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John Buchan

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The Lord Tweedsmuir
Buchan in 1935
15th Governor General of Canada
In office
2 November 1935 – 11 February 1940
Prime MinisterWilliam Lyon Mackenzie King
Preceded byThe Earl of Bessborough
Succeeded byThe Earl of Athlone
Personal details
John Buchan

(1875-08-26)26 August 1875
Perth, Scotland
Died11 February 1940(1940-02-11) (aged 64)
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Political partyScottish Unionist
(m. 1907)
Children4, including John, William and Alastair
RelativesO. Douglas (sister)
Alma mater
WebsiteJohn Buchan Society
Writing career
GenreAdventure fiction
Notable works

John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir GCMG GCVO CH PC DL (/ˈbʌxən/; 26 August 1875 – 11 February 1940) was a Scottish novelist, historian, and Unionist politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the 15th since Canadian Confederation.

As a youth, Buchan began writing poetry and prose, fiction and non-fiction, publishing his first novel in 1895 and ultimately writing over a hundred books of which the best known is The Thirty-Nine Steps. After attending Glasgow and Oxford universities, he practised as a barrister. In 1901, he served as a private secretary to Lord Milner in southern Africa towards the end of the Boer War. He returned to England in 1903, continued as a barrister and journalist. He left the Bar when he joined Thomas Nelson and Sons publishers in 1907. During the First World War, he was, among other activities, Director of Information in 1917 and later Head of Intelligence at the newly-formed Ministry of Information. He was elected Member of Parliament for the Combined Scottish Universities in 1927.

In 1935, King George V, on the advice of Canadian Prime Minister R. B. Bennett, appointed Buchan to succeed the Earl of Bessborough as Governor General of Canada and two months later raised him to the peerage as 1st Baron Tweedsmuir. He occupied the post until his death in 1940. Buchan promoted Canadian unity and helped strengthen the sovereignty of Canada constitutionally and culturally. He received a state funeral in Canada before his ashes were returned to the United Kingdom.

Early life and education[edit]

Buchan was born at today's 18–20 York Place, a double villa now named after him, in Perth, Scotland.[1] He was the first child of John Buchan – a Free Church of Scotland minister – and Helen Jane Buchan (née Masterton). He was brought up in Kirkcaldy, Fife, and spent many summer holidays with his maternal grandparents in Broughton in the Scottish Borders. There he developed a love for walking and for the local scenery and wildlife, both of which are often featured in his novels. The protagonist in several of his books is Sir Edward Leithen, whose name is borrowed from Leithen Water, a tributary of the River Tweed.

After the family moved to Glasgow, Buchan attended Hutchesons' Boys' Grammar School. He was awarded a scholarship to the University of Glasgow at age 17, where he studied classics as a student of Gilbert Murray, wrote poetry, and became a published author.[2] He moved on to study Literae Humaniores (the Classics) at Brasenose College, Oxford, with a Junior Hulme scholarship in 1895 and in his third year achieved a Senior Hulme scholarship, adding to his financial security.[3][4] At Oxford, he made many friends including Raymond Asquith, Aubrey Herbert and Tommy Nelson. Buchan won the Stanhope essay prize in 1897 and the Newdigate Prize for poetry the following year;[4] he was also elected as the president of the Oxford Union and had six of his works published, including a book of short stories (Grey Weather, 1899) and three of his first adventure novels (John Burnet of Barns, 1898; A Lost Lady of Old Years, 1899; The Half-Hearted, 1900)[5][6]

Buchan had his first portrait painted in 1900 by a young Sholto Johnstone Douglas at around the time of his graduation from Oxford.[7]

Author, journalist, war, and politics[edit]

After graduating from Oxford, Buchan read for and was called to the Bar in June 1901.[8] In September 1901 he travelled to South Africa to become a private secretary to Alfred Milner, who was then the High Commissioner for Southern Africa, Governor of Cape Colony, and colonial administrator of Transvaal and the Orange River Colony, making Buchan an early member of Milner's Kindergarten. He also gained an acquaintance with a country that would feature prominently in his writing, which he resumed, along with his career as a barrister, upon his return to London in 1903. In 1905, he published a legal book, The Law Relating to the Taxation of Foreign Incomehttps://search.law.villanova.edu/Record/197978. In December 1906, he joined the Thomas Nelson & Sons' publishing company and was also a deputy editor of The Spectator.[9] On 15 July 1907, Buchan married Susan Charlotte Grosvenor—daughter of the Hon. Norman Grosvenor, a son of the 1st Lord Ebury, and a cousin of the Duke of Westminster. Together, Buchan and his wife had four children, Alice, John, William, and Alastair.

