Type of site
|Live streaming, streaming video|
|Alexa rank||34 (April 2020[update])|
|Launched||June 6, 2011|
Twitch is a video live streaming service operated by Twitch Interactive, a subsidiary of Amazon. Introduced in June 2011 as a spin-off of the general-interest streaming platform Justin.tv, the site primarily focuses on video game live streaming, including broadcasts of esports competitions, in addition to music broadcasts, creative content, and more recently, "in real life" streams. Content on the site can be viewed either live or via video on demand.
The popularity of Twitch eclipsed that of its general-interest counterpart. In October 2013, the website had 45 million unique viewers,:38 and by February 2014, it was considered the fourth largest source of peak Internet traffic in the United States. At the same time, Justin.tv's parent company was re-branded as Twitch Interactive to represent the shift in focus – Justin.tv was shut down in August 2014. That month, the service was acquired by Amazon for US$970 million, which later led to the introduction of synergies with the company's subscription service Amazon Prime. Twitch later acquired Curse, an operator of online video gaming communities and introduced means to purchase games through links on streams along with a program allowing streamers to receive commissions on the sales of games that they play.
By 2015, Twitch had more than 1.5 million broadcasters and 100 million viewers per month. As of 2017, Twitch remained the leading live streaming video service for video games in the US, and had an advantage over YouTube Gaming. As of May 2018, it had 2.2 million broadcasters monthly and 15 million daily active users, with around a million average concurrent users. As of May 2018, Twitch had over 27,000 partner channels.
Founding and initial growth (2007–2013)
When Justin.tv was launched in 2007 by Justin Kan and Emmett Shear, the site was divided into several content categories. The gaming category grew especially fast, and became the most popular content on the site. In June 2011,:40 the company decided to spin off the gaming content as TwitchTV, inspired by the term twitch gameplay. It launched officially in public beta on June 6, 2011. Since then, Twitch has attracted more than 35 million unique visitors a month. Twitch had about 80 employees in June 2013, which increased to 100 by December 2013. The company was headquartered in San Francisco's Financial District.
Twitch has been supported by significant investments of venture capital, with US$15 million in 2012 (on top of US$7 million originally raised for Justin.tv), and US$20 million in 2013. Investors during three rounds of fund raising leading up to the end of 2013 included Draper Associates, Bessemer Venture Partners and Thrive Capital.:40 In addition to the influx of venture funding, it was believed in 2013 that the company had become profitable.:40
Especially since the shutdown of its direct competitor Own3d.tv in early 2013, Twitch has become the most popular e-sports streaming service by a large margin, leading some to conclude that the website has a "near monopoly on the market". Competing video services, such as YouTube and Dailymotion, began to increase the prominence of their gaming content to compete, but have had a much smaller impact so far. As of mid-2013, there were over 43 million viewers on Twitch monthly, with the average viewer watching an hour and a half a day. As of February 2014, Twitch is the fourth largest source of Internet traffic during peak times in the United States, behind Netflix, Google, and Apple. Twitch makes up 1.8% of total US Internet traffic during peak periods.
In late 2013, particularly due to increasing viewership, Twitch had issues with lag and low frame rates in Europe. Twitch has subsequently added new servers in the region. Also in order to address these problems, Twitch implemented a new video system shown to be more efficient than the previous system. Initially, the new video system was criticised by users because it caused a significant stream delay, interfering with broadcaster-viewer interaction. Twitch staff said that the increased delay was likely temporary and at the time, was an acceptable tradeoff for the decrease in buffering.
Growth, YouTube acquisition speculation (2014)
On February 10, 2014, Twitch's parent company (Justin.tv, Inc.) was renamed Twitch Interactive, reflecting the increased prominence of the service over Justin.tv as the company's main business. That same month, a stream known as Twitch Plays Pokémon, a crowdsourced attempt to play Pokémon Red using a system translating chat commands into game controls, went viral. By February 17, the channel reached over 6.5 million total views and averaged concurrent viewership between 60 and 70 thousand viewers with at least 10% participating. Vice President of Marketing Matthew DiPietro praised the stream as "one more example of how video games have become a platform for entertainment and creativity that extends WAY beyond the original intent of the game creator. By merging a video game, live video and a participatory experience, the broadcaster has created an entertainment hybrid custom made for the Twitch community. This is a wonderful proof of concept that we hope to see more of in the future." Beginning with its 2014 edition, Twitch was made the official live streaming platform of the Electronic Entertainment Expo.
On August 5, 2014, the original Justin.tv site suddenly ceased operations, citing a need to focus resources entirely on Twitch. On August 6, 2014, Twitch introduced an updated archive system, with multi-platform access to highlights from past broadcasts by a channel, higher quality video, increased server backups, and a new Video Manager interface for managing past broadcasts and compiling "highlights" from broadcasts that can also be exported to YouTube. Due to technological limitations and resource requirements, the new system contained several regressions; the option to archive complete broadcasts on an indefinite basis ("save forever") was removed, meaning that they can only be retained for a maximum of 14 days, or 60 for partners and Turbo subscribers. While compiled highlights can be archived indefinitely, they were limited to two hours in length. In addition, Twitch introduced a copyright fingerprinting system that would mute audio in archived clips if it detected a copyrighted song in the stream.
