Kirana gharana

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Kirana Gharana is one of the most prolific Hindustani khyal gharanas.,[1] and is concerned foremost with perfect intonation of notes (swara).

Singing style[edit]

The central concern of the Kirana style is swara, or individual notes, in particular precise tuning and expression of notes. In the Kirana Gayaki, the individual notes (swaras) of the raga are considered not just random points in the scale but independent realms of music capable of horizontal expansion. Highly emotional pukars in the higher octaves form a part of the musical experience. Another unique feature of this gharana is the highly intricate and ornate use of the sargam taan (weaving patterns with the notations themselves) introduced by Abdul Karim Khan under influence from the Carnatic classical style.

In the late nineteenth century Abdul Karim Khan and Abdul Wahid Khan revolutionized the khayal gayaki by introducing the vilambit (a slow tempo section) to delineate the structure of the raga note by note.

Frequently performed ragas by musicians of the gharana include Todi, Lalit, Multani, Patdeep, Puriya, Marwa, Shuddha Kalyan, Darbari Kanhara, and Komal-Rishabh Asavari. Noted Marathi thespian PuLa Deshpande has pointed out that performers from the Kirana gharana are particularly fond of the Komal Re/Rishahb (or minor second in the western system) note of the Indian Classical Music scale, a frequent feature of these commonly performed ragas.

History[edit]

In the 19th-century the kirana gharana coalesced around Ustad Miyan Bande Ali Khan a player of the rudra veena. The gharana's style was further developed, and established as one of the prominent styles in modern Indian classical music in the late 19th / early 20th centuries by the musicians Abdul Karim Khan and Abdul Wahid Khan.[2] Abdul Karim Khan was an extremely popular musician, and was thus highly influential in popularizing the gharana. Some trace the gharana's roots back farther to the 13th-century musician Gopal Nayak, a hindu musician (of the dhrupad style) who later converted to Islamic Sufism and in the process assimilated the predominantly muslim khyal musical style.[3]

The name of this school of music derives from Kirana or Kairana, a town and tehsil of Shamli District in Uttar Pradesh.[4] It is the birthplace of Abdul Karim Khan (1872–1937), who was one of the most important musicians of this gharana and of Hindustani music in general in the twentieth century. A frequent visitor to the Court of Mysore, Abdul Karim Khan was also influenced by Carnatic music, and roots of the tradition can also be traced back to his great-grandfather Ghulam Ali and Ghulam Maula, the brother of Ghulam Ali.

Owing to the popularity of Abdul Karim Khan, most contemporary Hindustani musicians from Karnataka are exponents of Kirana Gharana, and Kirana Gharana in turn has absorbed many of the features of the Carnatic tradition. The culturally rich border region between Karnataka and Maharashtra is particularly well known for its association with the gharana.

The other primary master of the gharana in the early 20th century was Abdul Karim Khan’s cousin Abdul Wahid Khan.

Lineage[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gopal Nayak
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nayak Dhondu
 
Nayak Bhannu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ghulam Ali
 
Ghulam Maula
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utd. Bande Ali Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utd. Eliahee Baksh Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utd. Abdullah Khan Utd. Kale Khan Utd. Nanhe Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utd. Majid Khan
 
Utd. Abdul Habib Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utd. Abdul Karim Khan (founder)
 
 
 
Utd. Nanhe Khan
 
{{{ h}}}
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utd. Abdul Wahid Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pt. Ganpatbuwa Behere Pt. Balkrishnabuwa Kapileshwari Pt. Sawai Gandharva Pt. Dasharathbuwa Muley Pt. Vishwanathbuwa Jadhav Smt. "Surashri" Kesarbai Kerkar Roshanara Begum
 
 
 
Pt. Shankarrao Sarnaik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pt. Sureshbabu Mane
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pt. Ganpatrao Gurav
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pt. Pran Nath
 
 
Begum Akhtar
 
 
Pt.Sukhdev Prasad
 
 
Smt. Hirabai Badodekar
 
 
Utd. Shakoor Khan (sarangiya) {{{! }}}
 
 
 
 
Smt. Gangubai Hangal Pt. Basavaraj Rajguru Firoz Dastur Bharat Ratna Pt. Bhimsen Joshi
 
 
Pt. Baburao Jadhav Pt. Rajaram Jadhav Pt. Pandurang Jadhav Smt.Shakuntalaraje Jadhav
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pt. Mani Prasad
 
 
Utd. Hafizullah Khan
 
Mohammed Rafi (playback singer)
 
 
Pt. Ram Narayan (sarangiya)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pt. Sangmeshwar Gurav
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Smt. Saraswati Rane Dr. Prabha Atre
 
Smt. Krishna Hangal Shrikant Deshpande
 
 
Pt. Madhav Gudi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pt. Shripati Padegar
 
Shrinivas Joshi
 
 
Utd.Rashid Khan (influence)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utd. Mashkoor Ali Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ustad Mahmood Khan (Sarangi)
 
 
 
 
Smt. Pranati Mhatre
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rajendra Kandalgaonkar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pt. Kaivalya Kumar Gurav
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jayateerth Mevundi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anand Bhate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Arshad Ali Khan

Prominent exponents[edit]

(("NAYAK-E-HINDUSTAN" "USTAD LANGDE HAIDER KHAN CHAPROULI")) ( 1850-? )

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Torch-bearers of kirana gharana, and their followers". Times of India. Jan 26, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Kirana gharana". ITC Sangeet Research Academu. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  3. ^ Lavezzoli, p. 246
  4. ^ Kirana Gharana at indoclassical.com
  5. ^ "Shakoor Khan". Sangi Rangi. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "Torch-bearers of kirana gharana, and their followers". Times of India. Jan 26, 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]