the municipal commissioner and his group of officials. The estimated municipal budget for the year 2022–23 is 8,950 lakh (US$11 million).[10] The key revenue sources for the corporation are taxes which include House tax, Urban Development tax and octroi compensation along with various fees and user charges.[10] Law and order is maintained by Jaipur city police under the jurisdiction of the Rajasthan state department.[53] There is a district and sessions court at Jaipur to handle civil and criminal cases.[54]


Jaipur consists of two parliamentary constituencies Jaipur and Jaipur Rural.[55][56] The Jaipur Lok Sabha constituency comprises eight legislative assembly segments, all of which fall partly in Jaipur city.[57][58][59]


Jaipur Development Authority is the nodal government agency responsible for the planning and development of Jaipur.[60] The municipal corporation is responsible for maintaining the city's civic infrastructure and carrying out associated administrative duties.[61] Electricity is distributed through Jaipur Vidyut Vitaran Nigam Limited (JVVNL) owned by the Government of Rajasthan.[62] Jaipur municipal corporaiton has a fire department wing with 11 fire stations and 50 fire tenders.[63]

Established in 2018, Jaipur Water Supply and Sewerage Board (JWSSB) is responsible for the management of water supply and sewerage services in the city.[64] The agency is responsible for water supply as per the standards stipulated by the Bureau of Indian Standards, the State Pollution Control Board and the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED).[64] It will also be responsible for financing, designing, constructing, altering, repairing, operating, and maintaining various water supply and sewerage schemes in addition to commercial services such as meter reading, billing, and revenue collection.[64] The city has been divided into four main drainage zones with the northern and central zones draining into the Dravyavati river while the western zone drains into the Chandler lake and the eastern and southern areas combined drain into the Dhundh River.[65] Sewerage systems and STPs have been constructed accordingly with the installed capacity being 730 km of sewer lines and 442 MLD of sewage treatment.[66] The corporation has a solid waste management system that includes door-to-door collection, transportation of garbage in covered vehicles, proper deployment of dustbins, use of modern equipment.[67] The system ensures private investment as well as public participation with a small amount of monthly user charges. The size of the JMC garbage can be kept at a manageable level.[67] Sanitation work in three zones have been contracted out to private agencies.[67]


As per the official records released by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics (Rajasthan), the GDP (nominal) of Jaipur district is estimated at INR 1,22,140 crores ($15.8 billion) in 2020–21, with a per-capita GDP of INR 141,305.[68] In addition to its role as the provincial capital, educational, and administrative center, the economy of Jaipur is fueled by tourism, gemstone cutting, the manufacture of jewellery and luxury textiles, and information technology.[69]

Three major trade promotion organizations have their offices in Jaipur: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional offices here. In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities.[70] Jaipur Stock Exchange was one of the regional stock exchanges in India and was founded in 1989 but was closed in March 2015.[71]

Jaipur has emerged as a hub of automotive industries with JCB, Hero MotoCorp and Robert Bosch GmbH having their manufacturing plants in Jaipur.[72][73][74] There are chemical manufacturers in the city including Emami and National Engineering Industries.[75] The city is among top emerging IT hubs of India. Mahindra World City is an integrated business zone in Jaipur with several software and IT companies.[76][77] The Government of Rajasthan have built Asia's largest incubator in Jaipur – the Bhamashah Techno Hub.[78]

Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts. It has many traditional shops selling antiques, jewellery, handicrafts, gems, bangles, pottery, carpets, textiles, leather and metal products. Jaipur is one of India's largest manufacturers of hand-knotted rugs.[79][80] Jaipur foot, a rubber-based prosthetic leg for people with below-knee amputations, was designed and is produced in Jaipur.[81][82] World Trade Park Jaipur, is a shopping mall in Jaipur opened in 2012.

