James Rolfe

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James Rolfe
James D. Rolfe.jpg
Rolfe in 2008, as the Angry Video Game Nerd
Born James Duncan Rolfe
(1980-07-10) July 10, 1980 (age 38)[1]
Haddonfield, New Jersey, U.S.[1]
Residence Delaware Valley, U.S.
Other names The Nerd
Alma mater University of the Arts
Occupation
  • Actor
  • comedian
  • filmmaker
  • film/video game critic
  • internet personality
Years active 1989–present
Notable work
Spouse(s)
April Chmura (m. 2007)
Children 2
YouTube information
Channel
Years active 2006–present
Genre Gaming, Let's play, review, comedy sketch, ludology
Subscribers 2.7 million
Total views 1.3 billion
Network
Associated acts
Website cinemassacre.com

James Duncan Rolfe (born July 10, 1980) is an American actor, comedian, filmmaker, film and video game critic, and internet personality. Rolfe is best known for creating and starring in the web television series Angry Video Game Nerd, a joint production of Rolfe's Cinemassacre Productions, GameTrailers, and ScrewAttack on the video platform YouTube. Some of his other projects have included reviews of board games and classic horror films.

Rolfe began creating homemade video productions in the late 1980s. He has created more than 270 films, including shorts, features and webisodes, during his career. He took off in 2004 with the beginning of the Angry Video Game Nerd.[2] Two years later, Rolfe gained mainstream attention when one of his videos went viral after friend and collaborator Mike Matei persuaded him to publish them on the Internet.[3] Between this time, he filmed videos he created on his own and most of them have been released on his website, Cinemassacre.

Early life[edit]

Rolfe was born in New Jersey on July 10, 1980.[1][4] His parents bought him an audio recorder as a Christmas present sometime in the early to mid-1980s. Later, he got a camera and took photographs with friends performing fights for new projects. He was inspired by The Legend of Zelda and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles to create adventure stories. Rolfe also illustrated comic books, which he updated monthly. One such book he wrote had a plot inspired by the video game The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past.[5]

Rolfe started filming shorts in 1989 and continued this hobby into the early 1990s.[2] He used Mario Paint for a few of his early films. He eventually took classes for hand-drawn animation at a university. His early films did not have scripts or rehearsal. However, once he started writing scripts, his friends gradually lost interest because of the pressure of trying to remember their lines,[5] which left many of Rolfe's films unfinished. He then tried his hand at action figures or puppets. The plot of The Giant Movie Director (1994) involved toys coming to life.

Rolfe attended the University of the Arts and has a bachelor's degree in fine arts.[6]

Since his early teen years, Rolfe operated and ran an annual "haunted house" Halloween attraction out of his parents garage (the same garage was later used in building a graveyard for his horror comedy film The Deader, the Better and again used in his film/series pilot Jersey Odysseys: Legend of the Blue Hole), using a collection of several props and antiques that he later reused multiple times in his other films.[7]

Career[edit]

Early films[edit]

In May 1996, he filmed A Night of Total Terror in his backyard, a horror film that he has called "the turning point of my life".[8] In the late 1990s, Rolfe created several films such as the B-horror movie The Head Incident that he finished in 1999 but did not release until its tenth anniversary in 2009. He also made Cinemaphobia in 2001, which follows an actor who suffers from an overload of work and sees hallucinations of cameras following him. Two versions of the film were made, a ten-minute version and an extended, fifteen-minute version. Rolfe has stated his preference for the shorter ten-minute version.[9][10] The same year, he created Kung Fu Werewolf from Outer Space which is a mainly silent movie except for narration. He also created an hour-long comedy film entitled Stoney, which is a spoof of the 1976 film Rocky. His eighth film of 2001 was It Came from Beyond the Toilet.[10] In 2003, he created another film, Curse of the Cat Lover's Grave, which was split into three parts to define three different horror genres.[10] Rolfe made a pilot of a planned web series entitled Jersey Odysseys: Legend of the Blue Hole, which is based on the urban legends of the state of New Jersey.[11] The pilot centers around on the legend of the Jersey Devil.[2]