In 1910, Buchan wrote Prester John, set in South Africa, another of his adventure novels. He began to suffer from duodenal ulcers, a condition that later afflicted one of his fictional characters, about the same time that he ventured into politics and was adopted as Unionist candidate in March 1911 for the Scottish Borders seat of Peebles and Selkirk. He supported some Liberal causes, such as free trade, women's suffrage, national insurance, and curtailing the powers of the House of Lords.[10] But he did not support Home Rule in Ireland and what he considered the class hatred fostered by Liberal politicians such as David Lloyd George.[11]

With the outbreak of the First World War, Buchan began writing a history of the war for Nelson's, the publishers, which was to extend to 24 volumes by the end of the war. He worked in the Foreign Office, and for a time was a war correspondent in France for The Times in 1915. In that same year, his most famous novel, The Thirty-Nine Steps, a spy-thriller set just prior to the First World War, was published. The novel featured Buchan's oft-used hero, Richard Hannay, whose character was partly based on Edmund Ironside, a friend of Buchan from his days in South Africa. A sequel, Greenmantle, came the following year. In June 1916 Buchan was sent out to the Western Front to be attached to the British Army's General Headquarters Intelligence Section, to assist with drafting official communiques for the press. On arrival he received a field-commission as a second lieutenant in the Intelligence Corps.[12]

Recognised for his abilities, the War Cabinet, under David Lloyd George, appointed him Director of Information in 1917, essentially leading Britain's propaganda effort. In early 1918, Buchan was made head of a Department of Intelligence within a new Ministry of Information under Lord Beaverbrook.[13] Throughout the war, he continued writing volumes of the History of the War. It was difficult for him, given his close connections to many of Britain's military leaders, not to mention the government, to be critical of the British Army's conduct during the conflict[14] but nonetheless did so in certain instances, being critical of government, politics or statements, or disagreeing with statistics. [15] Buchan could enter comment on political events. He complimented Winston Churchill's "services to the nation at the outbreak of war for which his countrymen can never be sufficiently grateful ... but he was usually selected to be blamed for decisions for which his colleagues were not less responsible."[16]

At one point, Beaverbrook had requested that Buchan meet with journalist and neo-Jacobite Herbert Vivian and admitted to Vivian that he had been a Jacobite sympathiser.[17] Buchan was in fact ambivalent about the Jacobite cause but he did write romances about that adventurous period, for example, A Lost Lady of Old Years (1899), A Book of Escapes and Hurried Journeys (1922) and Midwinter (1923).

Following the close of the war, Buchan turned his attention to writing on historical subjects, along with his usual thrillers and novels. He moved to Elsfield, Oxfordshire in 1920 and had become president of the Scottish Historical Society and a trustee of the National Library of Scotland,[13] and he also maintained ties with various universities. Robert Graves, who lived in nearby Islip, mentioned his being recommended by Buchan for a lecturing position at the newly founded Cairo University. In a 1927 by-election, Buchan was elected as the Unionist Party Member of Parliament for the Combined Scottish Universities. Politically, he was of the Unionist-Nationalist tradition, believing in Scotland's promotion as a nation within the British Empire but also as a constituent of the United Kingdom."[18] The effects of the Great Depression in Scotland, and the subsequent high emigration from that country, also led him to reflect in the same speech: "We do not want to be like the Greeks, powerful and prosperous wherever we settle, but with a dead Greece behind us".[19] He found himself profoundly affected by John Morley's Life of Gladstone, which Buchan read in the early months of the Second World War. He believed that Gladstone had taught people to combat materialism, complacency, and authoritarianism; Buchan later wrote to Herbert Fisher, Stair Gillon, and Gilbert Murray that he was "becoming a Gladstonian Liberal."[20]

After the United Free Church of Scotland joined in 1929 with the Church of Scotland, Buchan remained an active elder of St Columba's Church, London. In 1933 and 1934, Buchan was further appointed as King George V's Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.