Culture and citiscape


Nahargarh Fort

Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India forming a part of the Golden Triangle.[83] In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the seventh best place to visit in Asia.[84] According to TripAdvisor's 2015 Traveller's Choice Awards, Jaipur was ranked first among the Indian destinations for the year.[85] The Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at US$45,000 per night, was listed in second place on CNN's World's 15 most expensive hotel suites in 2012.[86] Jaipur was ranked eighth in "The Top 15 Cities in Asia".[87]

Jaipur Exhibition & Convention Centre (JECC) is Rajasthan's biggest convention and exhibition center.[88][89] Visitor attractions include the Albert Hall Museum, Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Birla Mandir, Galtaji, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Moti Dungri Ganesh Temple, Sanghiji Jain temple and the Jaipur Zoo.[90] The Jantar Mantar observatory, a collection of 19 astronomical instruments and Amer Fort are World Heritage Sites.[91] Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument with 953 windows[92] that rises 15 metres (50 ft) from its high base. Sisodiya Rani Bagh and Kanak Vrindavan are the major parks in Jaipur.[93]


Jaipur has many cultural sites like Jawahar Kala Kendra established by Charles Correa and Ravindra Manch. Government Central Museum hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a government museum at Hawa Mahal and an art gallery at Viratnagar. There are statues depicting Rajasthani culture around the city.[94][95] Jaipur has many traditional shops selling antiques and handicrafts, as well as contemporary brands reviving traditional techniques, such as Anokhi. The prior rulers of Jaipur patronised a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad who settled in the city. Some of the crafts include bandhani, block printing, stone carving and sculpture, tarkashi, zari, gota-patti, kinari and zardozi, silver jewellery, gems, kundan, meenakari and jewellery, Lakh ki Chudiya, miniature paintings, blue pottery, ivory carving, shellac work and leather ware.[96][93]

Jaipur has its own performing arts. The Jaipur Gharana for Kathak is one of the three gharanas of the major north Indian classical dance form of Kathak.[97] The Jaipur Gharana of Kathak is known for its rapid intricate dance forms, vivacious body movements and subtle Abhinaya.[97] The Ghoomar is a popular folk dance style.[98][99][100] Tamasha is an art form where Kathputli puppet dance is shown in play form.[43] Major festivals celebrated in Jaipur include Elephant Festival, Gangaur, Makar Sankranti, Holi, Diwali, Vijayadashami, Teej, Eid, Mahavir Jayanti and Christmas. Jaipur is also famous for the Jaipur Literature Festival, the world's largest free literature festival in which authors, writers and literature lovers from all over the country participate.[101]


The city was planned according to the Indian Vastu shastra by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya in 1727.[102] There are three gates facing east, west, and north. The eastern gate is called Suraj pol (sun gate), the western gate is called Chand pol (moon gate) and the northern gate faces the ancestral capital of Amer.[18][103] The architecture of the city was heavily influenced by the 17th century architectural renaissance during Mughal rule in Northern India. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates.[104] The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111  ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five-quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city.[93]


Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti, Gatte ki Sabzi, Lahsun ki chutney, Ker Sangri, Makke ki Ghat, Bajre ki Ghat, Bajre ki Roti and Laal Maans.[105] Jaipur is also known for its sweets which include Ghevar, Feeni, Mawa Kachori, Gajak, Meethi thuli, Chauguni ke laddu, and Moong Thal.[106][107]



Jaipur International Airport is located in the southern suburb of Sanganer, which is located 13 km (8.1 mi) from Jaipur.It is the 13th busiest airport in India in daily scheduled flight operations. The airport handled 363,899 international and 2,540,451 domestic passengers in 2015–2016.[108] Jaipur Airport also provides air cargo services. During winter, sometimes flights towards Indira Gandhi International Airport are diverted to Jaipur Airport due to heavy fog in Delhi.[109] The airport was granted the status of international airport on 29 December 2005. The airport's apron can accommodate 14 aircraft, and the new integrated terminal building can handle up to 1,000 passengers at peak hours.