Amazon subsidiary (2014–present)
On August 25, 2014, Amazon acquired Twitch Interactive for US$970 million. Sources reported that the rumoured Google deal had fallen through and allowed Amazon to make the bid, with Forbes reporting that Google had backed out of the deal due to potential antitrust concerns surrounding it and its existing ownership of YouTube. The acquisition closed on September 25, 2014. Take-Two Interactive, which owned a 2% stake at the time of the acquisition, made a windfall of $22 million.
Under Amazon, Shear continued as chief executive officer of Twitch Interactive, with Sara Clemens added to the executive team as chief operating officer in January 2018. Shear touted the Amazon Web Services platform as an "attractive" aspect of the deal, and that Amazon had "built relationships with the big players in media", which could be used to the service's advantage—particularly in the realm of content licensing. The purchase of Twitch marked the third recent video gaming–oriented acquisition by Amazon, which had previously acquired the developers Reflexive Entertainment and Double Helix Games.
On December 9, 2014, Twitch announced it had acquired GoodGame Agency, an organisation that owns the esports teams Evil Geniuses and Alliance. In March 2015, Twitch reset all user passwords and disabled all connections to external Twitter and YouTube accounts after the service reported that someone had gained "unauthorised access" to the user information of some Twitch users.
In June 2016, Twitch added a new feature known as "Cheering", a special form of emoticon purchased as a microtransaction using an in-site currency known as "Bits". Bits are bought using Amazon Payments, and cheers act as donations to the channel. Users also earn badges within a channel based on how much they have cheered.
On August 16, 2016, Twitch acquired Curse, Inc., an operator of online video gaming communities and gaming-oriented VoIP software. In December 2016, GoodGame Agency was divested by Amazon to their respective members due to conflict of interest concerns. On September 30, 2016, Twitch announced Twitch Prime, a service which provides premium features that are exclusive to users who have an active Amazon Prime subscription. This included advertising-free streaming, monthly offers of free add-on content ("Game Loot"), and game discounts. Games included with the game loot rewards were Apex Legends, Legends of Runeterra, FIFA Ultimate Team, Teamfight Tactics, Mobile Legends: Bang Bang, Doom Eternal, and more.
In December 2016, Twitch announced a semi-automated chat moderation tool (AutoMod), which uses natural language processing and machine learning to set aside potentially unwanted content for human review. In February 2017, Twitch announced the Twitch Game Store, a digital distribution platform that would expose digital purchases of games within the site's browsing interface. When streaming games available on the store, partnered channels could display a referral link to purchase the game—receiving a 5% commission. Users also received a "Twitch Crate" on every purchase, which included Bits and a collection of random chat emotes.
Twitch and Blizzard Entertainment signed a two-year deal in June 2017 to make Twitch be the exclusive streaming broadcaster of select Blizzard esports championship events, with viewers under Twitch Prime earning special rewards in various Blizzard games. Twitch also reached a deal in 2018 to be the streaming partner of the Overwatch League, with the site also offering an "All-Access Pass" with exclusive content, emotes, and in-game items for Overwatch.
In August 2017, Twitch announced it had acquired video indexing platform ClipMine.
On August 20, 2018, Twitch announced that it will no longer offer advertising-free access to the entire service to Amazon Prime subscribers, with this privilege requiring the separate "Twitch Turbo" subscription or an individual channel subscription. This privilege ended for new customers effective September 14, 2018, and for existing customers October 2018.
In October 2018, Twitch announced Amazon Blacksmith, a new extension allowing broadcasters to configure displays of products associated with their streams with Amazon affiliate links. On November 27, 2018, Twitch discontinued the Game Store service, citing that it did not generate as much additional revenue for partners as they hoped, and new revenue opportunities such as Amazon Blacksmith. Users retain access to their purchased games.
Twitch acquired the Internet Games Database (IGDB), a user-driven website similar in functionality to Internet Movie Database (IMDb) to catalog details of video games in September 2019. Twitch plans to use the database service to improve its own internal search features and help users find games they are interested in.
On September 26, 2019, Twitch unveiled a new logo and updated site design. The design is accompanied by a new advertising campaign, "You're already one of us", which will seek to promote the platform's community members.
Twitch began signing exclusivity deals with high-profile streamers in December 2019, starting with DrLupo, TimTheTatman, and Lirik, who had a combined 10.36 million followers at the time. Dr DisRespect signed a multi-year deal in March 2020.
Twitch introduced a Safety Advisory Council in May 2020, made up from streamers, academics, and activities, with a goal to develop guidelines for moderation, work-life balance, and safeguarding the interests of marginalized communities for the platform. During its first week, the Council became focus of a brief controversy. Member Steph Loehr suggested that Twitch eliminate voice chat on the platform, arguing that the feature served to marginalize many players. When Loehr was pushed by the community to explain further, she stated: "I think a lot of you gamers are white supremacists. Sorry, just a fact." This kindled a campaign of harassment against her. Twitch worked to calm the situation down by condemning the harassment towards Loehr.
