Mary Simon

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Mary Simon
ᒥᐊᓕ ᓴᐃᒪᓐ
Simon wearing a dark suit
Simon in 2022
30th Governor General of Canada
Assumed office
July 26, 2021
MonarchElizabeth II
Charles III
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byJulie Payette
13th President of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
In office
Preceded byJose Kusugak
Succeeded byTerry Audla
Canadian Ambassador to Denmark
In office
August 11, 1999 – January 15, 2002[1]
Prime MinisterJean Chrétien
Preceded byBrian Baker
Succeeded byAlfonso Gagliano
Canadian Ambassador for Circumpolar Affairs
In office
October 31, 1994 – January 19, 2004
Prime MinisterJean Chrétien
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byJack Anawak
Chair of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference
In office
Preceded byHans-Pavia Rosing
Succeeded byCaleb Pungowiyi
Personal details
Mary Jeannie May

(1947-08-21) August 21, 1947 (age 75)
Kangiqsualujjuaq, Quebec, Canada
Robert Otis
(m. 1967, divorced)
George Simon
(m. 1994)
RelativesJohnny May (brother)
ResidenceRideau Hall
EducationKuujjuaq Federal Day School
Fort Carson High School
  • Broadcaster
  • public servant
  • diplomat

Mary Jeannie May Simon CC CMM COM OQ CD FRCGS (in Inuktitut syllabics: ᒥᐊᓕ ᓴᐃᒪᓐ,[2] Inuktitut: Ningiukudluk;[a] born August 21, 1947) is a Canadian civil servant, diplomat, and former broadcaster who has served as the 30th governor general of Canada since July 26, 2021. Simon is Inuk, making her the first Indigenous person to hold the office.[b]

Simon was born in Kangiqsualujjuaq, Quebec. She briefly worked as a producer and announcer for the CBC Northern Service in the 1970s before entering public service, serving on the board of the Northern Quebec Inuit Association and playing a key role in the Charlottetown Accord negotiations. Simon was Canada's first ambassador for circumpolar affairs from 1994 to 2004, as well as a lead negotiator for the creation of the Arctic Council.[4] She also served as the Canadian ambassador to Denmark from 1999 to 2002.

On July 6, 2021, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that Queen Elizabeth II had approved the appointment of Simon as the next governor general of Canada.[5]

Early life and education[edit]

Simon was born Mary Jeannie May[6] on August 21, 1947,[7] in Kangiqsualujjuaq, Quebec,[8] to Bob May, who was from Manitoba and of English descent,[9] and his wife Nancy, an Inuk.[10][11] Her father had relocated to the north in his youth[12] and became manager of the local Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) store during the early 1950s.[11][13] He says he was the first white employee to marry an Inuk, which the HBC banned at the time.[14]

Simon was raised in a traditional Inuit lifestyle, including hunting, fishing, sewing Inuit clothing, and travelling by dog sled.[6][15] She credits her mother and maternal grandmother Jeannie Angnatuk for passing on Inuit oral history to her.[6][10]

Simon attended Kuujjuaq Federal Day School in Kuujjuaq (formerly Fort Chimo),[16] then Fort Carson High School in Colorado, and completed her high school via correspondence in Kuujjuaq.[citation needed]


Early career[edit]

Simon taught Inuktitut at McGill University.[17] From 1969 to 1973, she worked as a producer and announcer for the CBC Northern Service.[18]

Simon began her career as a public servant by being elected secretary of the board of directors of the Northern Quebec Inuit Association. In 1978, she was elected as vice-president, and later president, of the Makivik Corporation. She held the position until 1985.

During this period she also became involved with Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Canada's national Inuit organization.[19] Simon was one of the senior Inuit negotiators during the repatriation of the Canadian Constitution, the First Ministers' conferences that took place from 1982 to 1992, as well as the 1992 Charlottetown Accord discussions.