Jaipur Junction railway station was built in 1875 and is situated at the centre of Rajasthan. Serving almost 35,000 passengers daily, Jaipur Junction is the busiest station in Rajasthan. The cornerstone of the existing Jaipur railway station building was laid on 4 May 1956 by Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II of Jaipur and construction took three years to complete. The station harnesses solar energy technology to power its operations. Jaipur is the headquarters of Jaipur Railway division and North Western Railway Zone of Indian Railways.[110] Jaipur Junction is the busiest station in Rajasthan with more than 45,000 passengers daily.[111]

Jaipur Metro

Jaipur Metro commenced commercial operation on 3 June 2015.[112] Construction on the mostly elevated part of the first line, called Phase 1A, comprising 9.63 kilometres (5.98 mi) of route from Mansarovar to Chandpole Bazaar, started in November 2010, and was completed in 2014. The Jaipur Metro began commercial service between Chandpole and Mansarovar on 3 June 2015. The Jaipur Metro Rail system is India's sixth metro rail system. The Jaipur Metro is the first metro in India to run on triple-storey elevated road and metro track. Phase 1-B, from Chandpole to Badi Chaupar, began operation on 23 September 2020. Phase-1A is operational between Mansarovar and Chandpole consisting of nine stations namely Mansarovar, New Aatish Market, Vivek Vihar, Shyam Nagar, Ram Nagar, Civil Line, Railway Station, Sindhi Camp and Chandpole.[113] The Phase-1B was constructed with an estimated cost of 97.32 billion ($1.74 billion).[114] It became operational on 23 September 2020.[115][116]


Way to Amer Fort (Amber Fort) Jaipur

Jaipur is located on National Highway No.48 connecting Delhi and Mumbai. National Highway 52 links Jaipur with Kota and National Highway 21 links Jaipur with Agra. RSRTC operates bus service to major cities in Rajasthan and other states of New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat. City buses are operated by Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL)[117] of RSRTC.[118] The service operates more than 400 regular and low-floor buses. Major bus depots are located at Vaishali Nagar, Vidyadhar Nagar and Sanganer. Jaipur BRTS was approved by the government in August 2006. Jaipur BRTS is managed by JCSTL, a special purpose vehicle formed by Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Nagar Nigam. In Phase I, two corridors have been proposed: a "North-South Corridor" from Sikar Road to Tonk Road and an "East-West Corridor" from Ajmer Road to Delhi Road. A section of the North-South Corridor from bypass near Harmada to Pani Pech became operational in 2010.[119][120] Jaipur Ring Road is a project of Jaipur Development Authority to reduce increasing traffic of Jaipur city[121] which connects NH-21 (Agra Road), NH-48 (Ajmer Road), NH-52 (Tonk Road), and NH-52 (Malpura Road) having a length of 150 km.[122] The 57 km out of 150 km long six-lane Jaipur Ring Road has been completed at a cost of Rs. 1217 crore. Bhawani Singh Road, which begins from Nehru Sahkar Bhawan and ends at the intersection where Birla Mandir is situated and hosts notable places like Rambagh Palace, Golf Club and Jaipur Development Authority Office falling on its path.[123]


The city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) opened during the reign of the Maharaja Ram Singh II.[124][125] Public and private schools in Jaipur are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Education or Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan, International Board of education and follow a "10+2" plan. This plan entails eight years of primary education and four years of secondary education. The secondary school includes two years of upper secondary education, which is more specific and diverse than the two years of lower secondary education before it.[126] Languages of instruction include English and Hindi. Notable institutions in the city are: University of Rajasthan, Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, ARCH Academy of Design, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Law University, Rajasthan Sanskrit University, Haridev Joshi University of Journalism and Mass Communication, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, LNM Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Ayurveda, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Subodh College and Vedic Kanya College. Admission to Engineering colleges in Jaipur, many of which are affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University (Kota), is through Rajasthan Engineering Admission Process. Some of the colleges that are affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University are Maharishi Arvind Institute of Engineering & Technology, Poornima College of Engineering, Arya Group of Colleges.