Later, in 2004, he got a job editing industrial training videos, which he quit in early 2007.[8][12]

In 2007, Rolfe filmed The Deader, the Better, a classic-style B-movie horror film that pays homage to the 1968 horror film Night of the Living Dead.[13] The film was shown at the Atlanta Horror Fest in October 2007. On May 5, 2006, Rolfe released a music video that included stock footage from a trip he had made to England and Scotland. The music used in his work was from the Black Sabbath single "Heaven and Hell".[8] Rolfe also participated in the 48 Hour Film Project between 2004 to 2007. In the 2007 event, he was the Audience Award Winner for his film Spaghetti Western.[8][14] His other entries were a trilogy of films called Death Suit (2004), Death Seen (2005) and Death Secret (2006).[2]

Angry Video Game Nerd[edit]

Rolfe's career did not gain much momentum until May 2004, when he filmed a 5 minute short review of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) game Castlevania II: Simon's Quest under the name "Bad NES Games".[15] His character was originally named "The Angry Nintendo Nerd" but was changed to "The Angry Video Game Nerd" to avoid trademark issues and because he started reviewing games on other consoles (e.g. Sega Genesis, Atari 2600).[2][16] Rolfe conceived the basis of his character while he was studying at the University of the Arts of Philadelphia when he attended from 1999 to 2004.[17][18] Rolfe then made another video, which was supposed to be the last of the series, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, because it was the game he hated most. His beer drinking in most of the video was done on purpose as to say "these games are so bad I'm forced to drink". Both of these became generic traits of "The Nerd", which would appear in future videos.[19] The choice of Rolling Rock was coincidental as it happened to be the only beer that Rolfe had in his refrigerator, and this eventually became an identifying trait of his character, although in more recent videos, he has also included Yuengling beer, hard-liquor and non-alcoholic hot sauce.[2] Originally his videos were meant to be private. However, Rolfe's friend and collaborator, Mike Matei, convinced him to post the videos on a YouTube channel called "JamesNintendoNerd" (now called Cinemassacre) on April 6, 2006, which Matei created and managed for him.[15]

"The Nerd" accepts a challenge from The Nostalgia Critic.

On September 12, 2006, Rolfe's character first gained mainstream attention when his review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles became viral on YouTube.[3] His videos are also posted on GameTrailers and ScrewAttack and have gained 30 million views monthly. He has over 2.4 million subscribers, as of October 2017.[16][20] At the end of 2007, Rolfe halted the production of the series and cancelled an appearance at MAGFest after suffering from a break in his voice.[21] On March 17, 2010, he made the announcement that he was suffering from burnout as a result of consistently writing, directing and starring in the videos, and that the show would be entering a brief hiatus. It was scheduled to return in May 2010; however, an episode was released on April 30. Episodes are released on either the first or second Wednesday of each month,[22] as opposed to two episodes per month due to Rolfe's other projects.[2] Episodes are posted on YouTube over a year after their original release on GameTrailers. Rolfe formerly had affiliations with ScrewAttack before leaving in 2013. He currently has affiliations with That Guy with the Glasses.[23] This allows Rolfe to earn small amounts of money from users watching the videos.[24]

Rolfe's character gained further fame through a fictional feud with the Nostalgia Critic (played by Doug Walker). This began with the Critic launching a satirical attack in an early episode. The feud took place over many episodes between 2008 and 2009. The two characters, and real-life comedians, are now good friends. Walker has informed his viewers of Rolfe's projects, and Rolfe has contributed to some of the Critic's subsequent videos.[25]

Rolfe made a cameo appearance as the Nerd in a music video parody of Britney Spears' single "Piece of Me" entitled "Piece of Meat" on cinevore.com.

