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This article is about the city in Rajasthan, India. For its namesake district, see Jaipur district. For other uses, see Jaipur (disambiguation).
जयपुर (Hindi)
Clockwise from top: Jal Mahal, Birla Mandir, Jaipur, Albert Hall Museum, Hawa Mahal, Jantar Mantar
Nickname(s): The Pink City
Jaipur is located in Rajasthan
Jaipur is located in India
Map of Jaipur
Coordinates: 26°54′N 75°48′E / 26.9°N 75.8°E / 26.9; 75.8Coordinates: 26°54′N 75°48′E / 26.9°N 75.8°E / 26.9; 75.8
Country India India
State Rajasthan
District Jaipur
Settled 18 November 1727
Founded by Jai Singh II
Named for Jai Singh II
 • Type Democratic
 • Mayor Nirmal Nahta
 • Police commissioner Sanjay Agarwal
 • Total 484.64 km2 (187.12 sq mi)
Elevation 431 m (1,414 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 3,046,163
 • Rank 10th India
 • Density 6,300/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Pincode(s) 3020xx
Area code(s) +91-141
Vehicle registration RJ-14 (Jaipur South)
RJ-45 (Jaipur North)
RJ-52 (Shahpura)
RJ-41 (Chomu)
RJ-47 (Dudu)
RJ-32 (Kotputli)
Website www.jaipur.rajasthan.gov.in

Jaipur (Listeni/ˈpʊər/)[2][3][4] is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India. It was founded on 18 November 1726 by Maharaja Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer after whom the city is named.[5] As of 2011, the city has a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City of India.[6]

Located 260 km from the Indian capital New Delhi, Jaipur forms a part of the Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Agra (240 km).[7] Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur (348 km), Jaisalmer (571 km) and Udaipur (421 km).


Main article: History of Jaipur
Jai Singh II, the founder of Jaipur

The city of Jaipur was founded in 1726 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1688 to 1758. He planned to shift his capital from Amer, 11 km from Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water.[5] Jai Singh consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu shastra and Shilpa Shastra.[8] The construction of the city began in 1726 and took four years to complete the major roads, offices and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates.[5]

During the rule of Sawai Ram Singh, the city was painted pink to welcome the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, in 1876.[9] Many of the avenues remained painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance and the epithet Pink city.[10] In the 19th century, the city grew rapidly and by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) opened during the reign of the Maharaja Ram Singh II.[11][12]

In May 2008, a series of bomb blasts by Indian Mujahideen killed 63 people and injured 216.[13][14]


Jaipur has a hot semi-arid climate under the Köppen climate classification "BSh",[15] receiving over 650 millimetres (26 in) of rainfall annually but most rains occur in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high during summer from April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from 10–15 °C (50–59 °F) and with little or no humidity and cold waves lead to temperatures near freezing.[16]

Climate data for Jaipur (Jaipur Airport)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.7
Average high °C (°F) 22.4
Average low °C (°F) 8.4
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.0
Average rainy days 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.7 1.4 3.9 11.2 10.0 3.8 1.3 0.4 0.4 35.2
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[17][18]


Religion Percent(%)

As of 2011, Jaipur had a population of 3,073,350.[21] According to census of 2011. The Hindu population accounts for 77.9%, Muslim 18.6%, Jains 2.4% and others 1.0%.[22] While 47.49% people lived in rural areas, 52.51% lived in urban areas. The overall literacy rate for the district was 76.44%. 87.27% males and 64.63% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males.[21]


Vidhan Sabha in Jaipur

The city was planned according to Indian Vastu shastra by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya in 1727.[23] There are three gates facing east, west, and north. The eastern gate is called Suraj pol (sun gate), the western gate is called Chand pol (moon gate) and the northern gate faces the ancestral capital of Amer.[8][24]

The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city.[25]

Administration and politics[edit]

Jaipur Municipal Corporation is responsible for maintaining the city's civic infrastructure and carrying out associated administrative duties. The Municipal Corporation is headed by a mayor.[26] There are 91 wards and each ward is represented by an elected member. Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) is the nodal government agency responsible for the planning and development of Jaipur.[27] Jaipur consists of two parliamentary constituencies Jaipur and Jaipur Rural.[28]