Major telecommunication providers include Airtel, Jio, VI (Vodafone-Idea) and BSNL which are providing mobile telephony and there are also various internet service providers in the city. The government of Rajasthan has started free WiFi at various public places like Central Park, Jantar Mantar among others. Rajasthan's first ISP Data Ingenious Global Limited still providing large number of broadband customers and email services in entire Jaipur.[127]


Major daily newspapers in Jaipur include Amar Ujala,[128] Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Indian Express, Dainik Navajyoti and The Times of India.[129][130] The state-owned All India Radio is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM band in the city. Private FM stations include Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz), FM Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Mirchi Love (104.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz) and Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz). The city has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 (90.4 MHz) by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel in addition to the private broadcasters.


Sawai Mansingh Stadium

The main cricket stadium in the city, Sawai Mansingh Stadium, has a seating capacity of 30,000 and has hosted national and international cricket matches.[131] It is also the home ground of IPL team Rajasthan Royals. Sawai Mansingh Indoor Stadium, Chaugan Stadium and Railway Cricket Ground are the other sporting arenas in the city. A new stadium has been proposed for Chonp Village with a seating capacity 75,000. It would be the third-largest cricket stadium in the world after the Sardar Patel Stadium and the Melbourne Cricket Ground. [132][133] The city is represented in the IPL by Rajasthan Royals (2008–2016; 2018–present)[134][135] and in Pro Kabaddi League by Jaipur Pink Panthers.[136]

In popular culture

Paul McCartney wrote and recorded the Jaipur tribute song "Riding into Jaipur" (4:08) whose minimalist lyrics say: « riding to Jaipur, riding through the night, riding with my baby, oh what a delight, oh what a delight, it is. » The song was released on his 2001 studio album Driving Rain.

Jaipur is the setting for the film The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel and its sequel, The Second Best Exotic Marigold Hotel, which follow the adventures of a group of senior European ex-pats who retire to Jaipur and in the process discover their true selves.

