John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair KT GCMG GCVO PC (3 August 1847 – 7 March 1934), known as The Earl of Aberdeen from 1870 to 1916, was a Scottish politician. Born in Edinburgh, Hamilton-Gordon held office in several countries, serving twice as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1886; 1905–1915) and serving from 1893 to 1898 as the seventh Governor General of Canada.
Early and personal life
Aberdeen was born in Edinburgh to George Hamilton-Gordon, 5th Earl of Aberdeen and his wife, Mary Baillie, daughter of George Baillie and sister to George Baillie-Hamilton, 10th Earl of Haddington. He studied at the University of St Andrews and University College, Oxford. He succeeded as 7th Earl of Aberdeen following the death of his eldest brother, George, 6th Earl of Aberdeen.
In 1877 he married Ishbel Maria Marjoribanks, daughter to Dudley Marjoribanks, later 1st Baron Tweedmouth, and Isabella Weir-Hogg. It seems that their marriage was a love match as they were long time friends and Ishbel developed a crush on Hamilton-Gordon at just 14. Lady Aberdeen was an LL.D. of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. She served as President of the International Council of Women from 1893–99, and later founded the National Council of Women of Canada and the Victorian Order of Nurses.
They had five children:
- George (1879–1965), succeeded as 2nd Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
- Marjorie Adeline (1880–1970), married John Sinclair, later 1st Lord Pentland
- Dorothea (March – November 1882)
- Dudley Gladstone (1883–1972), succeeded his brother as 3rd Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
- Archibald Ian (1884–1909), was the lover of Lady Desborough
Aberdeen entered the House of Lords following his succession to his brother's earldom. A Liberal, he was present for William Ewart Gladstone's first Midlothian campaign at Lord Rosebery's house in 1879. He became Lord Lieutenant of Aberdeenshire in 1880, served as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland from 1881 to 1885 (he held the position again in 1915), and was briefly appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1886. He became a Privy Counsellor in the same year. In 1884, he hosted a dinner at Haddo House honouring William Ewart Gladstone on his tour of Scotland. The occasion was captured by the painter Alfred Edward Emslie; the painting is now in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, London, given by the Marquess’ daughter, Marjorie Sinclair, Baroness Pentland, in 1953.
He served as Governor General of Canada from 1893 to 1898 during a period of political transition. He travelled extensively throughout the country and is described as having "transformed the role of Governor General from that of the aristocrat representing the King or Queen in Canada to a symbol representing the interests of all citizens". In 1891, he bought the Coldstream Ranch in the northern Okanagan Valley in British Columbia and launched the first commercial orchard operations in that region, which gave birth to an industry and settlement colony as other Britons emigrated to the region because of his prestige and bought into the orcharding lifestyle. The ranch is today part of the municipality of Coldstream, and various placenames in the area commemorate him and his family, such as Aberdeen Lake and Haddo Creek.
He was again appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1905, and served until 1915. During his tenure he also served as Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews (1913–1916), was created a Knight Companion of the Order of the Thistle (1906), and was created a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (1911). Following his retirement, he was created Earl of Haddo, in the County of Aberdeen, and Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, in the County of Aberdeen, in the County of Meath and in the County of Argyll, in January 1916.
The Rocking Chair Ranche
From 1883 until 1896, he was also an owner of and investor in the Rocking Chair Ranche located in Collingsworth County, Texas, together with his father-in-law Dudley Coutts Marjoribanks, 1st Baron Tweedmouth and his brother-in-law Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth.
Styles and honours
- The Hon. John Hamilton-Gordon (1847–1870)
- The Rt Hon. The Earl of Aberdeen (1870–1886)
- The Rt Hon. The Earl of Aberdeen PC (1886–1893)
- His Excellency The Rt Hon. The Earl of Aberdeen PC (1893–1895)
- His Excellency The Rt Hon. The Earl of Aberdeen GCMG PC (1895–1898)
- The Rt Hon. The Earl of Aberdeen GCMG PC (1898–1906)
- The Rt Hon. The Earl of Aberdeen KT GCMG PC (1906–1911)
- The Rt Hon. The Earl of Aberdeen KT GCMG GCVO PC (1911–1916)
- The Most Hon. The Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair KT GCMG GCVO PC (1916–1934)
- Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 4
- Morgan, Henry James Types of Canadian women and of women who are or have been connected with Canada : (Toronto, 1903) 
- "Revelations of Ettie Desborough, an Edwardian A-lister". Mail OnLine. 8 August 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- The London Gazette: . 9 February 1886. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
- Emslie, Alfred Edward. "Dinner at Haddo House, 1884". National Portrait Gallery, London.
- "Former Governors General". Website of the Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
- Living Landscapes (Royal BC Museum) website, Ethnic Agricultural Labour in the Okanagan Valley: 1880s to 1960s, II. The Early British Settlers: 1860s - 1920s , Mario Lanthier & Lloyd L. Wong
- BCGNIS entry "Aberdeen Lake"
- BCGNIS entry "Coldstream (District Municipality"
- The London Gazette: . 25 May 1895. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
- The London Gazette: . 14 July 1911. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
- The London Gazette: . 4 January 1916. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
- "Alastrean House and sundial". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- Briggs, Caroline (4 September 2003). "RAF veteran care home to close". BBC News Online. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
- TSHA Online
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair.|
- Barbour, G. F. Barbour; Baird, Matthew Urie; rev. Matthew, H. C. G. (January 2008). "Gordon, John Campbell, first marquess of Aberdeen and Temair (1847–1934)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33464. Retrieved 28 March 2010. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
- Portraits of John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair at the National Portrait Gallery, London
- Portraits of Dame Ishbel Maria (née Marjoribanks), Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair at the National Portrait Gallery, London
The Earl of Kintore
|Lord Lieutenant of Aberdeenshire
The 2nd Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
The Earl of Carnarvon
|Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
The Marquess of Londonderry
The Lord Stanley of Preston
|Governor General of Canada
The Earl of Minto
The Earl of Dudley
|Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
The Lord Wimborne
The Earl of Rosebery
|Rector of the University of St Andrews
Sir Douglas Haig
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation||Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
|Earl of Aberdeen