Beginning in 1930, Buchan aligned himself with Zionism.[21] He was active and vocal in Parliament in condemning the treatment of Jews in Germany.[22] To a mass demonstration organized by the Jewish National Fund in 1934, Buchan described Zionism as "a great act of justice ... a reparation for the centuries of cruelty and wrong which have stained the record of nearly every Gentile people."[23] He was a friend of Chaim Weizmann and assisted him to keep alive Britain's commitment to a Jewish state.[24][25][26] Despite this, Buchan was later described by Anthony Storr as being "overtly antisemitic".[27] This is, however, a claim that does not hold up amidst the evidence of Buchan's active support to and friendship with Jews and supporting the establishment of a Jewish homeland. As Ursula Buchan notes in her biography, the charge of anti-Semitism is almost entirely as a result of some unfavourable comments made by fictional characters, mostly to be found in the Hannay books.[28] In The Thirty-Nine Steps, for example, the anti-Semitic comments of the murdered freelance spy, Scudder, are called 'eyewash' by Hannay and proved to be totally wrong by later events. She cautions, "it is important to avoid anachronism", that is, "[r]acial and national stereotyping, favourable and unfavourable, was commonplace throughout all society" so "it is hardly surprising that characters in JB's novels should engage in it", reflecting that society.[29] As a supporter of the Jewish people and a homeland, Buchan's name was inscribed in the Golden Book of the Jewish National Fund of Israel.[30] His name was also in a Nazi publication, "Who's Who in Britain" (Frankfurt, 1938), reading "Tweedsmuir, Lord: Pro-Jewish activity.[31] In one history of the Jewish experience in Canada, Buchan, as Governor-General Lord Tweedsmuir, is described as the "most visible supporter" of the Jews.[32] Both Tweedsmuir and his wife Susan "spoke publicly in favour of Zionism, lending the cachet of the Crown" to the cause of a Jewish homeland.[33] Susan Tweedsmuir's name was also entered into the Golden Book.[34]

In recognition of his contributions to literature and education, on 1 January 1932, Buchan was granted the personal gift of the sovereign of induction into the Order of the Companions of Honour.[35]

In 1935, Buchan's literary work was adapted for the cinema with the release of Alfred Hitchcock's The 39 Steps, starring Robert Donat as Richard Hannay, although Buchan's story was much altered. This came in the same year that Buchan was honoured with appointment to the Order of St Michael and St George on 23 May,[36] as well as being elevated to the peerage, when he was ennobled by King George V as Baron Tweedsmuir, of Elsfield in the County of Oxford on 1 June.[37] This had been done in preparation for Buchan's appointment as Canada's governor general; when consulted by Canadian prime minister R. B. Bennett about the appointment, the Leader of His Majesty's Loyal Opposition, William Lyon Mackenzie King, recommended that the King allow Buchan to serve as a commoner,[38] but George V insisted that he be represented by a peer.

Buchan's name had been earlier put forward by Mackenzie King to George V as a candidate for the governor generalcy: Buchan and his wife had been guests of Mackenzie King's at his estate, Kingsmere, in 1924 and Mackenzie King, who at that time was prime minister, was impressed with Buchan, stating, "I know no man I would rather have as a friend, a beautiful, noble soul, kindly & generous in thought & word & act, informed as few men in this world have ever been, modest, humble, true, man after God's own heart." One evening in the following year, the Prime Minister mentioned to Governor General the Lord Byng of Vimy that Buchan would be a suitable successor to Byng, with which the Governor General agreed, the two being friends. Word of this reached the British Cabinet, and Buchan was approached, but he was reluctant to take the posting; Byng had been writing to Buchan about the constitutional dispute that took place in June 1926 and spoke disparagingly of Mackenzie King.[39]

