|Nickname(s): The Pink City|
|Settled||18 November 1727|
|Founded by||Jai Singh II|
|Named for||Jai Singh II|
|• Mayor||Nirmal Nahta (BJP)|
|• Police commissioner||Janga Srinivas Rao|
|• Metropolis||645 km2 (249.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||431 m (1,414 ft)|
|• Metropolis||6,663,971(10th India)|
|• Metro rank||10th IN|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||RJ-14 (Jaipur South), RJ-45 (Jaipur North), RJ-52 (Shahpura, Jaipur), RJ-41 (Chomu, Jaipur), RJ-47 (Dudu, Jaipur), RJ-32 (Kotputli, Jaipur)|
|Primary Airport||Jaipur International Airport (Major/International)|
Jaipur i// is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named. The city today has a population of 6.66 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is known as the Pink City of India.
The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. The observatory, Jantar Mantar, is one of the World Heritage Sites. Included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi and Agra, Jaipur is an extremely popular tourist destination in Rajasthan and India.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Architecture
- 5 Economy
- 6 Civic administration
- 7 Tourism
- 8 Culture
- 9 Sports
- 10 Education
- 11 Media
- 12 Transportation
- 13 Gallery
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
The city of Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1688 to 1743. Initially, his capital was Dausa, which lies 51 km from Jaipur. He felt the need of shifting his capital city with the increase in population and growing scarcity of water. The King consulted several books on architecture and architects before making the layout of Jaipur. Finally, under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, (initially an accounts-clerk in the Amer treasury, later promoted to the office of Chief Architect by the King) Jaipur came into existence on the classical principles of Vastu Shastra and similar classical treatises.
After waging battles with the Marathas, Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II wanted to improve the security aspects of the city. Being a lover of astronomy, mathematics and astrophysics, Jai Singh sought advice from Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, a Brahmin scholar of Bengal, to aid him in designing many buildings, including the Royal Palace in the centre of the city.
The construction of the city began in 1727. It took around four years to complete the major palaces, roads and square. The city was built following the principles of Shilpa Shastra, the science of Indian Architecture. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contain the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates. For a time, during the rule of Sawai Ram Singh, the whole city was painted pink to welcome Edward, Prince of Wales. Today, avenues remain painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance. In the 19th century, the city grew rapidly; by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and the city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art (named Madarsa Hunree) founded in 1868. The city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) opened during the reign of the enigmatic Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was a wealthy and enterprising community of native bankers, the Marwaris; and the administrators Rawana rajput.
Maharaja Rishabh Bhawani Singh, a member of the erstwhile Maharaja family of Jaipur, died on 17 April 2011 at a private hospital in Gurgaon following multiple organ failure.
Geography and climate
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Jaipur has a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification, receiving over 650 millimetres (26 in) of rainfall annually but most rains occur in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) and with little or no humidity though occasional cold waves lead to temperatures near freezing.
|Climate data for Jaipur (Jaipur Airport)|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.7
|Average high °C (°F)||22.4
|Average low °C (°F)||8.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||7.0
|Average rainy days||0.6||1.0||0.4||0.7||1.4||3.9||11.2||10.0||3.8||1.3||0.4||0.4||35.2|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
New Delhi (260 km via NH8), Mumbai (1,167 km via NH8), Jodhpur (348 km via NH8), Jaisalmer (571 km via RJ SH 19 and NH15), Udaipur (421 km via NH79), Agra (240 km via NH11), Ahmedabad (677.6 km via NH14), Surat (908.6 km via NH8).
|Population Growth of Jaipur City|
|Source: Census of India|
As of 2011, Jaipur had a population of 3,073,350 The Population of the Jaipur Metropolitan area is 3,646,590. Jaipur is the 10th largest city of India according to census of 2011. The Hindu population accounts for 80%, Muslim 14%, Jains 4.5%, Christians 0.5%, and Sikhs 1.0%. While 47.49% people lived in rural areas, 52.51% lived in urban areas. The overall literacy rate for the district was 76.44%. 87.27% males and 64.63% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males.