Content and audience
Twitch is designed to be a platform for content, including esports tournaments, personal streams of individual players, and gaming-related talk shows. A number of channels do live speedrunning. The Twitch homepage currently displays games based on viewership. The typical viewer is male and aged between 18 and 34 years of age, although the site has also made attempts at pursuing other demographics, including women. As of June 2018 some of the most popular games streamed on Twitch are Fortnite, League of Legends, Dota 2, PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds, Hearthstone, Overwatch and Counter-Strike: Global Offensive with a combined total of over 356 million hours watched. Streamer Ninja had been among Twitch's top personalities, with over 14 million followers. In August 2019, however, Ninja announced that he would move exclusively to a Microsoft-owned competitor, Mixer.
Twitch has also made expansions into non-gaming content; such as in July 2013, the site streamed a performance of 'Fester's Feast' from San Diego Comic-Con, and on July 30, 2014, electronic dance music act Steve Aoki broadcast a live performance from a nightclub in Ibiza. In January 2015, Twitch introduced an official category for music streams, such as radio shows and music production activities, and in March 2015, announced that it would become the new official live streaming partner of the Ultra Music Festival, an electronic music festival in Miami.
On October 28, 2015, Twitch launched a second non-gaming category, "Creative", which is intended for streams showcasing the creation of artistic and creative works. To promote the launch, the service also streamed an eight-day marathon of Bob Ross' The Joy of Painting. In July 2016, Twitch launched "Social eating" as a beta; it was inspired by the Korean phenomenon of Muk-bang and Korean players having engaged in the practice as intermissions on their gaming streams.
In March 2017, Twitch added an "IRL" category, which is designed for content within Twitch guidelines that does not fall within any of the other established categories on the site (such as lifelogs).
In May 2017, Twitch did a livestream marathon of all the episodes of the PBS Kids show, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. They repeated the marathon on March 20 of the following year to honor what would have been Fred Rogers' 90th birthday.
Broadcasters on Twitch often host streams promoting and raising money towards charity. By 2013, the website has hosted events which, in total, raised over US$8 million in donations for charitable causes, such as Extra Life 2013. As of 2017 the website has raised over US$75 million in donations for charitable causes.
In December 2017, the National Basketball Association announced that it would stream NBA G League games on Twitch starting on December 15; the broadcasts also include interactive statistics overlays, as well as additional streams of the games with commentary by Twitch personalities. In April 2018, it was announced that Twitch would carry eleven National Football League Thursday Night Football games, as part of the league's renewed streaming deal with Amazon Prime Video. During the 2017 season, these streams were exclusive to Amazon Prime subscribers.
In January 2019, professional wrestling promotion Impact Wrestling announced that it would stream its weekly show Impact! on Twitch, in simulcast with the television airing on the U.S. cable network Pursuit Channel (co-owned with the promotion's parent company Anthem Sports & Entertainment).
On September 5, 2019, the National Women's Hockey League announced a three-year broadcast rights deal with Twitch, covering all games and league events. The deal also contained an agreement with the NWHL Players' Association for revenue sharing with players, and marked the first time that the NWHL had ever received a rights fee. The National Women's Soccer League announced a three-year deal in March 2020 for Twitch to stream 24 matches per-season in the United States, collaborate on original content, and serve as the rightsholder for all matches internationally.
Twitch features a large number of emoticons called "emotes". There are emotes free for all users, emotes for Turbo users, emotes for Twitch Prime users, and emotes for users who are subscribed to Twitch partners or affiliates. As of October 2015,[update] Kappa was the most used emote on Twitch. Twitch partnered broadcasters unlock more "emote slots" as they gain more subscribers up to a maximum of 50 emotes per channel.
Content moderation and restrictions
On August 6, 2014, Twitch announced that all on-demand videos on Twitch became subject to acoustic fingerprinting using software provided by content protection company Audible Magic; if copyrighted music (particularly, songs played by users from outside of the game they are playing) is detected, the 30-minute portion of the video which contains the music will be muted. Live broadcasts were not subject to these filters. A system was available for those who believed they were inappropriately affected and had rights to the music they used to challenge the filtering. Twitch offered selection of royalty-free music library for streamers to use, which is expanded upon later in January 2015. The audio filtering system, along with the lack of communication surrounding the changes in general, proved to be controversial among users. In a Reddit AMA, co-founder Emmett Shear admitted that his staff had "screwed up" and should have provided advance warning of the changes, and promised that Twitch had "absolutely no intention" of implementing audio filtering on live broadcasts.
In June 2020, Twitch received a large wave of DMCA takedown notices aimed at year-old VODs and "clips" (short segments of VODs separated out by viewers) that contain copyrighted music from 2017-19. Twitch complied with the takedowns and also issued a number of copyright strikes against viewers. Concerned streamers were notified that they should remove all VODs and clips if not certain they did not contain copyrighted material. This provoked major backlash, both at the loss of prior content but also based on viability concerns due to an inability to review or even rapidly delete content. There were also complaints based that strikes were being issued on viewer-created clips, even where the streamer-created content was deleted.