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "Contact us, Jaipur Municipal Corporation". Jaipur Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  2. ^ "Suspended Jaipur mayor back to work after HC order". Deccan Herald. 23 August 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  3. ^ Goyal, Deepak (8 January 2024). "सियासी और प्रशासनिक तौर पर अब महिलाएं ही चलाएंगी जयपुर! इस महिला IAS को मिली बड़ी जिम्मेदारी". Zee News (in Hindi). Retrieved 16 May 2024. 2012 बैच की आईएएस रूक्मणि रियार ने आज नगर निगम ग्रेटर आयुक्त का पदभार संभाला [2012 batch IAS Rukmani Riar took charge as Municipal Corporation Greater Commissioner today]
  4. ^ Goyal, Deepak (8 January 2024). "कौन हैं IAS अभिषेक सुराणा, नगर निगम हैरिटेज आयुक्त का पदभार संभालते ही अफसरों पर गिराई गाज". Zee News (in Hindi). Retrieved 16 May 2024. 2018 बैच के आईएएस अभिषेक सुराणा ने आज नगर निगम हैरिटेज और स्मार्ट सिटी सीईओ का पदभार संभालते ही एक्शन मोड में नजर आए [2018 batch IAS Abhishek Surana was seen in action mode today as soon as he took charge of Municipal Corporation Heritage and Smart City CEO]
  5. ^ "Jaipur City Profile". Jaipur Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  6. ^ District Census Handbook – Jaipur (PDF) (Report). Government of India. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  7. ^ a b "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Exercise begins for declaring Rajasthani second official language". The Hindu. 18 March 2023. Archived from the original on 5 May 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  9. ^ Year Wise Gross Domestic Product at Current Price of Jaipur district (Report). Government of Rajasthan. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  10. ^ a b c "JMC budget". Jaipur Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  11. ^ a b Sarkar, Jadunath (1984). A History of Jaipur: C. 1503-1938. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-8-1250-0333-5.
  12. ^ "Jaipur Nagar Nigam (Greater)". jaipurmc.org. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  13. ^ "Jaipur". 17 July 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  14. ^ "With Agra at its heart, Golden Triangle ranked 21 globally by elite travel magazine". India Today. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  15. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Jaipur City, Rajasthan". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  16. ^ Bhatt, Rajendra Shankar (2005). Sawai Jai Singh. National Book Trust, India. pp. 101, 123, 155. ISBN 978-81-237-4418-6.
  17. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (2007). Textbook of Indian History and Culture. New Delhi: Macmillan. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-4039-3200-6.
  18. ^ a b "Jaipur – The Pink City". Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  19. ^ "History of Jaipur". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  20. ^ "History in depth: Edward VII: The First Constitutional Monarch". BBC. 5 November 2009. Archived from the original on 26 June 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  21. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jaipur" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 128–129.
  22. ^ "Rejuvenation of Amanishah Nallah including Area Development" (PDF). Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. 5 May 2016. p. 25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  23. ^ Jain, Sharad K.; Agarwal, Pushpendra K.; Singh, Vijay P. (2007). Hydrology and Water Resources of India. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 883. ISBN 978-1-4020-5180-7. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  24. ^ "Puducherry learns from Ahmedabad, in bid to get UNESCO World Heritage City tag". The Hindu. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  25. ^ "Jaipur - History, Map, Population, & Facts". Britannica. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  26. ^ "Jaipur City, Rajasthan". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  27. ^ a b "Jaipur Nagar Nigam (Greater)". Jaipur Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  28. ^ "State okays DPR, takes step forward to revive Dravyavati". The Times of India. 15 October 2015. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  29. ^ "Raje opens much-awaited Dravyavati river project". Business Standard. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  30. ^ "World Weather Information Service". Archived from the original on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2009.
  31. ^ Station: Jaipur (Sanganer) Climatological Table 1981–2010 (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010 (Report). India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 343–344. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  32. ^ Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012) (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M180. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  33. ^ Climatological Information – Jaipur (42348) (Report). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 2 September 2022. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  34. ^ "Nagpur (42867)". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  35. ^ "Climatological Tables 1991-2020" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  36. ^ "Climate of Jaipur" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
  37. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India". Time and Date. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  38. ^ "Climate and monthly weather forecast Jaipur, India". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  39. ^ "Normals Data: Jaipur/Sanganer - India Latitude: 26.82°N Longitude: 75.80°E Height: 383 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  40. ^ Census of India (Report). mospi.gov.in. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