Angry Video Game Nerd: The Movie[edit]

For a period, Rolfe focused his efforts on producing Angry Video Game Nerd: The Movie, which revolves around E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, the video game for the Atari 2600. The film is a collaboration between Rolfe and Kevin Finn and was entirely funded by fan donations.[26] The release of the film was to coincide with the 31st anniversary of the 1983 video game crash.[27]

Other films[edit]

Rolfe was featured in a cameo for a commercial that was due to air in between Super Bowl XLV, but it never did because of a protest from the Catholic Church.[28] Rolfe's videos were featured on the nationally syndicated radio show Opie and Anthony, who interviewed him on January 9, 2008.[29] He also made a cameo in the 2007 fan film Return of the Ghostbusters.[30] He is featured as himself in two documentaries, His Name Was Jason, where he talks about his love for and significance as a slasher killer that Jason Voorhees is, as well as the Friday the 13th series, but mostly on the Friday the 13th video game, and Never Sleep Again: The Elm Street Legacy. There, like the His Name Was Jason documentary, he talks about Freddy Krueger, about the character's significance as a slasher killer with a personality, and mostly about the video game based on the character.[31]

In 2010, it was announced that Rolfe was set to feature in a low-budget remake of Plan 9 from Outer Space entitled Plan 9,[32] which was released through Video On Demand beginning February 16, 2016,[33] and then released on physical media in stores on January 5, 2017. Around early to mid January 2013, Rolfe played a brief role as a news reporter in an independent short film about Sonic the Hedgehog.[34]

Commitment to the Youtube videos has slowed Rolfe's progress in making new features, but he did make a trilogy of new shorts after the AVGN movie, including Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: The Movie (2015), based on the video game,[35] Flying Fuckernauts vs. The Astro-Bastards (2016), a tribute to B-movie sci-fi,[36] and Mimal the Elf (2017), a mockumentary.[37] On May 25, 2017, in a general update video about the future of the YouTube channel, Rolfe announced he was in very early development on what he termed an "atmospheric horror movie... [the film would] take place in one room... very minimal".[38] On December 29, Rolfe announced that 2018 would lean more toward his own original projects, and that he had begun writing the untitled horror film. It would be in the vein of past projects, such as Legend of the Blue Hole and Cinemaphobia.[39] On August 8, Rolfe said he was 50-75% done with the script, and that it would contain some type of 'nostalgia theming', but it would likely undergo further rewrites and had no plans to film it in the near future.[40]

Other video series[edit]

Cinemassacre has published a number of other reviews featuring James and associates as themselves. The topics include video games (under the James & Mike Mondays series), video game peripherals such as the VictorMaxx Stuntmaster headset, and films. One of Rolfe's other series is Board James, where he and Mike Matei review old board games in a humorous way, often with recurring characters. This show eventually developed into a psychological horror series, while still containing board game reviews in each episode.[41]

Rolfe was involved in a fifteen-part series titled OverAnalyzers, where he played the part of the manager of a fictional company that over analyzed various pop culture references. The series was edited and produced by another website called Cinevore.[42][43] He also worked as a film reviewer on Spike.com.

Rolfe has run Monster Madness, in which he reviews one horror movie for each day in October, since 2007. Each year, he has adopted a different theme for Monster Madness. 2007 was the history of horror. 2008 was Godzillathon, in which he reviewed all of the Godzilla films chronologically. 2009 was Monster Madness Three, which dealt with a variety of popular and little known films of horror. 2010 was Camp Cult, which dealt with both campy horror films as well as cult classic films, such as Troll 2. 2011 was Sequel-A-Thon, which dealt with horror sequels. And 2012 was 80's-a-Thon, which included only movies made in the 1980s. While the first five years of Monster Madness have been one film review per day for the entirety of the month of October 2012's 80's-a-Thon series of Monster Madness was reduced to every other day of October due to the production of The Angry Video Game Nerd Movie. Despite the decreased number of film reviews, the film reviews in 80's-a-Thon were longer than previous reviews on Monster Madness.[15][23] With October 2013's Sequel-A-Thon 2, Monster Madness has returned to one review per day. 2013 was Sequel-A-Thon 2, which dealt with more horror sequels. The final 31 marathon Monster Madness series ran during October 2016. Rolfe expressed his desire to move onto other Halloween-themed projects and reviews in the future, but said that Monster Madness will always live on in some way.[44]

In 2017, Son of Monster Madness debuted, which consisted simply of five new reviews, with the rest of October bulked by reuploads of older reviews previously not available on YouTube.