Governor General of Canada[edit]

Mackenzie King delivers an address at the installation of Lord Tweedsmuir as Governor General of Canada, 2 November 1935
The Lord Tweedsmuir in Native headdress, photo portrait by Yousuf Karsh, 1937

On 27 March 1935, Sir George Halsey Perley announced in the Canadian Parliament (in place of the ailing Bennett, who had recommended Buchan for the governor generalship) that the King "has been graciously pleased to approve the appointment of Mr. John Buchan" as the viceregal representative.[40] The King approved the appointment,[41] made by commission under the royal sign-manual and signet. Buchan then departed for Canada and was sworn in as the country's governor general in a ceremony on 2 November 1935 in the Legislative Council of Quebec (salon rouge) of the parliament buildings of Quebec.

By the time Buchan arrived in Canada, William Lyon Mackenzie King had been sworn in as Prime Minister after the Liberal Party won the federal election held the previous month. Buchan was the first viceroy of Canada appointed since the enactment of the Statute of Westminster on 11 December 1931, and was thus the first to have been decided on solely by the monarch of Canada in his Canadian council.

Buchan brought to the post a longstanding knowledge of Canada. He had written many appreciative words about the country as a journalist on The Spectator and had followed the actions of the Canadian forces in the First World War when writing his Nelson History of the War, helped by talks with Julian Byng, before first visiting Canada in 1924.[42] His knowledge and interest in increasing public awareness and accessibility to Canada's past resulted in Buchan being made the Champlain Society's second honorary president between 1938 and 1939.[43] Buchan continued writing during his time as governor general, but he also took his position as viceroy seriously, and from the outset made it his goal to travel the length and breadth of Canada, including to the Arctic regions,[44] to promote Canadian unity. He said of his job: "a Governor General is in a unique position for it is his duty to know the whole of Canada and all the various types of her people."

Buchan also encouraged a distinct Canadian identity and national unity, despite the ongoing Great Depression and the difficulty it caused for the population.[13] Not all Canadians shared Buchan's views; he aroused the ire of imperialists when he said in Montreal in 1937: "a Canadian's first loyalty is not to the British Commonwealth of Nations, but to Canada and Canada's King,"[45] a statement that the Montreal Gazette dubbed as "disloyal."[46] Buchan maintained and recited his idea that ethnic groups "should retain their individuality and each make its contribution to the national character" and "the strongest nations are those that are made up of different racial elements."[47]

George V died in late January 1936, and his eldest son, the popular Prince Edward, succeeded to the throne as Edward VIII. Rideau Hall—the royal and viceroyal residence in Ottawa—was decked in black crepe and all formal entertaining was cancelled during the official period of mourning. As the year unfolded, it became evident that the new king planned to marry American divorcée Wallis Simpson, which caused much discontent throughout the Dominions. Buchan conveyed to Buckingham Palace and British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin Canadians' deep affection for the King, but also the outrage to Canadian religious feelings, both Catholic and Protestant, that would occur if Edward married Simpson.[48] By 11 December, King Edward had abdicated in favour of his younger brother, Prince Albert, Duke of York, who was thereafter known as George VI. In order for the line of succession for Canada to remain parallel to those of the other Dominions, Buchan, as Governor-in-Council, gave the government's consent to the British legislation formalising the abdication, and ratified this with finality when he granted Royal Assent to the Canadian Succession to the Throne Act in 1937.[49] Upon receiving news from Mackenzie King of Edward's decision to abdicate, Tweedsmuir commented that, in his year in Canada as governor general, he had represented three kings.[50]