Twitch has also explicitly banned specific games from streaming, regardless of rating; this includes games such as BMX XXX, eroge visual novel games (such as Dramatical Murder), HuniePop, Rinse and Repeat, Second Life, and Yandere Simulator. The banning of Yandere Simulator was criticized by YandereDev, the developer of the game. He believed that the game was being arbitrarily singled out with no explanation, as Twitch has not banned other games with similarly excessive sexual or violent content such as Mortal Kombat X, Grand Theft Auto, or The Witcher 3.
Twitch took temporary action in May 2019 after channels related to the video game Artifact began to be used for inappropriate content. Artifact, a major game by Valve, had lost most of its audience in just months from its release, and by late May 2019, several popular livestreamers commented that the total viewership for Artifact streams had dropped to near zero. In the days that followed, several streams started to make streams purporting to be Artifact gameplay but was trolling or other off-topic content. Initially these new streams were playing with the viewers or were jokes, such as showing animal videos or League of Legends matches. After a few days, other Artifact channel streams appeared containing content that was against the terms of Twitch's use policy, including full copyrighted movies, pornography, Nazi propaganda, and at least one stream that showed the entirety of the shooter's video from the Christchurch mosque shootings. The titles of such streams were usually presented to imply they were showing other content while waiting in queue for Artifact matches as to appear legitimate. As word of these streams in the Artifact section grew, Twitch took action, deleting the account that streamed the Christchurch shooting. Twitch then took steps to temporarily ban new accounts from streaming until they can resolve the issue. By June 2019, Twitch started taking legal actions against one hundred "John Doe" streamers in a California court, accusing them of trademark infringement, breach of contract, fraud, and unlawful use of the service that was harming and scaring away users of the service.
Hate speech and harassment
In February 2018, Twitch updated its acceptable content policies to deem that any channel directing hate speech or harassment to be suspended from its platform.
Also in June 2020, a number of women stepped forward with accusations towards several streamers on Twitch and other services related to sexual misconduct and harassment claims. Twitch stated it would review all reported incidents and comply with law enforcement in any investigative efforts. However, several popular streamers on Twitch's service believed that the platform could do more to evaluate the accused individuals, prevent incidents, and protect others in the future, and used June 24, 2020 as a Twitch blackout day, not streaming any content through Twitch to show their support. By the evening of June 24, 2020, Twitch had placed several bans on the accounts of those accused after completing their investigation, and stated in a blog post they would be forwarding additional details to law enforcement.
Twitch temporarily suspended an account belonging to President Donald Trump's campaign on June 29, 2020 after the channel used it to stream some of Trump's prior campaign speeches, which included a 2016 campaign rally in which he called Mexicans rapists and criminals. Twitch stated that "hateful conduct is not allowed" as reason for the suspension.
Partner and affiliate programs
Similar to the Partner Program of other video sites like YouTube, the Partner Program allows popular content producers to share in the advertisement revenue generated from their streams. Additionally, Twitch users can subscribe to partnered streamers' channels for US$4.99 a month, often granting the user access to unique emoticons, live chat privileges, and other various perks. Twitch retains US$2.49 of every US$4.99 channel subscription, with the remaining US$2.50 going directly to the partnered streamer. Although exceptions were made, Twitch previously required that prospective partners have an "average concurrent viewership of 500+", as well as a consistent streaming schedule of at least three days a week. However, since the launch of the 'Achievements' feature, there is a clearer "Path to Partnership" with trackable goals for concurrent viewership, duration and frequency of streams.
In April 2017, Twitch launched its "Affiliate Program" that allows smaller channels to generate revenue as well, also announcing that it would allow channels access to multi-priced subscription tiers. The participants of this program get some but not all of the benefits of the Twitch Partners. Streamers can make profit from cheering with Bits which are purchasable from Twitch directly. Affiliates are also able to access the Twitch Subscriptions feature, with all the same functionality that Partners have access to, alongside one subscribe emote. In September 2019, the service announced that Affiliates would now receive a share of ad revenue.
Advertising on the site has been handled by a number of partners. In 2011, Twitch had an exclusive deal with Future US. On April 17, 2012, Twitch announced a deal to give CBS Interactive the rights to exclusively sell advertising, promotions and sponsorships for the community. On June 5, 2013, Twitch announced the formation of the Twitch Media Group, a new in-house advertisement sales team which has taken over CBS Interactive's role of selling advertisements.
Twitch CEO Emmett Shear has stated a desire to support a wide variety of platforms, stating that they wanted to be on "every platform where people watch video". Twitch streaming apps are available for mobile devices and video game consoles, including Android and iOS, as well as PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, Xbox One, and Xbox 360 video game consoles.
Users can stream to Twitch from Windows, Mac, or Linux operating systems, either with stand-alone software like Open Broadcaster Software, through a platform like EA's Origin software, Ubisoft's Uplay, or Valve's Steam. Games such as Eve Online, PlanetSide 2 and the Call of Duty franchise now link directly to Twitch as well.:40 In 2013, Twitch released a software development kit to allow any developer to integrate Twitch streaming into their software.