The city was planned according to Indian Vastu Shastra (Vedic Planning for the comfort and prosperity of the citizens) by a Bengali Brahmin architect named Vidyadhar Bhattacharya in 1727. The directions of each street and market are East to West and North to South. The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand (Moon) Pol. There are three gates facing East, West, and North and a Northern gate (known as Zorawar Singh gate) which faces toward the ancestral capital of Amer, while many gates face South.
In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities. Deutsche Bank Group Jaipur, Genpact and Infosys BPO Ltd have their BPO and Infosys Ltd have their Software Development Centres in Jaipur. Mahindra SEZ located here is also one of the largest IT SEZ in India. Mahindra World City is a special economic zone that has the largest IT SEZ in the country. This is a joint venture of Rajasthan Govt's RIICO and Mahindra group. Other than IT SEZ, this SEZ also has Light engineering zone, textile and other industry zones. The total area of the SEZ is approximately 1,200 hectares (3,000 acres). The SEZ is likely to be the largest job provider for Jaipur once fully developed. The World Trade Park will also give a major boost to the city's economy. There is Gaurav Tower situated near World Trade Park which is also a major economic activity centre in the city.
The Jaipur Municipal Corporation is responsible for the maintaining city's civic infrastructure as well as carrying out associated administrative duties. The administrative head of the Municipal Corporation is the CEO from Rajasthan Administrative Service(RAS). There are 91 wards and each ward is represented by an elected member.
Jaipur Development Authority (JDA is other city administrative boy and is the nodal government agency responsible for the planned and sustainable development of Jaipur.
Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia. According to TripAdvisor's 2015 Traveller's Choice Awards for Destination, Jaipur ranked 1st among the Indian destination for the year.
Visitor attractions include the Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Galtaji, Kanak Vrindavan, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Sri kali Temple, Birla Mandir, Sanganeri Gate and the Jaipur Zoo. Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument that rises 15 metres (50 ft) from its high base.
Jaipur has many important cultural sites. Cultural centres like Jawahar Kala Kendra and Ravindra Manch have helped promote the culture of the state of Rajasthan. Albert Hall Museum (Government Central Museum) hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a government museum at Hawa Mahal and an art gallery at Viratnagar. The Town Hall (Old Vidhan Sabha Bhawan) is proposed to be converted into a museum. There are statues depicting Rajasthani culture around the city.
Jaipur has strong cultural routes in its shopping habits as well. The city offers traditional shops to buy antiques, jewelery, handicrafts, gems, bangles, pottery, carpets, textiles, leather work and metalwork. Jhalaniyon ka Raasta, Thatheron ka Raasta, Khajanewalon ka Raasta, Nehru bazaar, Haldiyon ka Raasta, Mahiharon ka Raasta, Kishanpol bazaar, Tripolia bazaar, Sanganer bazaar, Ramganj bazar, MI road and Johari bazar are such traditional markets.
Arts and crafts
The prior rulers of Jaipur patronised a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad. The communities settled in the city and made Jaipur their home. As a result, Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts. Some of the crafts include bandhani; block printing; stone carving and sculpture; tarkashi; zari, gota, kinari and zardozi; silver jewellery; gems, kundan, meenakari and jewellery; Lakh ki Chudiya; Bed sheetsminiature paintings; blue pottery; ivory carving; shellac work; leatherware.
This land of Jaipur has its own performing arts. The Jaipur Gharana for Kathak is widely popular and apparently an example of rich cultural heritage of Jaipur as far as performing arts is concerned.Ghoomar is also quite famous folk dance style of the city.Tamasha is another such example where regional people shows Kathputli dance in play form.
Fairs & Festival
Primarily, Jaipur has four majors fairs and festival which happens on yearly basis: Elephant Festival, Gangaur, Kite Festival Jaipur, Teej. Jaipur is also famous for its Jaipur Literature Festival in which country-wide authors, writer and literature lovers participate in it.
People and Languages
The people of Jaipur are friendly and warm. The colourful outfits and ethnic jewellery they sport are the part of our culture exhibited in a beautiful way. They love to perform folk dances to the tunes of Rajasthani folk songs. The main language of Jaipur is Rajasthani. However, Marwari, Hindi and English are also spoken in the city.