  41. ^ "Historical Census of India". Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  42. ^ a b c d Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above (PDF) (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  43. ^ a b "Culture of Jaipur". jaipur.org. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  44. ^ "Population By Religious Community – Rajasthan" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  45. ^ "Development Plans 2025" (PDF). JDA. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  46. ^ "Jaipur Municipal Corporation - Newsletter" (PDF). Jaipur Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  47. ^ "Jaipur Municipal Corporation, about". Jaipur Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  48. ^ "Three Rajasthan cities to get additional municipal corporations". Outlook. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  49. ^ "City Profile". Jaipur Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  50. ^ "Jaipur, Jodhpur & Kota civic bodies polls on Oct 29, Nov 1". The Times of India. 11 October 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  51. ^ "Voting for 100 wards of Jaipur Heritage Municipal Corporation tomorrow". The PinkCity Post. 28 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  52. ^ "Somya Gurjar takes over as Jaipur mayor". 10 November 2020.
  53. ^ "Rajasthan Government".
  54. ^ "Jaipur District". Government of Rajasthan. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  55. ^ Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies wise Polling Stations & Electors (PDF) (Report). Chief Electoral Officer, Rajasthan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  56. ^ "Rajasthan Legislative Assembly". Government of Rajasthan. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  57. ^ "Rajasthan Delimitation Notification" (PDF).
  58. ^ "Rajasthan LA".
  59. ^ "Adarsh Nagar Assembly constituency (Rajasthan): Full details, live and past results". News18. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  60. ^ "Jaipur District Guide Map Rajasthan- Jaipur District Tourism Information Climate Details". Rajasthan Direct. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  61. ^ "Jaipur Development Authority". Government of Rajasthan. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  62. ^ "Home". energy.rajasthan.gov.in. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  63. ^ Singh, Ajay (15 January 2018). "Jaipur fire department urgently requires 30 fire tenders, 500 personnel". The Times of India. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  64. ^ a b c "Jaipur Water Supply and Sewerage Board constituted". Indian Infrastructure. 4 September 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  65. ^ "NIUA Study" (PDF).
  66. ^ "NIUA" (PDF). scbp.niua.org. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  67. ^ a b c "New Initiatives". jaipurmc.org. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  68. ^ Records, Official. "Estimates of District Domestic Product of Rajasthan for 2020–21" (PDF). Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Rajasthan. Statistics Department. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  69. ^ "IT & ITeS – Resurgent Rajasthan". resurgent.rajasthan.gov.in. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  70. ^ "Indian cities among global outsourcing cities". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  71. ^ "JSEL". Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  72. ^ "JCB inaugurates two new facilities at Jaipur – Motorindia". Motor India. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  73. ^ "Auto component maker Bosch resumes operations at Jaipur plant". Zee Business. 30 October 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  74. ^ M, Greeshma (10 March 2016). "Hero MotoCorp opens R&D facility in Jaipur". www.ibtimes.co.in. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  75. ^ "NEI's 75-year-old Jaipur plant wins IGBC certification". Autocar. 10 December 2020. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  76. ^ "Mahindra World City, Jaipur marches on Signs-up four new clients". Mahindra Group. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  77. ^ "Infosys to build facility at Jaipur SEZ". Economic Times. 17 June 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  78. ^ "Jaipur's New Avatar as an Emerging Business Hub | Empyrealclub". www.empyrealclub.in. 6 January 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  79. ^ "Development through Enterprise". NextBillion.net. 26 May 2012. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  80. ^ "Churu's Marwari, Nand Kishore Chaudhary's Jaipur Rugs a matter of discourse at Harvard". Economic Times. 26 January 2012. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  81. ^ "Jaipur foot: History". jaipurfoot.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  82. ^ "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2009)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  83. ^ Sharma, Aman (26 December 2019). "Air India's Jaipur-Agra flight suffering losses". The Economic Times. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  84. ^ "Jaipur Seventh Best Tourist Destination in Asia – Conde Nast Traveller Survey". bharatonline.com. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  85. ^ "World's best destinations". Archived from the original on 1 April 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  86. ^ Arnold, Helen (25 March 2012). "World's 15 most expensive hotel suites". CNNGo. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  87. ^ "Travel+Leisure World's Best Awards 2020". 8 July 2020.
  88. ^ "Accor to manage Jaipur's new convention centre". M&IT India. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  89. ^ "Jaipur Exhibition and Convention Centre will make Pink City a meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions hub – Times of India". The Times of India. 11 October 2014. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  90. ^ "Temples of Jaipur". jaipur.org. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  91. ^ "The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. 31 July 2010. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  92. ^ "Hawa Mahal Jaipur – History, Architecture, Visiting Hours". www.jaipur.org.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  93. ^ a b c "About Jaipur". Government of Rajasthan. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  94. ^ "Culture Of Jaipur – Cultural Heritage, Art & Architecture of Jaipur". jaipur.org. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  95. ^ "Culture of Jaipur". Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  96. ^ "Why Jaipur is called pink city". mapsofindia.