Twitch Desktop App and CurseForge
The Twitch Desktop App replaced the Curse Client and Curse Launcher in 2017. It includes a dedicated browser for the Twitch website and additional functions inherited from the Curse software, such as mod installation and management for supported games via the CurseForge service, and voice chat. The software also serves as the client for the former Twitch Game Store.
In June 2020, CurseForge was sold to Overwolf, for an undisclosed sum. The current mod management in the Twitch client will be moved to a dedicated, though not standalone, CurseForge client.
TwitchCon is a biannual fan convention devoted to Twitch and the culture of video game streaming. The inaugural event was held at the Moscone Center in San Francisco from September 25–26, 2015. Since its inception TwitchCon has been an annual event. The second TwitchCon was held in San Diego at the San Diego Convention Center from September 30 – October 2, 2016. The third annual TwitchCon was held in Long Beach at the Long Beach Convention and Entertainment Center from October 20–22, 2017. The fourth annual TwitchCon was held at the San Jose McEnery Convention Center in San Jose, California, from October 26–28, 2018. In 2019, Twitchcon expanded overseas and hosted their first ever European event in Berlin in April 2019, alongside a North American event later in November 2019 in San Diego. TwitchCon had planned to host an event in Amsterdam in May 2020, but this was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Another TwitchCon event is planned in San Diego in September 2020. This event was also cancelled due to COVID-19.
As a teaching tool
Twitch is often used for video game tutorials; the nature of Twitch allows mass numbers of learners to interact with each other and the instructor in real time. Twitch is also used for software development learning, with communities of users streaming programming projects and talking through their work.
- "twitch.tv Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic - Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- Wawro, Alex (August 25, 2014). "Amazon to acquire Twitch". Gamasutra. UBM plc. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- Ewalt, David M. (December 2, 2013). "The ESPN of Videogames". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- "A Letter from the CEO, August 25, 2014". Twitch Blog. August 25, 2014. Archived from the original on August 25, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- Kim, Eugene (August 26, 2014). "Amazon Buys Twitch For $US970 Million In Cash". Business Insider Australia. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
- Sarah Needleman (January 29, 2015). "Twitch's Viewers Reach 100 Million a Month". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 9, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- Perez, Sarah. "Twitch's concurrent streamers grew 67% in Q3, as YouTube Gaming declined". Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- Coldewey, Devin. "Streamers flock to YouTube Live, but the money (and crowd) is still at Twitch". Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- "55 Amazing Twitch Stats and Facts". DMR. June 15, 2015. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
- Perez, Sarah. "Twitch solidifies its lead with viewership up 21% in Q1, while YouTube Gaming drops". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September 3, 2018. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
- "Audience | Twitch Advertising". twitchadvertising.tv. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- Matthew Lynley (March 10, 2011). "Live-streaming site Justin.tv buffing up for e-sports channels". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on August 9, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Alex Wilhelm (June 6, 2011). "TwitchTV: Justin.tv's killer new esports project". The Next Web. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- Rao, Leena (August 11, 2011). "Justin.TV's Video Gaming Portal Twitch.TV Is Growing Fast". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- Lawler, Ryan (June 5, 2013). "With 35M Unique Viewers A Month, Twitch Hires An In-House Ad Sales Team To Ramp Up Monetization". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Sam Thielman (June 5, 2013). "Twitch Bids Adieu to CBSi Ad Sales ESports hub sets up internal sales team led by CRO Jonathan Simpson-Bint". AdWeek. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Dean Takahashi (September 19, 2012). "Making every gamer famous, Twitch raises $15M to expand its eSports webcasts". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Alexander Sliwinski (September 20, 2012). "Twitch receives $15 million investment to expand eSports broadcasts". Joystiq. Archived from the original on January 31, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Samit Sarkar (September 30, 2013). "Twitch secures $20M investment to prepare for PS4, Xbox One". Polygon. Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Ben Popper (September 30, 2013). "Field of streams: how Twitch made video games a spectator sport". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Patrick Howell O'Neill (January 16, 2014). "Twitch dominated streaming in 2013, and here are the numbers to prove it". TheDailyDot. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Alex Wilhelm (March 30, 2013). "As DailyMotion and YouTube turn up the pressure, Twitch looks to retain livestreaming ascendance". TheNextWeb. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Webb, Charles (May 2, 2012). "Interview: The Big Broadcast – TwitchTV, eSports, and Making it Big as an Online Gamer". MTV. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014.