The main cricket stadium in the city, Sawai Mansingh Stadium, has a seating capacity of 30,000, and has hosted many national and international cricket matches; it also contains other sports facilities.
In Pro Kabaddi League, Jaipur is represented by Jaipur Pink Panthers which won the inaugural edition of the game.
Public and private schools in Jaipur are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Educatio or RBSE, follow a "10+2+3" plan. About two-thirds of pupils attend privately run institutions. Languages of instruction include English and Hindi. Depending on the institution, students are required to sit the Secondary School Certificate or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education. After completing secondary education, students enroll in schools or senior secondary schools with a higher secondary facility. Admission to graduation colleges in Jaipur, many of which are affiliated to RTU, is through the RPET.
Many of India's leading technical and engineering institutes are in jaipur, which include L N Mittal Institute of Information & Technology, the National Institute of Agricultural Management, University of Rajasthan, Indian Institute of Health Management Research, Malviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur and Jaipur National University.
The largest circulated daily newspapers in Jaipur are the Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Navajyoti and The Times of India though the city has numerous other daily newspapers. In Electronic Media in Jaipur are Sahara Samay, ETV News, [NBC News 24].    The state-owned All India Radio Jaipur is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM band in the city. It competes with six private local FM stations—Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM(94.3 MHz), FM Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz). Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz). The city has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 (90.4 MHz) by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel in addition to the mainstay channels.
National Highway No.8 links Delhi to Mumbai, National Highway 12 links to Kota, Baran District and National Highway 11 links Bikaner to Agra, passing through Jaipur district with a total length of 366 km. RSRTC operates bus service to all the parts of Rajasthan, New Delhi, Uttar pradesh, Haryana, Madhya pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat.
City buses are operated by Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL). of RSRTC under JNNURM. The service operates more than 400 regular and low-floor buses. The three major bus depots are Vaishali Nagar, Vidyadhar Nagar and Sanganer.
Jaipur Bus Rapid Transit Service was approved by government in August 2006 for implementation. The responsibility for managing Jaipur BRTS has been given to JCSTL, a special purpose vehicle formed by Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Nagar Nigam in a joint venture. The BRTS is expected to cater to city's growing traffic for next 15–20 years. In Phase I, two corridors have been proposed: a "North-South Corridor" from Sikar Road to Tonk Road and an "East-West Corridor" from Ajmer Road to Delhi Road. A section of the North-South Corridor from C-Zone Bypass near Harmada to Pani Pech became operational in 2010. 
Jaipur is the Headquarter of North Western Zone of Indian Railways. Jaipur Railway Station is well connected to all major cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Alwar, etc.
The main stations in this city include Jaipur Junction, Gandhinagar, Durgapura, Jagatpura and Sanganer.
Jaipur Metro commenced commercial operation on 3 June 2015, and thus it became the sixth rapid transit system in India. Phase-1A is operational between Mansarovar and Chandpole consisting of 9 stations namely Mansarovar, New Aatish Market, Vivek Vihar, Shayam Nagar, Ram Nagar, Civil Line, Railway Station, Sindhi Camp and Chandpole. The remaining Phase-1B is under construction and is expected to be completed by 2018. Phase-II of Jaipur Metro is under active consideration.
Jaipur International Airport is in Jaipur's southern suburb Sanganer, 10 km from the city-centre, and offers sporadic service to major domestic and international locations. Terminal 1 was earlier used for international and domestic flights, while Terminal 2 was reserved for domestic carriers. However, operations at Terminal 1 have been suspended for renovation reasons,and Terminal 2 is fully functional. The airport handled 255,704 international and 1,267,876 passengers in 2009–2010. Jaipur Airport also provides air cargo services. The up-gradation of airport has offered improved connectivity and wider choice of services to air travelers, boosting international tourism and economic development of the region. Frequently during winter, many flights for Indira Gandhi International Airport are diverted to Jaipur Airport due to heavy fog in Delhi.
Jawahar Kala Kendra, designed by Charles Correa, in Jaipur, Rajasthan
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- [www.jaipur.rajasthan.gov.in Jaipur website]