She served as a member of the Nunavut Implementation Commission and as co-director (policy) and secretary to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.[19]

Diplomatic career[edit]

She took on a variety of roles for the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC). First as an Executive Council member from 1980 to 1983, as president from 1986 to 1992, and then as Special Envoy from 1992 to 1994.[19] During this period she assisted in obtaining approval from the Russian government to allow the Inuit of the Chukotka Peninsula to participate in ICC. In 1986, as president of the ICC, Simon led a delegation of Canadian, Alaskan, and Greenland Inuit to Moscow and then to Chukotka to meet with Russian officials as well as the Inuit of the far east of Russia. In 1987 the ICC was successful in efforts that resulted in the Russian government allowing Russian Inuit to attend the 1989 ICC General Assembly held in Alaska.


In 1994, Simon was appointed by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien to be Canadian Ambassador for Circumpolar Affairs,[20] a newly created position she held until early 2004.[21] Acting on instructions from the Government of Canada she took the lead role in negotiating the creation of an eight-country council known today as the Arctic Council. The 1996 Ottawa Declaration formally established the Arctic Council which includes the active participation of the indigenous peoples of the circumpolar world. During her chairmanship of the Arctic Council, and later as Canada's Senior Arctic Official, she worked closely with the Indigenous Permanent Participants of the Arctic Council, and the seven other Arctic Countries it comprises.

During this time period, she also held the position of Canadian Ambassador to Denmark[22] (1999–2002),[23] was a member of the Joint Public Advisory Committee of the Commission on Environmental Cooperation (1997–2000) and held the chairperson position for the commission from 1997 to 1998, and was appointed Councillor for the International Council for Conflict Resolution with the Carter Center in 2001.

Post-diplomatic work[edit]

From November 2004 to February 2005, she assisted with the facilitation and write-up of reports on the "Sectoral Follow-up Sessions" announced by Prime Minister Paul Martin following the April 19, 2004 Canada-Aboriginal Peoples Roundtable on Strengthening the Relationship on Health, Life Long learning, Housing, Economic Opportunities, Negotiations, and Accountability for Results.[citation needed] From June 2004 to June 2007, Simon was a board member at the International Institute for Sustainable Development.[24][25]

From 2004 to 2005, Simon was special advisor to the Labrador Inuit Association on the Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement, and she was elected president of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami on July 7, 2006.[26]

In 2010, Simon was reported to be under consideration for Governor General of Canada.[27] David Johnston was ultimately appointed.[28]

Governor General of Canada[edit]


Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announcing Mary Simon as the 30th governor general of Canada, 2021

The federal government began a search for a permanent replacement for Governor General Julie Payette following her resignation in early 2021. Simon was reported as a leading contender for the post early on, given her Indigenous heritage and then-political consciousness on Indigenous reconciliation. On July 6, 2021 Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that Queen Elizabeth II had approved Simon's appointment as the 30th Governor General of Canada.[29] She received a customary audience with the Queen on July 22, though held virtually (instead of in-person) due to the coronavirus pandemic. She was vested with special appointments as Chancellor of the Order of Canada, the Order of Military Merit, the Order of Merit of the Police Forces and the Order of St. John (within Canada). She also received the Canadian Forces' Decoration. She was formally installed at the Senate of Canada Building on July 26.[30]

Simon's appointment was somewhat unusual in that, while bilingual, she speaks English and Inuktitut, but is not particularly proficient in French. This raised some complaints from francophone Canadians.[31][32]


Simon and Dame Cindy Kiro, Governor-General of New Zealand, host a bilateral between Canada and New Zealand during their Platinum Jubilee visit to the United Kingdom, June 2022

On August 15, 2021, Simon approved the request of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to dissolve Parliament and signed a writ of election for September 20.[33]


Simon considers the concept of ajuinnata as an important theme for her mandate as governor general.[34] Ajuinnata is an Inuktitut word that does not have a one-word translation, as it encompasses many things: a vow or a promise to never give up, or a commitment to action no matter how daunting the cause may be.[35] Simon said that the word was taught to her by her mother and grandmother, and is an important concept for Inuit.[36] According to Simon, the spirit of ajuinnata drove her to get involved in movements to improve the lives of Inuit in Canada.[37]