In May and June 1939, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth toured Canada from coast to coast and paid a state visit to the United States. Buchan had conceived the royal tour before the coronation in 1937; according to the official event historian, Gustave Lanctot, the idea "probably grew out of the knowledge that at his coming Coronation, George VI was to assume the additional title of King of Canada," and Buchan desired to demonstrate vividly Canada's status as an independent kingdom[51] by allowing Canadians to see "their King performing royal functions, supported by his Canadian ministers." Buchan put great effort into securing a positive response from the King to the invitation in May 1937; after more than a year without a reply, in June 1938 Buchan headed to the United Kingdom for a personal holiday, but also to procure a decision on the possible royal tour. From his home near Oxford, Buchan wrote to Mackenzie King: "The important question for me is, of course, the King's visit to Canada." After a period of convalescence at Ruthin Castle, Buchan sailed back to Canada in October with a secured commitment that the royal couple would tour the country. Though he had been a significant contributor to the organisation of the trip, Buchan retired to Rideau Hall for the duration of the royal tour; he expressed the view that while the King of Canada was present, "I cease to exist as Viceroy, and retain only a shadowy legal existence as Governor-General in Council."[51] In Canada itself, the royal couple took part in public events such as the opening of the Lions Gate Bridge in May 1939. The King appointed Tweedsmuir a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order while on the royal train, between Truro and Bedford, Nova Scotia.[52]

Another factor behind the tour was public relations: the presence of the royal couple in Canada and the United States was calculated to shore up sympathy for Britain in anticipation of hostilities with Nazi Germany. Buchan's experiences during the First World War made him averse to conflict, and he tried to help prevent another war in co-ordination with Mackenzie King and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Still, Buchan authorised Canada's declaration of war against Germany in September, shortly after the British declaration of war and with the consent of King George, and thereafter issued orders of deployment for Canadian soldiers, sailors, and airmen as the titular commander-in-chief of the Canadian armed forces.

Lord Tweedsmuir's grave in St Thomas's churchyard, Elsfield

On 6 February 1940, he slipped and struck his head on the edge of a bath,[53] suffering a severe head injury after suffering a stroke at Rideau Hall. Two surgeries by Doctor Wilder Penfield of the Montreal Neurological Institute were insufficient to save him, and his death on 11 February drew a radio eulogy by Mackenzie King: "In the passing of His Excellency, the people of Canada have lost one of the greatest and most revered of their Governors General, and a friend who, from the day of his arrival in this country, dedicated his life to their service." The Governor General had formed a strong bond with his prime minister, even if it may have been built more on political admiration than friendship: Mackenzie King appreciated Buchan's "sterling rectitude and disinterested purpose."[6]

After lying in state in the Senate chamber on Parliament Hill, Buchan was given a state funeral at St Andrew's Presbyterian Church in Ottawa. His ashes were returned to the UK aboard the cruiser HMS Orion for final burial at Elsfield, the village where he lived in Oxfordshire.[54]


In his last years, Buchan wrote his autobiography Memory Hold-the-Door, as well as works on the history of Canada. He and Lady Tweedsmuir established the first proper library at Rideau Hall, and he founded the Governor General's Literary Awards, which remain Canada's premier award for literature.[13] His grandchildren James and Perdita Buchan also became writers.

Buchan's 100 works include nearly 30 novels, seven collections of short stories, and biographies of Sir Walter Scott, Caesar Augustus, and Oliver Cromwell. He was awarded the 1928 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for his biography of the Marquess of Montrose,[55] but the most famous of his books were the spy thrillers, and it is for these that he is now best remembered. The "last Buchan" (as Graham Greene entitled his appreciative review) was the 1941 novel Sick Heart River (American title: Mountain Meadow), in which a dying protagonist confronts the questions of the meaning of life in the Canadian wilderness.

Tweedsmuir Provincial Park in British Columbia is now divided into Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park and Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area. It was created in 1938 to commemorate Buchan's 1937 visit to the Rainbow Range and other nearby areas by horseback and floatplane. He wrote in the foreword to a booklet published to commemorate his visit: "I have now travelled over most of Canada and have seen many wonderful things, but I have seen nothing more beautiful and more wonderful than the great park which British Columbia has done me the honour to call by my name".[56]

J.R.R. Tolkien admired Buchan's adventure stories; Buchan, along with other authors such as Sir H. Rider Haggard and William Morris, influenced Tolkien's own works.[57][58][59]

His granddaughter Ursula wrote a biography of him, Beyond the Thirty-Nine Steps: A Life of John Buchan (2019).[60]

