Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia
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|Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia|
|Reino de la Araucanía y la Patagonia|
Spanish: Independencia y Libertad
English: Independence and Liberty
Location of the claimed territory of the Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia, in Chile and Argentina
|Capital||Perquenco, in current Cautín Province, La Araucanía Region, Chile|
|Languages||Mapudungun, French and Spanish|
|•||1860–1878||Orélie-Antoine I (Aurelio Antonio I)|
|Historical era||Occupation of the Araucanía/Conquest of the Desert|
|•||Established||17 November 1860|
|•||Disestablished||5 January 1862|
The Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia (Spanish: Reino de la Araucanía y de la Patagonia; French: Royaume d'Araucanie et de Patagonie, sometimes referred to as New France) was a proposed state and kingdom conceived in the 19th century by a French lawyer and adventurer named Orélie-Antoine de Tounens. Orélie-Antoine de Tounens claimed the regions of Araucanía and eastern Patagonia. It was an unrecognized state that enjoyed only marginal sovereignty in a brief period of time, through alliances with some Mapuche lonkos, in a reduced area of Araucanía, in current Chile.
At the time the local indigenous Mapuche population of Araucanía and Patagonia were engaged in a desperate armed struggle to retain their independence in the face of hostile military and economic encroachment by the governments of Chile and Argentina, who coveted the Mapuche lands for economical and political reasons. The successors of Orélie-Antoine all lived in France.
Mat Youkee wrote 21 March 2018 in The Guardian that "the lost kingdom of Patagonia is a live issue for Chile's Mapuche people . . . a powerful legacy of indigenous sovereignty . . ."
While visiting the region in 1860, Orélie-Antoine came to sympathise with the Mapuche cause, and a group of loncos (Mapuche tribal leaders) in turn elected him to the position of King —possibly in the belief that their cause might be better served with a European acting on their behalf. Orélie-Antoine then set about establishing a government in his capital of Perquenco, created a blue, white and green flag, and had coins minted for the nation under the name of Nouvelle France.
His efforts at securing international recognition for the Mapuche were thwarted by the Chilean and Argentinian governments, who captured, imprisoned and then deported him on several occasions. The supposed founding of the Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia led to the approval of the Occupation of Araucanía by Chilean forces. Chilean president José Joaquín Pérez authorized Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez, commander of the Chilean troops invading Araucanía to capture Orélie-Antoine. He did not receive further punishment because he was deemed to be insane by both Chilean and Argentine authorities and sent to a madhouse in Chile. King Orélie-Antoine I eventually died penniless in France in 1878 after years of fruitless struggle to regain his perceived legitimate authority over his conquered kingdom. Historians Simon Collier and William F. Sater describe the Kingdom of Araucanía as a "curious and semi-comic episode".
According to travel writer Bruce Chatwin, the later history of the "kingdom" belongs rather to "the obsessions of bourgeois France than to the politics of South America." A French champagne salesman, Gustave Laviarde, impressed by the story, decided to assume the vacant throne as Aquiles I. He was appointed heir to the throne by Orélie-Antoine.
The first Araucanian king's present-day successor, Prince Philippe, lived in France until his death in 2014. Prince Philippe, aka Philippe Boiry, is said to have purchased the title. He renounced his predecessor's claims to the Kingdom, but he has kept alive the memory of Orélie-Antoine, and lent continued support to the ongoing struggle for Mapuche self-determination. He authorised the minting a series of commemorative coins in cupronickel, silver, gold, and palladium since 1988. When he visited Argentina and Chile once, he was met with hostility by the local media and cold-shouldered by most of the Mapuche organisations.
Prince Philippe was succeeded by Prince Antoine IV, aka Jean-Michel Parasiliti di Para, who was elected by the Regency Council. He amended the Araucanian constitution, making the title in pretence fully elective, chosen by a Regency Council composed by the members of the Council of the Kingdom and the Council of the State. He was the pretender of the title for less than four years, and died in December 2017. On March 24, 2018, Frederic Luz was elected Prince of Araucania by the Regency Council.
Pretenders to the throne
- King Antoine I (1860–1878)
- King Achilles I (1878–1902)
- King Antoine II (1902–1903)
- Queen Laura Teresa I (1903–1916)
- King Antoine III (1916–1952)
- Prince Philippe (1952–2014)
- Prince Antoine IV (2014-2017)
- Prince Frederic I (2018-)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia.|
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Verónica Méndez Montero; Carolina Santelices Ariztía; Rodrigo Martínez Iturriaga (2009). Historia, Geografía y Ciencias Sociales 2° Educación Media (in Spanish). Santillana. ISBN 978-956-15-1557-4.
- Jean-François., Gareyte, (2016). Le rêve du sorcier : Antoine de Tounens, roi d'Araucanie et de Patagonie : une biographie. Tome I. Mollier, Pierre. Périgueux: La Lauze. ISBN 9782352490524. OCLC 951666133.
- Collier, Simon; Sater, William F.: A history of Chile, 1808-2002. Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-82749-3, p.96.
- Chatwin, Bruce: In Patagonia. Random House, 2012, ISBN 9781448105618, p. 25.
- Minnis, Natalie: Chile Insight. Langenscheidt Publishing, 2002, ISBN 981-234-890-5, p. 41.
- Nicholas Shakespeare, The Men who would be King, 1983.
- Ray, Leslie: Language of the land. The Mapuche in Argentina and Chile. IWGIA, Copenhagen 2007, ISBN 978-87-91563-37-9, pp. 61.
- Modern coins of the kingdom: http://www.araucanie.com/araucania/cox_fichiers/Cox.htm
- Ray, Leslie: Language of the land. The Mapuche in Argentina and Chile. IWGIA, Copenhagen 2007, ISBN 978-87-91563-37-9, pp. 61-2.
- [dead link]
- "Press release" (PDF). www.araucanie.com.
- "Dordogne : le royaume d'Araucanie a un nouveau prince".
- "Un Graulhétois sacré prince d'Araucanie et de Patagonie".
- Piccirilli, R: "Diccionario histórico argentino", p. 260. Ediciones Historicas, 1953.
- Sociedad Chilena de Historia y Geografía, Archivo Nacional (Chile): "Revista chilena de historia y geografía", p. 277. Impr. Universitaria, 1931.
- Braun Menéndez, A: "Pequeña historia patagónica", p. 128. Emecé Editores, 1959.
- "d.4 Laura-Therese I - North American Araucanian Royalist Society". www.steelcrown.org.
- "d.5 Antoine III - North American Araucanian Royalist Society". www.steelcrown.org.
- North American Araucanian Royalist Society
- Website of the Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia
- Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia - Mapuche Portal