Kim Jwa-geun

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Kim Jwa-geun
김좌근
Chief State Councillor
In office
20 October 1863 – 23 May 1864
Preceded byJeong Won-yong
Succeeded byCho Doo-sun
In office
3 April 1853 – 14 February 1859
Preceded byKim Heung-geun
Succeeded byJeong Won-yong
Right State Councillor
In office
13 June 1852 – 3 April 1853
Preceded byYi Heon-gu
Succeeded byCho Doo-sun
Personal details
Born1797
Died5 June 1869(1869-06-05) (aged 71–72)
Parents

Kim Jwa-geun (Korean김좌근; Hanja金左根) (1797 – 5 June 1869) was a Korean political figure from the Andong Kim clan, who held a number of high-ranking government positions in the late Joseon period, including Chief State Councillor at King Cheoljong's court.[1] He was the younger brother of Queen Sunwon.

Biography[edit]

Kim Jwa-geun was born in 1797, as a member of the Andong Kim clan (신 안동 김씨; 新 安東 金氏). His father was Kim Jo-sun and his mother was Lady Shim of Cheongsong. He was the fourth of seven children.

In 1802, his older sister became the Queen of Joseon at the age of 13, when she married King Sunjo during his second year of reign.[citation needed]

In 1825, at the recommendation of his father, he served as a vice-deputy of Mupomgwanik, and in 1834 was promoted to the position of Cheomjong. In the second year of King Cheoljong's reign, he was appointed to several important positions.

On February 25th, 1853, he was appointed as Chief State Councillor, and though he attempted to resign, he was not allowed to until April 19, 1862. However, in September 1863, he was ordered to "return as chief minister".[citation needed]

In 1862, he served as governor while Lee Jeong-cheong was trying to quell the civil war which was arising from the disturbance of Samjeong.

Until her death, on September 21, 1857, his older sister, Queen Sunwon, who has served as Queen Regent two times, had given immense political influence to the Andong Kim clan, which was the central figure in politics up until 1863–1864, when Heungseon Daewongun, with the help of Queen Sinjeong, stepped in during the regency of his son, King Gojong. When Gojong became King and Heungseon Daewongun came to power, Kim Jwa-geun withdrew from the position of Chief State Councillor, but continued to participate in government affairs. Together with his adoptive son, Kim Byeon-gi, he helped Heungseon Daewongun in his regency, since he had difficulty in maintaining the affairs of the state as he came from a distant royal line.[citation needed]

When he died in 1869, he was given the posthumous title of Chungik (Hangul: 충익; Hanja: 忠翼).

In 1990, the descendants of his adopted son donated the house where Kim Jwa-geun and his family had lived to the Seoul National University.[2]

Family[edit]

  • Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Saeng-hae (김생해, 金生海)
  • Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Geuk-hyo (김극효, 金克孝) (16 September 1542 – 3 February 1618)
  • Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandmother
    • Lady Jeong of the Dongnae Jeong clan (동래 정씨)
  • Great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Sang-gwan (김상관, 金尙觀) (9 January 1556 – 12 May 1621)[3]
  • Great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Gwang-chan (김광찬, 金光燦) (1597 – 24 February 1668)[4]
  • Great-great-great-great-great-grandmother
    • Lady Kim of the Yeonan Kim clan (연안 김씨)[5]
  • Great-great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Su-hang (김수항, 金壽恒) (1629 – 9 April 1689)[6][7]
  • Great-great-great-great-grandmother
    • Lady Na of the Anjeong Na clan (안정 나씨)[8]
  • Great-great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Chang-jib (김창집, 金昌集) (1648 – 2 May 1722)[9]
  • Great-great-great-grandmother
    • Lady Park (박씨)
  • Great-great-grandfather
    • Kim Je-gyeom (김제겸, 金濟謙)[10]
  • Great-grandfather
    • Kim Dal-haeng (김달행, 金達行)[11]
  • Grandfather
    • Kim Yi-jung (김이중, 金履中); served as Prime Minister
  • Grandmother
  • Father
    • Kim Jo-sun, Internal Prince Yeongan (김조순 영안부원군, 金祖淳 永安府院君) (1765–1832)[12][13]
  • Mother
    • Internal Princess Consort Cheongyang of the Cheongsong Shim clan (청양부부인 심씨, 靑陽府夫人 沈氏) (1766–1828)
      • Maternal grandfather: Shim Geon-ji (심건지, 沈健之)
      • Maternal grandmother: Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (증 정경부인 전주 이씨); Sim Geon-ji’s second wife
  • Siblings:
    • Older brother: Kim Yoo-geun (김유근, 金逌根) (March 1785 – July 1840); became the adoptive son of Kim Yong-sun (김용순, 金龍淳)
      • Adoptive nephew: Kim Byeon-ju (김병주, 金炳㴤); son of Kim Hong-geun (김홍근, 金弘根)
    • Older brother: Kim Won-geun (김원근, 金元根) (1786–1832)
      • Nephew: Kim Byeon-ji (김병지, 金炳地)
    • Older sister: Queen Sunwon of the Andong Kim clan (순원왕후 김씨) (8 June 1789 – 21 September 1857)
      • Brother-in-law: King Sunjo of Joseon (순조대왕, 純祖大王) (29 July 1790 – 13 December 1834)
        • Nephew: Yi Yeong, Crown Prince Hyomyeong (효명세자, 孝明世子) (18 September 1809 – 25 June 1830)
        • Niece: Princess Myeongon (명온공주) (1810–1832)
        • Niece: Princess Bokon (복온공주) (24 November 1818 – 10 June 1832)
        • Unnamed nephew (1820–1820)
        • Niece: Princess Deokon (덕온공주) (1822–1844)
        • Adoptive nephew: King Cheoljong of Joseon (25 July 1831 – 16 January 1864)
    • Younger sister: Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan
      • Brother-in-law: Nam Gu-sun (남구순, 南久淳)
        • Nephew: Nam Byeon-cheol (남병철, 南秉哲) (1817–1863)
        • Niece: Lady Nam (남씨, 南氏)
          • Nephew-in-law: Kim Byeon-gi (김병기, 金炳冀) (1818–1875); son of Kim Yeong-geun (김영근, 金泳根)
    • Younger sister: Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan
      • Brother-in-law: Lee Gyeom-jae (이겸재, 李謙在)
    • Younger sister: Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan
      • Brother-in-law: Lee Geung-woo (이긍우, 李肯愚)
  • Wives and children:
    • Lady Yun (정경부인 윤씨, 貞敬夫人 尹氏)[14]
      • Adoptive son: Kim Byeon-gi (김병기, 金炳冀) (1818–1875); son of Kim Yeong-geun (김영근, 金泳根)
        • Adoptive daughter-in-law: Lady Nam (남씨, 南氏); (남구순, 南久淳); daughter of his younger sister and Nam Gu-sun
          • Adoptive grandson: Kim Yong-gyun (김용균, 金用均)
    • Concubine: Nahab (나합),[15] Lady Naju of the Yang clan (나주부인 양씨, 羅州夫人 梁氏)