In the 21st century, his writing has come under scrutiny for its attitudes towards race. For instance, Roger Kimball states: "One cannot read far into the commentary on Buchan, ... before encountering some stiff criticism of some of his attitudes and language. The criticism resolves into three main charges: Buchan was a colonialist, ... Buchan was a racist ... Buchan was an anti-Semite:..."[61] while an article in the Herald on Buchan's poem 'The Semitic Spirit speaks' concludes that it "is poisoned by prejudice".[62]


Viceregal styles of
the Lord Tweedsmuir
Reference styleHis Excellency the Right Honourable
Son Excellence le très honorable
Spoken styleYour Excellency
Votre Excellence
Ribbon bars of the Lord Tweedsmuir (incomplete)
Medals of John Buchan in the National Museum of Scotland
Foreign honours
Non-national honours

Honorary military appointments[edit]

Honorary degrees[edit]

Honorific eponyms[edit]

Geographic locations
Coat of arms of John Buchan
A sunflower Proper.
Azure a fess between three lions' heads erased Argent.
Dexter a stag Proper attired Or collared Gules sinister a falcon Proper jessed belled and beaked Or armed and collared Gules.
Non Inferiora Secutus (Not Following Meaner Things)[68]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Perth City Heritage Fund – Perth and Kinross Heritage Trust
  2. ^ Smith, Janet Adam, John Buchan, Rupert Hart-Davis, London, 1965, pp. 30-32
  3. ^ Smith, p. 41 and also Buchan, Ursula, Beyond The Thirty-Nine Steps, Bloomsbury, London, 2019, pp. 34 and 49
  4. ^ a b "Queen's University Archives > Exhibits > John Buchan > Oxford, 1895–1899: Scholar Gypsy". Queen's University. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  5. ^ Buchan, Ursula, pp. 57-58 and 61-62.
  6. ^ a b Hillmer, Norman. "Biography > Governors General of Canada > Buchan, John, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir". In Marsh, James H. (ed.). The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
  7. ^ Lee, Sidney, ed. (1950). The Dictionary of National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 113.
  8. ^ Smith, Chapter Four "Barrister and Journalist"
  9. ^ "Queen's University Archives > Exhibits > John Buchan > Home and Family". Queen's University. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  10. ^ Parry, J. P. (2002). "From the Thirty-Nine Articles to the Thirty-Nine Steps: reflections on the thought of John Buchan". In Bentley, Michael (ed.). Public and Private Doctrine: Essays in British History presented to Maurice Cowling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 226.
  11. ^ Parry 2002, p. 227
  12. ^ Charteris, John (1931) At G.H.Q., Cassell.
  13. ^ a b c d Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Governor General > Former Governors General > Lord Tweedsmuir of Elsfield". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  14. ^ Sanders, M. L. (1975). Culbert, David (ed.). "Wellington House and British Propaganda During the First World War". The Historical Journal. No. 18. London: Carfax Publishing. pp. 119–146. ISSN 0143-9685.
  15. ^ Buchan, John, Nelson's History of the War, Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., U.K., Vol. VII (pub’d Sept. 1915), Chapter LI (51), “The Political Situation: Britain and Italy”,(pp. 61-62). Buchan quotes a speech by the British Prime Minister in April 1915 saying a statement he read about a lack of munitions crippling Britain and its Allies had “not a word of truth in [it].” Buchan comments that, unfortunately, that statement “was literally true”. At pp. 57-60, Buchan critically analyses the British political system, its inadequacies and unpreparedness for war. He highlights: “a disinclination to tell the nation unpalatable truths” on the part of government and “ill-informed criticism in the press”; expenditure “on a lavish scale” and “much avoidable waste”; shortage of munitions and divided expert advice; casualty figures only announced in June 1915 that revealed deaths increased five-fold from Feb. to June 1915 “without any conspicuous success”. Vol. II (pub’d March 1915), p. 173. At a battle of the Marne, German dead were reported in France at 10,000 which Buchan states “is clearly an overstatement”.
  16. ^ Buchan, Nelson's History of the War, Vol. VII, p.63