Germany visit[edit]

Simon made her first trip abroad as Governor General on October 17, 2021, when she and her husband arrived in Berlin, Germany on a state visit.[38] The trip was Canada's first state visit to Germany in over 20 years.[39] During her visit, Simon met with President of Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier and Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel.[40] In an interview with The Globe and Mail, Simon said she discussed with Steinmeier, how in fulfilling the role of head of state, to express and atone for the darkest moments of their countries' history—the Holocaust and the Residential School System.[41] She also attended the Frankfurt Book Fair and a roundtable discussion on Arctic exploration at the Frankfurt Archaeological Museum.[40]

The Queen's Platinum Jubilee[edit]

On Accession Day, February 6, 2022, Simon paid tribute to the Queen in a message to mark her Platinum Jubilee. She said:[42]

Much has changed in the last seven decades. We extended the hand of friendship to nations around the world. We made advancements in medical research, most recently with vaccines. We established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and took part in its work. We saw the first Canadian named governor general, then the first woman and now, the first Indigenous person.

Simon and her husband met the Queen for the first time on March 15, 2022, at Windsor Castle. The Queen hosted afternoon tea for the couple. It was the first time that the Canadian monarch met the first indigenous governor general in Canadian history. Simon later said in an interview that she and the Queen discussed various issues like the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Canada convoy protests, and how they both recovered from COVID-19. Simon said she told the Queen that Canada's history books should be rewritten to reflect the facts about the relationship between the Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada.[43][44]

In May, Simon hosted the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall on their Platinum Jubilee tour of Canada. During the tour, Simon invested the Prince as an Extraordinary Commander of the Order of Military Merit at Rideau Hall.[45]

Simon with Governors-General David Hurley of Australia and Dame Cindy Kiro of New Zealand, outside St Paul's Cathedral, London, 3 June 2022

Simon and her husband travelled to London from June 2 to 6, 2022, to take part in the Queen's Platinum Jubilee celebrations in the United Kingdom. They attended the Service of Thanksgiving at St. Paul's Cathedral, the Platinum Party at the Palace, and the Platinum Jubilee Pageant, which included military personnel from the Canadian Armed Forces.[46]

Simon urged all Canadians to work together, to "truly honour the life, legacy and reign of Her Majesty The Queen", and said that, to her, that is worth celebrating.[47]

Papal apology to Indigenous delegation[edit]

On April 1, 2022, Simon released a statement following Pope Francis' apology to Indigenous delegation at the Vatican. Simon said she was grateful to the Pope for his words, and hailed it a "historic and emotional day for Indigenous peoples across Canada". She said that the apology is "one step on the road to reconciliation", and the Pope has "committed to visiting Canada to continue the reconciliation journey with Indigenous peoples on their own lands".[48]

Personal life[edit]

Simon is the second-oldest of eight children.[11] Her brother, Johnny May, is a locally renowned bush pilot.[16] In her youth, Simon attended an Anglican church with her family.[12] At age 40, she developed depression and burnout due to a mental illness, but gradually overcame them.[14]

Simon married her first husband, Robert Otis, on March 27, 1967, in Kuujjuaq.[49] She later married George Simon,[12] and in 1994 she married her current husband, journalist and author Whit Fraser, a former head of the Canadian Polar Commission.[50][51] She has two sons and one daughter.[12] Simon speaks English and Inuktitut, and she has committed to learn French during her tenure as governor general.[52]

Simon tested positive for COVID-19 on February 9, 2022.[53]


Viceregal styles of
Mary Simon
Badge of the Governor-General of Canada.svg
Reference style
  • Her Excellency the Right Honourable
  • Son Excellence la très honorable
Spoken style
  • Your Excellency
  • Votre Excellence