- "Wall Street Journal chart lists Twitch.tv fourth in U.S. peak traffic". Wall Street Journal via on Gamers. February 5, 2014. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- "The Daily Dot – Twitch dominated streaming in 2013, and here are the numbers to prove it". January 22, 2014. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
- "Twitch.tv Adds New Servers and Upgrades Video System". Gameranx. December 13, 2013. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- Rory Young (December 16, 2013). "Twitch.tv update imposes delay of up to 60s in all streams, viewer interaction severely affected". Neoseeker. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- "New Video System: Update after One Week in Full Service". Twitch. December 20, 2013. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- Truong, Alice (February 10, 2014). "As Twitch Grows, Justin.tv Inc. Is Renamed Twitch Interactive". Fast Company. Archived from the original on November 3, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
- "How Twitch is crowd-sourcing an amazing Pokémon multiplayer game". Polygon. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Twitch Plays Pokemon captivates with more than 6.5M total views". Polygon. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Twitch Broadcast Schedule for E3". Twitch. June 2, 2014. Archived from the original on June 3, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- Spangler, Todd (May 18, 2014). "YouTube to Acquire Videogame-Streaming Service Twitch for $1 Billion: Sources". Variety. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- Takahashi, Dean (July 24, 2014). "Google's $1B purchase of Twitch confirmed – joins YouTube for new video empire". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Spangler, Todd (July 24, 2014). "Google Seals Deal to Buy Twitch for $1 Billion: Report". Variety. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Mahardy, Mike (July 24, 2014). "Google buys livestreaming service Twitch". IGN. Archived from the original on December 19, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Gibbs, Samuel (July 25, 2014). "Twitch: what is it, and why has Google bought it for $1bn?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 26, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- "Twitch pulls the plug on video-streaming site Justin.tv". CNET. August 5, 2014. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Machovech, Sam (August 5, 2014). "Streaming video site Justin.tv announces closure effective immediately". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Popper, Ben (August 5, 2014). "Justin.tv, the live video pioneer that birthed Twitch, officially shuts down". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- "Twitch is dropping its 'save forever' feature, but users can still archive highlight clips". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- "Update: Changes To VODs On Twitch". Twitch official blog. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- "Amazon Pounces on Twitch After Google Balks Due To Antitrust Concerns". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
- "Amazon.com SEC filing". September 25, 2014. Archived from the original on December 7, 2014. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
- "Take-Two made $22M on its investment in gameplay livestreaming king Twitch". October 29, 2014. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- "Twitch brings in a team of executives to oversee deployment of new features". January 17, 2018. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
- "Why it makes sense for Amazon to buy Twitch". The Verge. August 25, 2014. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
- "Twitch to Acquire GoodGame Agency". Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- Te, Zorine (December 9, 2014). "Twitch Acquires Evil Geniuses' Agency GoodGame". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on December 30, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- "'Some' Twitch user accounts possibly accessed in hack". CNET. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- "Twitch Adds Microtransactions to Cheer in Chat". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on April 20, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- "Twitch to acquire Curse". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Wolf, Jacob. "Evil Geniuses and Alliance become player-owned organizations". ESPN. Archived from the original on December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- Statt, Nick (September 30, 2016). "Twitch will be ad-free for all Amazon Prime subscribers". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 1, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Cyre, Clayton (May 28, 2020). "TWITCH PRIME GETTING MORE GAMES AND LOOT IN JUNE". COGconnected.
- "Twitch introduces a new automated moderation tool to make chat friendlier". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on April 21, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- McCormick, Rich (February 27, 2017). "Twitch will start selling games and giving its streamers a cut". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- Barrett, Ben (February 27, 2017). "Twitch Commerce will sell games and DLC from streamer pages with 5% going to broadcasters". PCGamesN. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- Sarah Perez (March 28, 2017). "Twitch will sell video games on its site starting this spring". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on March 30, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- Bryant, Jacob (June 20, 2017). "Twitch and Blizzard Announce Two-Year Worldwide Collaboration". Variety. Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
- Arif, Shabana (April 5, 2018). "Overwatch League All-Access Pass Includes Twitch Emotes, in-Game Skins, and More for $30". IGN. Archived from the original on February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- "At The Last Minute, Blizzard Strikes Overwatch League Deal With Twitch". GameSpot. May 23, 2018. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- Perez, Sarah. "Twitch acquired video indexing platform ClipMine to power new discovery features". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
- "Twitch Prime members will lose ad-free viewing next month". The Verge. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- "Twitch announces group streaming and a karaoke game for its 1M concurrent viewers". TechCrunch. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- "Twitch Game Store is Shutting Down After November 27". GameRevolution. November 16, 2018. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- Kerr, Chris (September 18, 2019). "Twitch acquires IGDB to bolster search and discoverability capabilities". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on September 21, 2019. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
- Stephen, Bijan (September 26, 2019). "Eight years after its launch, Twitch is getting a slightly new look". The Verge. Archived from the original on September 26, 2019. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- Stephen, Bijan (December 10, 2019). "Twitch just locked down top streamers DrLupo, TimTheTatman, and Lirik". The Verge.