In popular culture[edit]

Drama[edit]

Film[edit]

  • Portrayed by Nam Gyeong-eup in the 2016 film The Map Against the World
  • Portrayed by Park Yoon-sik in the 2018 film Fengshui

References[edit]

  1. ^ 정자, 박. "김좌근". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  2. ^ "(박종인의 땅의 歷史) 100년 국정 공백은 정실 인사에서 비롯되었다 – 조선일보". Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  3. ^ His niece, Lady Yeongga of the Andong Kim clan, the daughter of his older brother Kim Sang-yong (김상용, 金尙容), is the mother of Queen Inseon; making him the grand uncle of the queen
  4. ^ Internal Princess Consort Yeongga of the Andong Kim clan, the daughter of his uncle, Kim Sang-yong (김상용, 金尙容) and a half-niece of Kim Jang-saeng, is the mother of Queen Inseon; making him first cousins of the queen
  5. ^ She is a niece of Queen Inmok and the cousin of Princess Jeongmyeong. She is also a distant relative of Kim Ahn-ro
  6. ^ His older brother, Kim Su-jeung (김수증, 金壽增), became the grandfather of Royal Noble Consort Yeong of the Andong Kim clan (a concubine of King Sukjong)
  7. ^ was a Yeonguijeong during King Sukjong's reign
  8. ^ Her brother, Na Myeong-jwa (나명좌), married Song Jun-gil’s daughter and Queen Inhyeon’s maternal aunt. Another sister married King Sejong’s 8th generation descendant, Yi Sa-myeong (이사명, 李師命) (1647 - 1689)
  9. ^ Was a Yeonguijeong during the last reign of King Sukjong and King Gyeongjong
  10. ^ His younger sister, Lady Kim of the (new) Andong Kim clan (신 안동 김씨, 新 安東 金氏), became the wife of Min Chang-su (민창수, 閔昌洙); the nephew of Queen Inhyeon
  11. ^ His younger brother, Kim Won-haeng (김원행, 金元行), became the great-great-grandfather of Queen Cheorin. His second younger brother, Kim Tan-haeng (김탄행, 金坦行) (1714–1774), became the great-great-grandfather of Queen Hyohyeon
  12. ^ His nephew, Kim Mun-geun, eventually became the father of Queen Cheorin
  13. ^ His second nephew, Kim Jo-geun, eventually became the father of Queen Hyohyeon
  14. ^ Muchadoboutlove. "Women of the Joseon Dynasty (Part 1)". The Talking Cupboard. The titles were given collectively to the wives of the officials according to their husbands’ ranks, for instance jeongkyeong buin (정경부인), which was given to the wives of the officials of 1st Senior Rank.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ A nickname given by Kim Jwa-geun