Simon's personal awards and decorations include:

Order of St John (UK) ribbon.pngBarrette Ordre national du Québec - Officier.svg
Polar Medal ribbon.pngQueen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon.png
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon.svgGroenlands Fortjenstmedalje Ribbon.png

Simon has received the following honours and recognition:

Honour Date Citation
Extraordinary Companion of the Order of Canada July 22, 2021 [54]
Extraordinary Companion of the Order of Military Merit July 22, 2021 [54]
Companion of the Order of Merit of the Police Forces July 22, 2021 [54]
Dame of Justice of The Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (Prior of the Order in Canada) July 22, 2021 [54]
Canadian Forces Decoration July 22, 2021 [54]
Governor General's Northern Medal (now Polar Medal) August 04, 2011 [55]
Officer of the Order of Canada November 17, 2005 [56]
Officer of the National Order of Quebec January 21, 1992 [57]
Member of the Order of Canada April 29, 1992 [58]
Greenland Medal for Meritorious Service (Gold) July 24, 1992 [59]
National Aboriginal Achievement Award 1996 [60]
Gold Medal of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society 1998 [61]
125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal 1992 [62]
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal (Canadian Version) February 6, 2002 [63]
Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal (Canadian Version) February 6, 2012 [64]
Symons Medal of the Confederation Centre of the Arts November 3, 2009 [65]

Honorary degrees[edit]

University Degree Date Ref.
McGill University Doctor of Laws June 5, 1992 [61][66]
Queen's University Doctor of Laws October 28, 1994 [67][68]
Trent University Doctor of Laws June 2, 2005 [69][70][71]
Memorial University Doctor of Laws May 2008 [72][73]
University of Guelph Doctor of Laws February 2009 [74][75]
Carleton University Doctor of Laws June 7, 2011 [76][77]
University of Alberta Doctor of Laws June 12, 2012 [78][79]
Mount Saint Vincent University Doctor of Humane Letters 2013 [80][81]
University of British Columbia Doctor of Laws May 26, 2016 [82][83]
University of Victoria Doctor of Laws June 2016 [84][85]
University of Calgary Doctor of Laws June 7, 2017 [86][87]
University of Western Ontario Doctor of Laws June 19, 2017 [88][89]

Honorary academic positions[edit]

Honorary military appointments[edit]

Military Branch Date Regiment Position
Canada Canadian Army July 26, 2021 – Present The Governor General's Horse Guards Colonel
Canada Canadian Army July 26, 2021 – Present Governor General's Foot Guards Colonel of the Regiment
Canada Canadian Army July 26, 2021 – Present The Canadian Grenadier Guards Colonel of the Regiment

Current positions and memberships[edit]

Simon is a fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America and of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society.[91]

Other positions currently held by her include:

  • Advisor to the European Space Agency (Arctic Monitoring Program)
  • Chairperson, Arctic Children and Youth Foundation
  • Board Member, Indspire
  • Member of the Board of Governors, University of the Arctic
  • Council Member, Crossing Boundaries National Council
  • Member of Advisory Circle, Walter and Duncan Gordon Charitable Foundation[92]
  • Council Member, The National Police Services Advisory Council

Published works[edit]

Simon is the author of many works regarding the environment, education, language, and Inuit culture:[93]


  • May Simon, Mary (1996). Inuit: One Future – One Arctic. Peterborough, Ontario: Cider Press. ISBN 1-896851-12-6.

Book contributions




  1. ^ In her first speech as Governor General, Simon said that her Inuktitut name "Ningiukudluk" means "bossy little old lady".[3]
  2. ^ Indigenous persons have previously been appointed to provincial viceregal offices.