World Trade Park, Jaipur

In addition to its role as the provincial capital, educational, and administrative centre, the economy of Jaipur is fuelled by tourism, gemstone cutting, the manufacture of jewellery and luxury textiles, and information technology.[29] Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Jaipur. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional offices here. In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities.[30] Jaipur Stock Exchange is one of the regional stock exchanges in India and was founded in 1989.[31] Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts. It has many traditional shops selling antiques, jewellery, handicrafts, gems, bangles, pottery, carpets, textiles, leather and metal products. Jaipur is one of India's largest manufacturers of hand-knotted rugs.[32][33] Jaipur leg, a rubber-based prosthetic leg for people with below-knee amputations, was designed and is produced in Jaipur.[34][35]


Major daily newspapers in Jaipur include Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Navajyoti and The Times of India.[36][37] The state-owned All India Radio is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM band in the city. Private FM stations include Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz), FM Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz) and Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz). The city has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 (90.4 MHz) by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel in addition to the private broadcasters.


Downtown Jaipur

Jaipur has many cultural sites like Jawahar Kala Kendra formed by Architect Charles Correa and Ravindra Manch. Government Central Museum hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a government museum at Hawa Mahal and an art gallery at Viratnagar. There are statues depicting Rajasthani culture around the city.[38][39] Jaipur has many traditional shops selling antiques and handicrafts. The prior rulers of Jaipur patronised a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad who settled in the city. Some of the crafts include bandhani, block printing, stone carving and sculpture, tarkashi, zari, gota-patti, kinari and zardozi, silver jewellery, gems, kundan, meenakari and jewellery, Lakh ki Chudiya, miniature paintings, blue pottery, ivory carving, shellac work and leather ware.[6][25]

Jaipur has its own performing arts. The Jaipur Gharana for Kathak and Ghoomar are popular folk dance styles.[40][41][42] Tamasha is an art form where Kathputli puppet dance is shown in play form.[43] Jaipur has four majors fairs and festivals namely Elephant Festival, Gangaur, Kite Festival Jaipur and Teej. Jaipur is also famous for the Jaipur Literature Festival, the world's largest free literature festival in which country-wide authors, writers and literature lovers participate.[44]


Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti, Gatte ki Sabzi, Ker Sangri, and Bajre ki Roti.[45] Sweet dishes include Ghevar, Feeni, Mawa Kachori, Gajak, Chauguni ke laddu, and Moong Thal.[46][47]


The main language of Jaipur is Rajasthani. Dhundhari, Marwari, Hindi and English are also spoken in the city.[43]

Places of interest[edit]

Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India forming a part of the Golden Triangle. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia.[48] According to TripAdvisor's 2015 Traveller's Choice Awards for Destination, Jaipur ranked 1st among the Indian destination for the year.[49] The Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at US$45,000 per night, was listed in second place on CNN's World's 15 most expensive hotel suites in 2012.[50]

Jaipur Exhibition & Convention Centre (JECC) is Rajasthan’s biggest convention and exhibition centre.[51] It is famous for organising events such as Vastara, Jaipur Jewellery Show, Stonemart 2015 and Resurgent Rajasthan Partnership Summit 2015.[52]

Visitor attractions include the Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Galtaji, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Sri Kali Temple, Birla Mandir, Sanganeri Gate and the Jaipur Zoo.[53] The Jantar Mantar observatory and Amer Fort are one of the World Heritage Sites.[54] Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument with 953 windows[55] that rises 15 metres (50 ft) from its high base. Sisodiya Rani Bagh and Kanak Vrindavan are the major parks in Jaipur.[25]


The main cricket stadium in the city, Sawai Mansingh Stadium, has a seating capacity of 23,185 and has hosted national and international cricket matches.[56] Sawai Mansingh Indoor Stadium, Chaugan Stadium and Railway Cricket Ground are the other sporting arenas in the city. The city is represented in the IPL by Rajasthan Royals[57] and Pro Kabaddi League by Jaipur Pink Panthers.[58]


Malaviya National Institute of Technology

Public and private schools in Jaipur are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Education or Rajasthan Board of Secondary Education and follow a "10+2" plan. Languages of instruction include English and Hindi. Admission to graduation colleges in Jaipur, many of which are affiliated to Rajasthan Technological University, is through the RPET. Major institutions include National Institute of Agricultural Management, University of Rajasthan,[59] Indian Institute of Health Management Research, Malviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur,[60][61] Jaipur National University,[62][63][64][65][66][67] Manipal University and IIS University.[68][69]

Major daily newspapers in Jaipur include Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Navajyoti and The Times of India.[36][37] The state-owned All India Radio is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM band in the city. Private FM stations include Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz), FM Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz) and Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz). The city has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 (90.4 MHz) by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel in addition to the private broadcasters.