  17. ^ Vivian, Herbert (1923). Myself not least, being the personal reminiscences of "X.". New York: H. Holt and Company. pp. 373–374.
  18. ^ "Debate on the Address". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 24 November 1932. col. 261.
  19. ^ "Debate on the Address". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 24 November 1932. col. 267.
  20. ^ Parry 2002, p. 234
  21. ^ Christopher Hitchens (March 2004). "Between Kipling and Fleming stands John Buchan, the father of the modern spy thriller". The Atlantic. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
  22. ^ Buchan, Ursula (2019). Beyond The Thirty-Nine Steps. London: Bloomsbury. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-4088-7081-5.
  23. ^ Buchan, Ursula (2019). Beyond The Thirty-Nine Steps. London: Bloomsbury. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-4088-7081-5.
  24. ^ Galbraith, J. William (2013). John Buchan: Model Governor General. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-1-4597-0937-9.
  25. ^ Weizmann, Chaim (1979). The Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann. Israel Universities Press. p. 320-321, Letter 285, Weizmann to Tweedsmuir/Buchan, February 22, 1938, Series A: Letters, Vol. 18.
  26. ^ Rose, Norman (1973). The Gentile Zionists. London: Frank Cass Ltd.
  27. ^ Anthony Storr (1997). Feet of Clay: A Study of Gurus. HarperCollins. p. 168.
  28. ^ Buchan, Ursula (2019). Beyond The Thirty-Nine Steps. London: Bloomsbury. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-4088-7081-5.
  29. ^ Buchan, Ursula (2019). Beyond The Thirty-Nine Steps. London: Bloomsbury. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-4088-7081-5.
  30. ^ Smith, Janet Adam (1965). John Buchan. London: Rupert Hart-Davis. p. 317.
  31. ^ Buchan, Ursula (2019). Beyond The Thirty-Nine Steps. London: Bloomsbury. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-4088-7081-5.
  32. ^ Brown, Michael (2001). "Zionism in the Pre-Statehood Years: The Canadian Response" in From Immigration to Integration: The Canadian Jewish Experience. Toronto: B'nai Brith Canada, Institute for International Affairs. pp. 121–134.
  33. ^ Brown, Michael (2001). "Zionism in the Pre-Statehood Years: The Canadian Response" in From Immigration to Integration: The Canadian Jewish Experience. Toronto: B'nai Brith Canada, Institute for International Affairs. pp. 121–134.
  34. ^ Galbraith, J. William (2013). John Buchan: Model Governor General. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-4597-0937-9.
  35. ^ "No. 33785". The London Gazette. 29 December 1931. p. 12.
  36. ^ "No. 34164". The London Gazette. 28 May 1935. p. 3443.
  37. ^ "No. 34167". The London Gazette. 4 June 1935. p. 3620.
  38. ^ Reynolds, Louise (2005). Mackenzie King: Friends & Lovers. Victoria: Trafford Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-4120-5985-5.
  39. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. 125
  40. ^ House of Commons (Canada) Debates, 27 March 1935, page 2144.
  41. ^ House of Commons (Canada) Debates, 27 March 1935, page 2144. Cited with other details in Galbraith, J. William, "John Buchan: Model Governor General", Dundurn, Toronto, 2013. p.19.
  42. ^ Smith, Janet Adam (1979). John Buchan and his world. Thames & Hudson. p. 89. ISBN 0-500-13067-1.
  43. ^ The Champlain Society. "Former Officer's of The Champlain Society (1905–2012)". Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  44. ^ The first governor-general to travel to the Canadian Arctic was Lord Byng (GG 1921-1926) in 1925. Cited in Galbraith, William, "The Literary Governor-General" in "The Literary Review of Canada", October 1996, page 19.
  45. ^ Smith, Janet Adam (1965). John Buchan: a Biography. Boston: Little Brown and Company. p. 423.
  46. ^ "Royal Visit". Time. Vol. IXX, no. 17. New York: Time Inc. 21 October 1957. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  47. ^ Saunders, Doug (27 June 2009). "Canada's mistaken identity". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  48. ^ Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-7735-0310-6.
  49. ^ Tony O'Donohue v. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the United Kingdom, 01-CV-217147CM, s. 34 (Ontario Superior Court of Justice 26 June 2006).