Ghostbusters (2016) controversy[edit]

On May 17, 2016, James uploaded a video to Cinemassacre's YouTube channel in which he expressed unhappiness with the 2016 Ghostbusters reboot film and how he planned on not seeing it or releasing a review. Rolfe did not advocate a boycott of the film (as Comic Book Girl 19 previously had) but stated that the 2016 reboot utilizes the name recognition established by the original franchise, but lacks a proper connection to the original story or characters.[45] He further commented that the franchise "officially ended with the death of Harold Ramis."

After the video was uploaded, comedians Patton Oswalt and Dane Cook criticised Rolfe's reasoning – the latter calling him a 'moron', while David Sims of The Atlantic, in noting Rolfe's lack of criticism towards the film's cast, wrote that he "dance[d] around the simple fact that has set this innocuous-seeming movie apart from its fellow blockbusters this summer—that it’s a tent pole genre film starring women".[46] Others defended Rolfe's statements, insisting that sexism had nothing to do with his reasoning and that many hold similarly negative views towards the film, as with most other remakes and reboots.[45][47][48]

Personal life[edit]

Rolfe attended the University of the Arts in Philadelphia from 1999 to 2004. He continued residing in Philadelphia after graduation. He briefly relocated to Los Angeles while filming Angry Video Game Nerd: The Movie (2014), returning to Philadelphia upon completion of the movie.

In the winter of 2004, Rolfe was involved in a head-on car crash with a trailer that was unattached with its supporting vehicle. According to Rolfe, no physical injuries occurred during the crash. His quotes from the wreckage include he "grabbed the wheel and waited for death".[8]

Rolfe met April Chmura in July 2004; she was a cinematographer on the early Nerd episodes. They began dating shortly after and were married in November 2007. He announced at the premiere trailer for Angry Video Game Nerd: The Movie in November 2012, that they were expecting their first child. In April 2013, she gave birth to a baby girl. Rolfe has not divulged details about his daughter except for a few photos and expressing thanks that his wife got past complications resulting during the childbirth.[49]

In November 2013, April posted an update on James's Cinemassacre website that their daughter is continually seeking medical treatment due to unnamed complications. On April 13, 2016, Rolfe revealed what happened while announcing an auction of various Cinemassacre memorabilia to benefit Shriners Hospitals for Children. During birth, his daughter suffered nerve damage in one of her arms and required many months of physical therapy to recover full use of her arm. Rolfe expressed gratitude to Shriners for all they did for his family during that time.[50][51]

On April 19, 2017, Rolfe announced on his Twitter account that he and his wife April are expecting another daughter. Their second daughter was born on August 31, 2017.

In addition to being a film buff and video game fan Rolfe is also an avid listener of rock music, especially heavy metal. He has stated his favorite band is Black Sabbath.[citation needed]

He has a younger sister named Gina (born 1984). He is of Italian ancestry.[52]