  1. ^ Canada, Global Affairs (June 5, 2014). "Gagliano, Alfonso : Post(s)". Retrieved October 27, 2021.
  2. ^ "#GGSimon left a note on the wall of the Ukrainian pavilion at #Expo2020Dubai…". Instagram. Governor-General of Canada. March 18, 2022. Retrieved April 2, 2022.
  3. ^ "Mary Simon officially becomes Canada's first Inuk Governor General". CBC News. July 26, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  4. ^ "Biography – Mary J. Simon". Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  5. ^ "Prime Minister announces The Queen's approval of Canada's next Governor General". Prime Minister of Canada's website. July 5, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c "'Honoured, humbled and ready': Mary Simon's first speech as incoming Governor General". CTV News. July 6, 2021.
  7. ^ "Mary Simon – Ordre national du Québec" (in French). Government of Quebec. 2019. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  8. ^ "Biography". Governor General of Canada. Archived from the original on July 26, 2021.
  9. ^ Galloway, Gloria (May 1, 2012). "After four decades leading the Inuit people [sic], Mary Simon steps down". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  10. ^ a b Curry, Bill; Raman-Wilms, Menaka (July 6, 2021). "Governor-General Mary Simon dedicated her career to reshaping Indigenous policy in Canada". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021.
  11. ^ a b c Fennell, Tom (February 6, 1995). "The Arctic advocate". Maclean's. Archived from the original on July 25, 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d Diebel, Linda (November 24, 1984). "Mary Simon's Come a Long Way from Kangiqsualujjuaq". The Gazette. p. B4. ProQuest 2199943598.
  13. ^ Hay, John (May 12, 1989). "Her mission: protecting Arctic's original people". Ottawa Citizen. p. A9. ProQuest 2336756323.
  14. ^ a b Curry, Bill (August 31, 2007). "Inuit leader tackles mental-health "crisis"". The Globe and Mail. Kuujjuaq, Quebec. Archived from the original on July 6, 2021.
  15. ^ Fisher, Matthew (August 9, 1986). "New leader of Inuit has paid her dues". The Globe and Mail. p. A8. ProQuest 1143927135.
  16. ^ a b Tranter, Emma; Reynolds, Chris (July 6, 2021). "'She knows where she comes from': Mary Simon seen as humble, professional leader". Kamloops This Week. The Canadian Press. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  17. ^ Farnsworth, Clyde H. (February 22, 1995). "Envoy Defends Eskimos' World (It's Her World)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015.
  18. ^ "Mary May Simon" (PDF). Inuktitut. No. 84. May 1, 1999. pp. 22–23.
  19. ^ a b c Simon, Mary (1997). Inuit : one future--one Arctic. Peterborough, Ont.: Cider Press. ISBN 189685110X.
  20. ^ "Mary Simon is appointed Canada's first Ambassador for Circumpolar Affairs". Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
  21. ^ "Simon, Mary May: Posts". Global Affairs Canada. June 5, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  22. ^ Mary Simon becomes Ambassador to the Kingdom of Denmark Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Heads of Post List: DENMARK". Global Affairs Canada. June 5, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  24. ^ "IISD Announces Seven New Appointees to its Board of Directors" (Press release). Winnipeg, Manitoba: International Institute for Sustainable Development. June 9, 2004. Archived from the original on March 16, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  25. ^ "2007–2008 Annual Report" (PDF). International Institute for Sustainable Development. July 10, 2008. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 17, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  26. ^ Simon, Mary (July 28, 2006). "Mary Simon responds to Jim Prentice". Nunatsiaq News. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  27. ^ Windeyer, Chris (February 21, 2010). "Sources tout Mary Simon as next Governor General". Nunatsiaq News. Iqaluit NV: Nortext Publishing Corporation (Iqaluit). Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  28. ^ Brennan, Richard J. (July 8, 2010), "Academic David Johnston Canada's next Gov. Gen.", Toronto Star, retrieved July 11, 2010