- Shanley, Patrick (March 12, 2020). "Streamer Dr Disrespect Signs Multiyear Deal to Stay on Twitch". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Grayson, Nathan (May 14, 2020). "Twitch's New 'Safety Advisory Council' To Focus On Work-Life Balance, Protecting Marginalized Groups". Kotaku. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Grayson, Nathan (May 19, 2020). "Twitch's Safety Advisory Council Rollout Has Been A Disaster". Kotaku. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Miller, Patrick (October 31, 2011). "Twitch.tv Releases iPhone App, Feeds Your Addiction". PC World. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
- Sebastian Haley (February 5, 2013). "Can live speedruns compete with e-sports? (interview)". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- "CBS Interactive Expands into eSports Category With Exclusive Live Gaming Video and League Partnerships". PR Newswire. April 17, 2012. Archived from the original on May 7, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Leading gaming content on Twitch worldwide in June 2018, by number of hours viewed | Statistic". Statista. Archived from the original on March 10, 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- "Ninja announces he is leaving Twitch to stream exclusively on Mixer". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- Alexander, Julia (August 1, 2019). "What is Mixer, Ninja's new exclusive streaming home?". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- Roettgers, Janko (August 1, 2019). "Ninja Is Ditching Amazon's Twitch for Microsoft's Mixer". Variety. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- "Twitch to stream Video Games Live concert from Comic-Con". Polygon. Archived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "Twitch tries out live concerts with free house music performance tonight". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "DJ Steve Aoki to star in Twitch's first live concert tonight". CNET. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "Twitch starts streaming live music today". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "Twitch adds a music section, free tracks to make up for copyright crackdown". PC World. Archived from the original on January 16, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "The Ultra Music Festival will be broadcast live on Twitch". The Verge. Archived from the original on March 25, 2015. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Twitch launches "Creative" category, eight-day Bob Ross Painting marathon". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on October 30, 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
- "Why eating and gaming is a thing on Twitch". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- "Games Are Taking A Back Seat To Players On Video Game Streaming Sites". March 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
- "Tune in to the 'Mister Rogers' Neighborhood' marathon on Twitch". mashable.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
- Ernie Smith (January 13, 2015). "How Gaming Gurus Reinvented Telethons for the Web". Association Now. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
- Jeffrey Grubb (October 31, 2013). "Livestreaming community on Twitch has raised $8 million for charity; plans to raise more this weekend". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on December 28, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- Schroeder, Andrew (July 20, 2017). "2017 Charity Update: Twitch community gives back at record pace!". Twitch Blog (Medium).
- Wolf, Jacob (December 13, 2017). "NBA to broadcast G League games on Twitch". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
- McWhertor, Michael (April 26, 2018). "NFL games are coming to Twitch". Polygon.com. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Decker, Kyle (January 6, 2019). "Impact's weekly program will be simulcast on Twitch as it airs on the Pursuit channel". Cageside Seats. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
- Clinton, Jared (September 5, 2019). "NWHL signs three-year streaming deal with Twitch, receives broadcasting rights fee". The Hockey News. Archived from the original on September 5, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
- Alexander, Julia (March 11, 2020). "Amazon continues push into sports with National Women's Soccer League on Twitch". The Verge. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- "NWSL Inks Multi-Year Deal With CBS Sports, Twitch". Sports Video Group. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Community, The. "Twitch Emotes – Bringing a little Kappa to you everyday". twitchemotes.com. Archived from the original on October 25, 2017. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- Goldenberg, David (October 21, 2015). "How Kappa Became The Face Of Twitch". FiveThirtyEight. Archived from the original on October 26, 2017. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- StreamElements. "Chat stats". StreamElements. Archived from the original on April 8, 2018. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
- "Subscriber Emoticon Tiers". Twitch Help. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017.
- "Twitch Mimics YouTube, Begins Automatically Muting Videos With Copyrighted Audio". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on August 10, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- "Twitch Will Mute Copyrighted Music in On-Demand Videos". Re/code. August 6, 2014. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "Twitch CEO apologizes for how new policies rolled out, says improvements are coming". Engadget. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "Under Fire, Twitch CEO Says "We Screwed Up" Policy Announcement". Re/code. August 7, 2014. Archived from the original on August 10, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- Murray Stassen (June 8, 2020). "TWITCH USERS FACE POTENTIAL CHANNEL BANS FOLLOWING PLATFORM'S 'SUDDEN INFLUX OF DMCA MUSIC TAKEDOWN REQUESTS'". Music Business Worldwide. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Nathan Grayson (June 8, 2020). "After Massive DMCA Takedown, Twitch Streamers Are Deleting Thousands Of Clips". Kotaku. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Fraser Brown (June 8, 2020). "Twitch has been hit by a wave of copyright claims over old clips". PC Gamer. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- "Twitch pulls the plug on CS:GO gambling broadcasts". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "Twitch bans Adults Only-rated games from streaming". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on May 28, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
- "List of prohibited games". Twitch Help Center. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- "Yandere Simulator banned from Twitch streaming". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- "Shower simulator Rinse and Repeat makes the Twitch shortlist for banned games". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on February 11, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- "Yandere Simulator Dev Says Twitch Hasn't Told Him Why His Game Was Banned". Kotaku. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- Marshall, Cass (May 27, 2019). "Twitch's Artifact section has become a waking nightmare". Polygon. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
- Alexander, Julia (May 28, 2019). "Twitch is temporarily suspending new creators from streaming after troll attack". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 28, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
- Burnson, Robert (June 15, 2019). "Twitch Sues Troll Streamers Over Violent Videos, Pornography". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Kim, Matt (June 19, 2019). "Twitch Lawsuit Blames Artifact Porn Streams for Permanently Pushing Users Off the Platform". USGamer. Archived from the original on June 19, 2019. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
- LeFebvre, Rob (February 8, 2018). "Twitch updates policies on hate speech, harassment and sexual content". Engadget. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- Rosenblatt, Kalhan (June 23, 2020). "Video game streaming platforms investigating allegations of sexual harassment". NBC News. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- Beresford, Trilby (June 24, 2020). "Amid Twitch Blackout, Calls Grow for Game Industry Culture Change". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Lawler, Richard (June 24, 2020). "Twitch responds to sexual abuse accusations, bans several streamers". Engadget. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Fung, Brian (June 29, 2020). "Twitch suspends Trump campaign account". CNN. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- Twitch is now blocked in China Archived October 2, 2018, at the Wayback Machine – Shannon Liao, The Verge, September 20, 2018
- Tassi, Paul (July 27, 2011). "JustinTV Lets Gamers Earn Cash with New Twitch Partner Service". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 25, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Grubb, Jeff (August 27, 2015). "Twitch's partner contracts will keep most livestreamers from also using YouTube Gaming". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "How exactly do Twitch streamers make a living? Destiny breaks it down". Dot Esports. Archived from the original on May 8, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- Twitch (2014). "Twitch Partner Signup". Twitch. Archived from the original on April 4, 2014.