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

Year Film Role Notes
2001 Stoney Interviewer Director
Uncredited role
Short
2002 The Night Prowler Narrator Voice
Director
Short
2002 ROLFE: A No-Budget Dream Himself Documentary
Short
2004 Jersey Odysseys: Legend of the Blue Hole Narrator
Jason's Friend
Writer, Director, Producer, Editor
Uncredited role
Short
2005 The Deader the Better Zombie Writer, Director, Producer, Editor, Cinematographer
Uncredited role
Short
2005 The Mexican Mummy Narrator Voice
Director
Short
2007 Return of the Ghostbusters The Nerd
2008 Piece of Meat The Nerd Special effects
Short, music video
2008 Late Night with Ganondorf Dragmire Ganondorf
Shit Pickle
Himself
Voice
Short
2009 His Name Was Jason Himself Documentary
2009 History of Super Mecha Death Christ The Nerd Writer, Editor
Short
2010 Never Sleep Again: The Elm Street Legacy Himself Documentary
2010 Kickassia Board James
2011 Suburban Knights Voice of the Ancient World Voice
2012 To Boldly Flee Gort
2013 Sonic Light News Commentator Short
2014 Angry Video Game Nerd: The Movie The Nerd Lead Role, Series Creator, Director, Writer, Producer, Theme song writer,
Executive Producer, Editor
2015 Plan 9 Officer Cop Policeman
2015 Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: The Game - The Movie Writer, Director, Producer, Editor, Cinematographer
Short
2016 Shooting Clerks Leonard James Nash
2016 Flying Fuckernauts vs. The Astro-Bastards Narrator Writer, Director, Producer, Editor, Cinematographer
Short
2017 Mimal the Elf Writer, Director, Producer, Editor, Cinematographer
Short

Television / webseries[edit]

Year Series Role Notes
2004–present The Angry Video Game Nerd The Nerd, Board James, The Bullshit Man, various characters Lead Role, Creator, Director, Writer, Producer,
Theme Songwriter, Executive Producer, Editor
156 episodes
2004; 2011 Munky Cheez Various Voice
4 episodes
2007–2016 Cinemassacre's Monster Madnesss Host/Narrator/Himself Annual series
234 episodes
2007—present You Know What's Bullshit? The Bullshit Man 36 episodes
2008–present Nostalgia Critic The Nerd Supporting Role/Cameo
2009 Atop the Fourth Wall The Nerd 1 episode
2009–2013; 2015 Board James Board James, The Nerd 27 episodes
Hiatus
2010–2011 Spade Luther Jessup 4 episodes
2011–2012 OverAnalyzers Jim 15 episodes
2011–2014 Pat the NES Punk The Nerd/Himself 5 episodes
2012–present James & Mike Mondays Himself 106 episodes
2015 James & Doug Himself 6 episodes
2016 Commander Chet Eye's Dad 2 episodes
2017 Son of Monster Madness Host/Narrator/Himself 5 episodes