  29. ^ Aiello, Rachel (July 6, 2021). "Mary Simon named as Canada's first Indigenous Governor General". CTVNews. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  30. ^ "Canada's next governor general Mary Simon to be officially installed July 26". CTVNews. July 13, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  31. ^ Rosen, Nicole. "Should bilingualism change in Canada? The debate over Gov. Gen. Mary Simon". The Conversation. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  32. ^ Nancy Wood (July 14, 2021). "Next governor general's inability to speak French leaves francophone communities conflicted". CBC News. Archived from the original on August 2, 2021. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  33. ^ Catharine Tunney; Christian Paas-Lang (August 15, 2021). "Canada is headed for a federal election on Sept. 20". CBC News. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  34. ^ "The Governor General met with Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales". March 15, 2022.
  35. ^ "Tree planting ceremony in the United Kingdom". March 16, 2022.
  36. ^ "A conversation with the Nunavut Teachers' Association". February 16, 2022.
  37. ^ "Discussion with students at Canadian University Dubai". March 18, 2022.
  38. ^ "Governor General Mary May Simon arrives in Germany for first international trip - National |". Global News. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  39. ^ Pimentel, Lindsay Richardson | Tamara (October 22, 2021). "Governor General Mary May Simon reflects on state visit to Germany". APTN News. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  40. ^ a b Pimentel, Lindsay Richardson | Tamara (October 18, 2021). "Governor General Mary May Simon starts state visit to Germany". APTN News. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  41. ^ Saunders, Doug (October 22, 2021). "Opinion: For Mary Simon, a visit to Germany is symbolic – but her new job is not". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  42. ^ "Her Majesty The Queen's Platinum Jubilee". February 6, 2022.
  43. ^ "Queen holds afternoon tea for Canada's governor general after missing service". BBC News. March 15, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  44. ^ Gov. Gen. Mary Simon says she and the Queen discussed reconciliation, Canada's 'real history'
  45. ^ Royal Tour of Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall
  46. ^ Governor General attends Platinum Jubilee Celebrations in London
  47. ^ Message from the Governor General on the occasion of Her Majesty’s Platinum Jubilee
  48. ^ "Message from the Governor General following Pope Francis' apology to Indigenous delegation". The Governor General of Canada. April 1, 2022.
  49. ^ "Bulletin statistique de mariage" [Marriage Statistics Report] (in French). Ministry of Health and Social Services. Retrieved July 23, 2021 – via Généalogie Québec.
  50. ^ MacInnis, Adam (July 8, 2021). "How Pictou County's Whit Fraser Met and Married Governor General Designate Mary Simon". SaltWire Network. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021.
  51. ^ Fraser, Whit (July 6, 2021). "'My darling wife': Reflections on the life and work of Mary Simon, the next governor general, by her husband". Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  52. ^ Tunney, Catharine; Tasker, John Paul (July 6, 2021). "Inuk leader Mary Simon named Canada's 1st Indigenous governor general". CBC News. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  53. ^ "Gov. Gen. Simon tests positive for COVID-19". CTVNews. February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  54. ^ a b c d e "Insignia worn by the Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of Canada". Governor General of Canada. July 23, 2021. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  55. ^ "Inuit leader, filmmaker to receive Northern Medal". CBCNews. August 4, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  56. ^ Order of Canada citation
  57. ^ "National Order of Quebec". National Order of Quebec. September 27, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  58. ^ "Mary Simon's Order of Canada Citation's". Governor General of Canada. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  59. ^ "Nersornaat 1992" (PDF). Parliament of Greenland. July 6, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  60. ^ "Indspire Award 1996 (Environment)". Indspire. July 6, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  61. ^ a b Roy-Sole, Monique (September–October 1998). "Voice of the Arctic". Canadian Geographic. Vol. 118, no. 6. p. 92. Gale A21164634 ProQuest 216043846.
  62. ^ "Insignia worn by the Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of Canada". Governor General of Canada. July 23, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  63. ^ "Recipients of Queen Elizabeth II's Golden Jubilee Medal". Governor General of Canada. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  64. ^ "Recipients of Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee Medal". Governor General of Canada. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  65. ^ "Symons Medal Lecture 2009". Confederation Centre of the Arts.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  66. ^ "List of McGill Honorary Degree Recipients from 1935 to October 2019" (PDF). McGill University. p. 52. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  67. ^ Hogben, Murray (October 29, 1994). "Leggett Installed as Principal". The Kingston Whig-Standard. p. 13. ProQuest 353214048.