- Twitch. "Customer Support". Twitch Help. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- Engadget. "Twitch shows how close you are to becoming a paid streamer". Engadget. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- Fontaine, Robin (April 24, 2017). "Twitch Affiliate Program launches today! First invites going out…". Twitch Blog. Archived from the original on July 28, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- "Twitch's new subscription model will let fans pay streamers significantly more money". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on April 20, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- "Details on joining the Affiliate program". Twitch. April 24, 2017. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
- "Keep your eyes peeled for Sub buttons!". Twitch. June 27, 2017.
- "TwitchCon Day 1: All the News from the Opening Ceremony". Twitch Blog. September 27, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
- John Gaudiosi (September 9, 2011). "StarCraft II Pro Gamer Steven "Destiny" Bonnell Explains How TwitchTV Is Changing the Game". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- "CBS INTERACTIVE EXPANDS INTO ESPORTS CATEGORY WITH EXCLUSIVE LIVE GAMING VIDEO AND LEAGUE PARTNERSHIPS". Major League Gaming. April 17, 2012. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
- "TwitchTV Launches iPad and Android Apps; Expands Mobile Market Presence for Live Video Game Streaming Movement" (Press release). Business Wire. April 12, 2012. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Stephanie Mlot (May 14, 2013). "Twitch TV App Launches on Xbox 360". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- "Xbox at E3 2013: everything you need to know". The Verge. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Mike Futter (November 11, 2013). "Twitch on PlayStation 4 Makes Brilliant Innovations". GameInformer. Archived from the original on January 12, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Jeffrey Grubb (November 7, 2012). "Origin gets video broadcasting in next update". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Brett Makedonski (September 19, 2013). "New version of Uplay features Twitch integration". Destructoid. Archived from the original on January 31, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Jenna Pitcher (July 5, 2013). "Steam accounts now link with Twitch". Polygon. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Joshua Derocher (December 11, 2013). "EVE Online adds Twitch integration". Destructoid. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Jeffrey Grubb (June 17, 2013). "Twitch blazing a path to livestreaming ubiquity with its updated SDK (interview)". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- "Twitch to relaunch Curse, acquired last year, as the more social Twitch Desktop App". TechCrunch. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- Petrocelli, Brian (August 10, 2017). "The new Twitch Desktop App is here". Twitch Blog. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- Shieber, Jonathan. "In-game app-development platform Overwolf acquires CurseForge assets from Twitch to get into mods". TechCrunch. Verizon Media. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- Tov-Ly, Gil. "A new home for CurseForge". Overwolf. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- "TwitchCon 2015: What it is, and what to watch". Polygon. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- Sarkar, Samit (February 18, 2016). "TwitchCon 2016 announced, coming to San Diego this September". polygon. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017.
- Sarkar, Samit (January 10, 2017). "TwitchCon 2017 announced for late October". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017.
- Lumb, David (February 28, 2018). "TwitchCon returns to the Bay Area on October 26th". Engadget. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- Crecente, Brian; Crecente, Brian (November 21, 2018). "TwitchCon Expands to Europe in 2019". Variety. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
- Vincent, Brittany; Vincent, Brittany (February 20, 2019). "TwitchCon 2019 Returns To San Diego Convention Center With Fifth Annual Event". Variety. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
- Hitt, Kevin (March 6, 2020). "Twitch Cancels TwitchCon Amsterdam Event Amid Coronavirus Concerns". The Esports Observer. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
- "Twitch announces TwitchCon 2020 dates and locations". Shacknews. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
- Trumbore, Dave (June 19, 2020). "TwitchCon 2020 San Diego Event Officially Cancelled". Retrieved June 19, 2020.
- Payne, Katherine; Keith, Mark J.; Schuetzler, Ryan M.; Giboney, Justin Scott (December 2017). "Examining the learning effects of live streaming video game instruction over Twitch". Computers in Human Behavior. 77: 95–109. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2017.08.029.