Jaipur BRTS


Jaipur is located on National Highway No.8 connecting Delhi and Mumbai. National Highway 12 links Jaipur with Kota and National Highway 11 links Bikaner with Agra passing through Jaipur. RSRTC operates bus service to major cities in Rajasthan, New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat. City buses are operated by Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL)[70] of RSRTC.[71] The service operates more than 400 regular and low-floor buses. Major bus depots are located at Vaishali Nagar, Vidyadhar Nagar and Sanganer.

Jaipur BRTS was approved by the government in August 2006. Jaipur BRTS is managed by JCSTL, a special purpose vehicle formed by Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Nagar Nigam. In Phase I, two corridors have been proposed: a "North-South Corridor" from Sikar Road to Tonk Road and an "East-West Corridor" from Ajmer Road to Delhi Road. A section of the North-South Corridor from bypass near Harmada to Pani Pech became operational in 2010.[72][72][73]


Jaipur is the headquarters of North Western Zone of Indian Railways.[74] Jaipur Railway Station is well connected to all major cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad. Other stations include Gandhinagar, Durgapura, Jagatpura, Ninad Benad and Sanganer.

Jaipur Metro commenced commercial operation on 3 June 2015.[75] Phase-1A is operational between Mansarovar and Chandpole consisting of 9 stations namely Mansarovar, New Aatish Market, Vivek Vihar, Shayam Nagar, Ram Nagar, Civil Line, Railway Station, Sindhi Camp and Chandpole.[76] Phase-1B is under construction. The estimated cost of the project is 550 crore (US$82 million)[77] and it is expected to be completed by 2018.


Jaipur International Airport is in Sanganer, 10 km from the centre. The airport handled 255,704 international and 1,267,876 domestic passengers in 2009–2010.[78] Jaipur Airport also provides air cargo services. During winter, flights towards Indira Gandhi International Airport are diverted to Jaipur Airport due to heavy fog in Delhi.[79] The airport operates regular domestic services to major Indian cities including Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Pune and Udaipur. International destinations served include Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Muscat, Singapore and Sharjah.

Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ "District Census Handbook - Jaipur" (PDF). Census of India. p. 30. Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  2. ^ "Jaipur City (or Jainagar)". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. pp. 399–402. 
  3. ^ "Define Jaipur". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  4. ^ "Definition of Jaipur". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c "About Jaipur". Government of Rajasthan. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "Why Jaipur is called pink city". mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  7. ^ "The Complete Guide To: India's Golden Triangle". The Independent. 3 February 2007. 
  8. ^ a b "Jaipur - The Pink City". Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  9. ^ "History of Jaipur". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
  10. ^ "History in depth: Edward VII: The First Constitutional Monarch". BBC. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "Jaipur City or Jainagar". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. pp. 399–402. 
  12. ^ "Jaipur State". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. pp. 382–399. 
  13. ^ "Defused bomb in Jaipur had only RDX traces". Thaindian News. 20 May 2008. 
  14. ^ "Terror strikes Jaipur". Hindustan Times. 15 May 2008. 
  15. ^ Map
  16. ^ "World Weather Information Service". Retrieved 11 December 2009. 
  17. ^ "Jaipur Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved March 25, 2015. 
  18. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Census of India". mospi.gov.in. Retrieved 23 June 2008. 
  20. ^ "Historical Census of India". Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  21. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  22. ^ "Population By Religious Community - Rajasthan" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  23. ^ "Vidyadhar Garden in Jaipur". Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  24. ^ Vibhuti Sachdev, Giles Henry Rupert Tillotson (2002). Building Jaipur: The Making of an Indian City. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-566353-2. 
  25. ^ a b c "About Jaipur". Government of Rajasthan. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  26. ^ "Jaipur MC". Jaipur MC. Retrieved 7 March 2015. 
  27. ^ "Jaipur Development Authority". Government of Rajasthan. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  28. ^ "Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies wise Polling Stations & Electors" (PDF). Chief Electoral Officer, Rajasthan website. 
  29. ^ "IT & ITeS - Resurgent Rajasthan". resurgent.rajasthan.gov.in. Retrieved 2016-06-10. 
  30. ^ "Indian cities among global outsourcing cities". The Economic Times. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  31. ^ "JSEL". Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  32. ^ "Development through Enterprise". NextBillion.net. 26 May 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012. 
  33. ^ "Churu's Marwari, Nand Kishore Chaudhary's Jaipur Rugs a matter of discourse at Harvard". Economic Times. 26 January 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012. 
  34. ^ "Jaipur foot: History". jaipurfoot.org. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  35. ^ "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2009)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  36. ^ a b "Jaipur Guide". bhaskar.com. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  37. ^ a b "Dainik Navajyoti". dainiknavajyoti.com. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  38. ^ "Culture Of Jaipur - Cultural Heritage, Art & Architecture of Jaipur". jaipur.org. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  39. ^ "Culture of Jaipur". Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
  40. ^ Manorma Sharma (2006). Tradition of Hindustani Music. APH Publishing. pp. 49–51. ISBN 978-81-7648-999-7. 
  41. ^ Jeffrey Michael Grimes (2008). The Geography of Hindustani Music: The Influence of Region and Regionalism on the North Indian Classical Tradition. ProQuest. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-109-00342-0. 
  42. ^ Kumāraprasāda Mukhopādhyāẏa (2006). The Lost World of Hindustani Music. Penguin Books India. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-0-14-306199-1. 
  43. ^ a b "Culture of Jaipur". jaipur.org. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  44. ^ "Jaipur literary festival". jaipur.org. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  45. ^ "Cuisines Of Jaipur". pinkcity.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  46. ^ "Cuisine of Jaipur". Jaipur-pinkcity.webs.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  47. ^ "What to eat in Jaipur". jaipurtravel.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  48. ^ "Jaipur Seventh Best Tourist Destination in Asia – Conde Nast Traveller Survey". bharatonline.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  49. ^ "World's best destinations". Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  50. ^ Arnold, Helen (25 March 2012). "World's 15 most expensive hotel suites". CNN Go. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  51. ^ "Accor to manage Jaipur's new convention centre". M&IT India. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  52. ^ "Jaipur Exhibition and Convention Centre will make Pink City a meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions hub - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  53. ^ "Temples of Jaipur". jaipur.org. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  54. ^ "The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. 31 July 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  55. ^ "Hawa Mahal Jaipur - History, Architecture, Visiting Hours". www.jaipur.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  56. ^ "Sawai Mansingh Stadium". worldstadiums.com. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  57. ^ "Big business and Bollywood grab stakes in IPL". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  58. ^ "Big B, Aamir, SRK cheer for Abhishek's Pink Panthers". Mumbai. The Hindu. 27 July 2014. Retrieved Jul 28, 2014. 
  59. ^ "University of Rajasthan: An Overview". Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  60. ^ "The NIT Amendment Act, 2012" (PDF). mnnit.ac.in. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  61. ^ "Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur". Minglebox. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  62. ^ "Jaipur National University". 4icu.org. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  63. ^ "Association of Indian Universities". aiuweb.org. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  64. ^ "University Grants Commission". ugc.ac.in. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  65. ^ "All India Council for Technical Education" (PDF). AICTE. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  66. ^ "Distance Education Bureau" (PDF). UGC. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  67. ^ "National Accreditation and Assessment Council". NAAC. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  68. ^ "The IIS University | ICG becomes THE IIS UNIVERSITY". iisuniv.ac.in. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  69. ^ "India leads in the supply of youth globally – Dr Swamy". Changing Tomorrow. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  70. ^ "JCSTL Website". Jaipurbus.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  71. ^ "Rajasthan State Road Transportation Company info". India Transit. Retrieved 4 December 2014. 
  72. ^ a b "BRTS – JDA Website". JDA. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  73. ^ "Traffic Diversion and Flow During Construction of BRTS". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  74. ^ "NW Railway". Indian Railways. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  75. ^ "JMRC Notification for commercial operations of metro". Jaipur Metro. 
  76. ^ "Metro Stations". jaipurmetrorail.in. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  77. ^ "Jaipur Metro Phase-1B Estimated Cost". citi.co.in. 
  78. ^ "Jaipur International Airport". Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  79. ^ "Flights diverted to Jaipur". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 

External links[edit]