  68. ^ "Honorary Degrees" (PDF). Queen's University. p. 26. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  69. ^ Song, Vivian (March 10, 2005). "Honorary Degree for Cherney: General, Filmmaker, Former Chancellor also Getting Degrees". The Peterborough Examiner. p. B1. ProQuest 354743987.
  70. ^ "Now and Forever: Trent's Honourees Will Become Part of a Permanent Record". The Peterborough Examiner. March 12, 2005. p. A4. ProQuest 354793533.
  71. ^ "Trent University Honorary Graduates" (PDF). Trent University. p. 7. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  72. ^ Memorial University (July 20, 2021). ""Excellent and Transformative"". The Gazette. Archived from the original on July 20, 2021.
  73. ^ "Honorary Graduates of Memorial University of Newfoundland 1960–Present" (PDF). Memorial University. p. 21. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  74. ^ "U of G Honorary Degrees Announced". Guelph Mercury. January 31, 2009. p. A4. ProQuest 356195986.
  75. ^ "Honorary Degrees | Recipients" (PDF). University of Guelph. p. 4. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  76. ^ "ITK President Mary Simon Receives Honorary Law Degree from Carleton". Nunatsiaq News. June 8, 2011. Archived from the original on December 1, 2018.
  77. ^ "Honorary Degrees Awarded Since 1954". Carleton University. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  78. ^ "Mary Simon Shares Lessons on Leadership at University of Alberta Grad Ceremony". Nunatsiaq News. June 12, 2012. Archived from the original on December 1, 2018.
  79. ^ "Past Honorary Degree Recipients". University of Alberta. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  80. ^ "Canada's Next Governor General Mary Simon Received Honorary Degree from MSVU". Mount Saint Vincent University. July 8, 2021. Archived from the original on July 23, 2021.
  81. ^ "Honorary Degrees". Mount Saint Vincent University. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  82. ^ "2016 Honorary Degree Recipients". University of British Columbia. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021.
  83. ^ "The Title and Degree of Doctor of Laws, (honoris causa) Conferred at Congregation, May 26, 2016". University of British Columbia. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  84. ^ Bell, Jeff (June 12, 2016). "Leading Lights of First Nations to Receive Degrees". Times Colonist. Archived from the original on June 17, 2016.
  85. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients". University of Victoria. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  86. ^ "Honorary Degree for Man Who Chaired Truth and Reconciliation Commission". CBC News. The Canadian Press. June 5, 2017. Archived from the original on August 5, 2018.
  87. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients (November 2019)" (PDF). University of Calgary. p. 10. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  88. ^ "Simon: Your Strength, Courage and Instincts Will Prevail". Western News. University of Western Ontario. June 19, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  89. ^ "Honorary Degrees Awarded" (PDF). University of Western Ontario. p. 18. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  90. ^ "Mary May Simon: Seventh Chancellor (1995 to 1999, 2002)". Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
  91. ^ a b "Mary May Simon". Trent University. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  92. ^ "The Gordon Foundation". The Gordon Foundation. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009.
  93. ^ "Simon, Mary". Inuit Literatures ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᓪᓚᒍᓯᖏᑦ Littératures inuites. Université du Québec à Montréal. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.

External links[edit]

Academic offices
Preceded by Chancellor of Trent University
Succeeded by
Preceded by Chancellor of Trent University

Succeeded by
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by Canadian Ambassador to Denmark
Succeeded by
Government offices
Preceded by Governor General of Canada
Order of precedence
Preceded byas Queen of Canada Order of precedence of Canada
As Governor General
Succeeded byas Prime Minister