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Craig, Daniel (2016-06-15). "Local YouTuber's refusal to see 'Ghostbusters' reboot sparks internet controversy". Philly Voice. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Cinemassacre – The Films of James Rolfe". RavenGarcia.com. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
  3. ^ a b MTV (September 12, 2006). "Viral Videos Infect the Mainstream". MTV. Retrieved March 22, 2006.
  4. ^ Walsh, Michael (2014-04-08). "YouTube star James Rolfe goes long with 'Angry Video Game Nerd' movie". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 2016-04-07. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  5. ^ a b Rolfe, James (2008). Cinemassacre 200 (Film & Video) (Internet Production). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Cinemassacre Productions. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
  6. ^ Cinemassacre (15 November 2017). AVGN Behind-The-Scenes (2016) "Nerdy Challenges". YouTube. Event occurs at 1:04. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  7. ^ "Cinemassacre 200". The CineMassacre Productions. 2010. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Archived Cinemassacre Page: News Articles Between 1/22/05 to 9/12/07". Cinemassacre. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007.
  9. ^ "Cinemaphobia (2001)". wordpress. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
  10. ^ a b c "Are They Worth It? The DVDs of the Internet No. 5 – Cinemassacre's Cinematic Catastrophes". Total Action Adventure. Archived from the original on April 8, 2012. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  11. ^ "Cinemassacre FAQ". The CineMassacre Productions. 2010. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
  12. ^ "Mrs Nerd answers". cinemassacre.com.
  13. ^ "Review: Film Short "The Deader the Better" by James Rolfe". TrentSketch Reviews. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
  14. ^ "The 48 Hour Film Project: Philadelphia (2007)". The 48 Hour Film Project. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
  15. ^ a b c McGinnis, Jeff. "McGinnis:James Rolfe – In praise of a nerd". Toledo Free Press. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  16. ^ a b "Q&A Interview with James Rolfe". Yahoo! Voices. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
  17. ^ "An Interview with James Rolfe". 1up.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2007.
  18. ^ "James Rolfe Trivia & Quotes". tv.com.
  19. ^ James Rolfe (2007). What Was I Thinking?: The Making of the Angry Video Game Nerd (DVD). ScrewAttack.
  20. ^ "Project of the Day: Angry Video Game Nerds!". IndieWire. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  21. ^ "Cinemassare News Archive: 11/21/2007-2/18/2008". Cinemassacre. Archived from the original on March 19, 2008.
  22. ^ "AVGN: Episode 90 – "Action 52"". April 30, 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  23. ^ a b "James Rolfe – Television Tropes". tvtropes.
  24. ^ "Angry Video Game Nerd". user.disk.one.se. 2008. Archived from the original on January 4, 2007.
  25. ^ Finniss, David (16 February 2009). "Nostalgia Critic Vs. The Angry Video Game Nerd". Yahoo. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  26. ^ Carmichael, Stephanie (November 16, 2012). "Angry Video Game Nerd: The Movie set for possible 2013 release". GameZone. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  27. ^ "AVGN Movie FAQ 1.0". Cinemassacre. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  28. ^ "Banned SuperBowl (sic) TV commercial with James Rolfe". Retrojunk.
  29. ^ Opie and Anthony (November 2, 2008). "Angry Video Game Nerd Opie and Anthony Interview Pt 1". Opie and Anthony Radio Show. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
  30. ^ Return of the Ghostbusters (2007) on IMDb
  31. ^ "Never Sleep Again: The Elm Street Legacy DVD Review". 411mania.com. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  32. ^ "Angry Video Game Nerd Joins the Cast of the 'Plan 9' Remake". The Sci-Fi Block. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
  33. ^ "Plan 9 from Outer Space Remake Landing in February". Dread Central. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
  34. ^ "Sonic the Hedgehog fan film". Retrieved 2016-05-15.
  35. ^ Cinemassacre (24 November 2015). "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: THE MOVIE (2015) TRAILER" – via YouTube.
  36. ^ Cinemassacre (22 December 2016). "AVGN Presents "ASTRO BASTARDS" TRAILER" – via YouTube.
  37. ^ Cinemassacre (1 April 2017). "MIMAL THE ELF - urban legend 90s TV documentary clip" – via YouTube.
  38. ^ Cinemassacre (25 May 2017). "What I'm Working On" – via YouTube.
  39. ^ http://cinemassacre.com/2017/12/29/2018-personal-projects/
  40. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWAA8B3AvtI
  41. ^ "Board James – Cinemassacre Productions". Cinemassacre. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
  42. ^ Cinevore (May 30, 2012). "Cinivore Over Analyzers website". Cinevor Show. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  43. ^ "OverAnalyzers". Critics Watch. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
  44. ^ Matei, Mike (2016-09-22). "Monster Madness X Promo". Cinemassacre. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  45. ^ a b Murthi, Vikram. "'Ghostbusters' Reboot: Cinemassacre YouTube Critic Refuses To See The Film For Dumb Reasons". Indiewire. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  46. ^ Sims, Davis (18 May 2016). "The Ongoing Outcry Against the Ghostbusters Remake". The Atlantic. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  47. ^ Hicks, William (19 May 2016). "'Angry Video Game Nerd' James Rolfe Is Right, Ghostbusters Will Be Terrible". Heat Street. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  48. ^ Burr, Ty (20 May 2016). "Would there be less backlash if the new 'Ghostbusters' were all men? – The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  49. ^ "Little Nerd". cinemassacre.com.
  50. ^ "Happy Thanksgiving – from Mrs Nerd". cinemassacre.com.
  51. ^ AVGN Auction for Charity, retrieved 2016-05-04
  52. ^ Rolfe, James (2017-09-22). "Top 10 Popular Films I Don't Love". Cinemassacre. YouTube. Retrieved 2018-07-06.

External links[edit]