  50. ^ Library and Archives Canada (2007). "The Diaries of William Lyon Mackenzie King". Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 562. Archived from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  51. ^ a b c d Galbraith, William (1989). "Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit". Canadian Parliamentary Review. 12 (3). Ottawa: Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  52. ^ McCreery, Christopher (2008), On Her Majesty's Service: Royal Honours and Recognition in Canada, Toronto: Dundurn, p. 32, ISBN 9781459712249, retrieved 20 November 2015
  53. ^ John Buchan: Master of Suspense BBC4 2 June 2022
  54. ^ Biggs, Percy (28 August 1991). "Biggs, Percy Sydney (Oral history)". Imperial War Museums. Catalogue number 12211. Wood, Conrad (recorder). 23m57s. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  55. ^ Montrose – A History was a scholarly revision of The Marquis of Montrose, published in 1913.
  56. ^ Ministry of the Environment. "BC Parks > Find a Park > Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park > History". Queen's Printer for British Columbia. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
  57. ^ Resnick, Henry (1967). "An Interview with Tolkien". Niekas. pp. 37–47.
  58. ^ Lobdell, Jared C. (2004). The World of the Rings: Language, Religion, and Adventure in Tolkien. Open Court. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-0-8126-9569-4.
  59. ^ Rogers, William N. II; Underwood, Michael R. (2000). "Gagool and Gollum: Exemplars of Degeneration in King Solomon's Mines and The Hobbit". In Clark, George; Timmons, Daniel (eds.). J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth. Greenwood Press. pp. 121–132. ISBN 978-0-313-30845-1.
  60. ^ {{cite web %7c https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/beyond-the-thirtynine-steps-9781408870822/ %7c https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/was-there-no-end-to-his-talents/#comments-container %7c last1=Quinn |first1=Anthony |title=Beyond the Thirty-Nine Steps: A Life of John Buchan review – a man of no mystery |url=https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/may/05/beyond-the-thirty-nine-steps-a-life-of-john-buchan-ursula |website=The Observer |access-date=26 December 2019 |date=5 May 2019}}
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  62. ^ "First-degree racism and snobbery with violence". HeraldScotland. 25 March 1996. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Bell, John. "John Buchan: Adventurer on the Borderland". (Introduction to) John Buchan, The Far Islands and Other Tales of Fantasy. West Kingston, RI: Donald M. Grant, 1984, pp7–18
  • Brinckman, John, Down North: John Buchan and Margaret-Bourke on the Mackenzie ISBN 978-0-9879163-3-4
  • Buchan, Ursula. Beyond the Thirty-Nine Steps: A Life of John Buchan (Bloomsbury, 2019) ISBN 978-1-4088-7083-9
  • Daniell, David, The Interpreter's House: A Critical Assessment of John Buchan (Nelson, 1975) ISBN 0-17-146051-0
  • Galbraith, J. William, "John Buchan: Model Governor General" (Dundurn, Toronto, 2013) ISBN 978-1-45970-937-9
  • Lownie, Andrew, John Buchan: The Presbyterian Cavalier (David R. Godine Publisher, 2003) ISBN 1-56792-236-8
  • Macdonald, Kate, John Buchan: A Companion to the Mystery Fiction (McFarland & Company, 2009) ISBN 978-0-7864-3489-3
  • Macdonald, Kate (ed.), Reassessing John Buchan: Beyond 'The Thirty-Nine Steps' (Pickering & Chatto, 2009) ISBN 978-1-85196-998-2
  • Smith, Janet Adam, John Buchan: A Biography (1965) (Oxford University Press, reissue 1985) ISBN 0-19-281866-X
  • Waddell, Nathan, Modern John Buchan: A Critical Introduction (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009) ISBN 978-1-4438-1370-9

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by Governor General of Canada
Succeeded by
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Combined Scottish Universities
April 1927June 1935
With: George Berry to 1931
Dugald Cowan to 1934
Noel Skelton from 1931
George Morrison from 1934
Succeeded by
Academic offices
Preceded by Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh
Succeeded by
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New title Baron Tweedsmuir
3 June 1935 – 11 February 1940
Succeeded by