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  97. ^ a b "Jaipur Kathak Kendra: Home". jaipurkathakkendra.nic.in. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  98. ^ Manorma Sharma (2006). Tradition of Hindustani Music. APH Publishing. pp. 49–51. ISBN 978-81-7648-999-7. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  99. ^ Jeffrey Michael Grimes (2008). The Geography of Hindustani Music: The Influence of Region and Regionalism on the North Indian Classical Tradition. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-109-00342-0. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  100. ^ Kumāraprasāda Mukhopādhyāẏa (2006). The Lost World of Hindustani Music. Penguin Books India. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-0-14-306199-1. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  101. ^ "Jaipur literary festival". jaipur.org. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  102. ^ "Vidyadhar Garden in Jaipur". Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  103. ^ Vibhuti Sachdev, Giles Henry Rupert Tillotson (2002). Building Jaipur: The Making of an Indian City. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-566353-2. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  104. ^ "About Jaipur". Government of Rajasthan. Archived from the original on 3 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  105. ^ "Cuisines Of Jaipur". pinkcity.com. 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  106. ^ "Cuisine of Jaipur". Jaipur-pinkcity.webs.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  107. ^ "What to eat in Jaipur". jaipurtravel.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  108. ^ "Jaipur International Airport". Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  109. ^ "Flights diverted to Jaipur". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 February 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  110. ^ "North Western Railway / Indian Railways Portal". nwr.indianrailways.gov.in. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  111. ^ "Jaipur Junction official website". jaipurjunction.in. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  112. ^ "JMRC Notification for commercial operations of metro". Jaipur Metro. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015.
  113. ^ "Metro Stations". Jaipur Metro Rail. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  114. ^ "Jaipur Metro Rail Project, India". railway-technology.com/. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  115. ^ "Ashok Gehlot inaugurates Phase I-B of Jaipur Metro". Times Now. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  116. ^ "Work on Jaipur Metro 1B to start next year". The Times of India. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  117. ^ "JCSTL Website". Jaipurbus.com. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  118. ^ "Rajasthan State Road Transportation Company info". India Transit. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  119. ^ "BRTS – JDA Website". JDA. Archived from the original on 26 March 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  120. ^ "Traffic Diversion and Flow During Construction of BRTS". Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  121. ^ "Development of New Express Highways". pib.gov.in. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  122. ^ "Jaipur Development Authority to commence land acquisition for Ring Road". DNA India. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  123. ^ "Bhawani Singh Rd". Bhawani Singh Rd. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  124. ^ "Jaipur City or Jainagar". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. pp. 399–402. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  125. ^ "Jaipur State". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. pp. 382–399. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  126. ^ Clark, Nick (February 2006). "Education in India". World Education News + Reviews. World Education Services. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  127. ^ "How Ajay Data set up Data Infosys, Rajasthan's first ISP". The Economic Times. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  128. ^ "Jaipur News in Hindi". Amar Ujala. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  129. ^ "Jaipur Guide". bhaskar.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  130. ^ "Dainik Navajyoti". dainiknavajyoti.com. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  131. ^ "Sawai Mansingh Stadium". worldstadiums.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  132. ^ IANS (3 July 2021). "World's third largest cricket stadium to be constructed in Jaipur". Business Standard India. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  133. ^ Nair, Sangeeta (4 July 2021). "India's second-largest cricket stadium to be built in Jaipur". Jagranjosh.com. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  134. ^ "Big business and Bollywood grab stakes in IPL". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  135. ^ "The Return of the Royals". Archived from the original on 4 August 2019. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  136. ^ "Big B, Aamir, SRK cheer for Abhishek's Pink Panthers". Mumbai. The Hindu. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  137. ^ "Shubhi Sharma donates masks and sanitisers worth Rs 3 lakh to fight against coronavirus – In Pics". Zee News. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  138. ^ "Sambhavna Seth". The Times of India. 15 April 2020. Retrieved 31 December 2022.

Further reading

  • Bhatt, Kavi Shiromani; Shastry, Mathuranath (1948). Jaipur Vaibhawam (History of Jaipur written in Sanskrit). Re-published in 2002 by Kalanath Shastry, Manjunath Smriti Sansthan, Jaipur.
  • Khangarot, R.S., Nathawat, P.S. (1990) Jaigarh- The Invincible Fort of Amer. RBSA Publishers, Jaipur.
  • Sachdev, Vibhuti; Tillotson, Giles Henry Rupert (2002). Building Jaipur: The Making of an Indian City. Reaktion Books, London. ISBN 1-86189-137-7.
  • Sarkar, Jadunath (1984). A History of Jaipur. Orient Longman Limited, New Delhi. ISBN 81-250-0333-9.
  • Volwahsen, Andreas (2001). Cosmic Architecture in India: The Astronomical Monuments of Maharaja Jai Singh II, Prestel Mapin, Munich.

External links