Kruger National Park

Coordinates: 24°0′41″S 31°29′7″E / 24.01139°S 31.48528°E / -24.01139; 31.48528
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Kruger National Park
Burchell's zebras in a Kruger landscape
Location of the park (red area) in South Africa
LocationLimpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, South Africa
Nearest cityMbombela (southern)
Phalaborwa (central)
Coordinates24°0′41″S 31°29′7″E / 24.01139°S 31.48528°E / -24.01139; 31.48528
Area19,623 km2 (7,576 sq mi)[1][2][3]
Established31 May 1926[4]
Visitors1,659,793 (1,277,397 day visitors, 382,396 overnight)[5] (in 2014–15 FY)
Governing bodySouth African National Parks
www.sanparks.org.za/parks/kruger/ Edit this at Wikidata

Kruger National Park (Tsonga: [ˈkrúːɡà]; Afrikaans: [ˈkry.(j)ər]) is a South African National Park and one of the largest game reserves in Africa. It covers an area of 19,623 km2 (7,576 sq mi) in the provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga in northeastern South Africa, and extends 360 km (220 mi) from north to south and 65 km (40 mi) from east to west. The administrative headquarters are in Skukuza. Areas of the park were first protected by the government of the South African Republic in 1898, and it became South Africa's first national park in 1926.

To the west and south of the Kruger National Park are the two South African provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga, respectively. To the north is Zimbabwe and to the east is Mozambique. It is now part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, a peace park that links Kruger National Park with the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe, and with the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique.

The park is part of the Kruger to Canyons Biosphere, an area designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as an International Man and Biosphere Reserve.[6]

The park has nine main gates allowing entrance to the different camps.

History[edit]

Sabi Game Reserve (1898–1926)[edit]

Sabi Game Reserve was initially created to control hunting and to protect the diminishing number of animals in the area.[7] The reserve was located in the southern one-third of the modern park.[8] James Stevenson-Hamilton became the first warden of the reserve in 1902.[7] Singwitsi Reserve, named after the Shingwedzi River and now in northern Kruger National Park, was proclaimed in 1903.[9] During the following decades all the native tribes were removed from the reserve and during the 1960s the last were removed at Makuleke in the Pafuri triangle. In 1926, Sabi Game Reserve, the adjacent Shingwedzi Game Reserve, and farms were combined to create Kruger National Park.[7]

During 1923, the first large groups of tourists started visiting the Sabi Game Reserve, but only as part of the South African Railways' popular "Round in Nine" tours. The tourist trains travelled the Selati railway line between Komatipoort on the Mozambican border and Tzaneen in the then northern Transvaal.[10]

Kruger National Park[edit]

Plaque in the park. Now and then people do get killed; however, this is extremely rare.

Kruger National Park was proclaimed in 1918.[4] Warden James Stevenson-Hamilton retired on 30 April 1946, after 44 years as warden of the Kruger Park. He was replaced by Colonel J. A. B. Sandenbergh of the South African Air Force.[10] In 1959, work commenced to completely fence the park's boundaries. Work started on the southern boundary along the Crocodile River and in 1960 the western and northern boundaries were fenced, followed by the eastern boundary with Mozambique. The purpose of the fence was to curb the spread of diseases, facilitate border patrolling and inhibit the movement of poachers.[10]

The Makuleke area in the northern part of the park was forcibly taken from the Makuleke people by the government in 1969 and about 1500 of them were relocated to land to the south so that their original tribal areas could be integrated into the greater Kruger National Park.[11]

Pride of lions on a tourist road

In 1996 the Makuleke tribe submitted a land claim for 198.42 km2 (19,842 ha), namely the Pafuri or Makuleke region in the northernmost part of the park.[12] The land was given back to the Makuleke people, however, they chose not to resettle on the land but to engage with the private sector to invest in tourism. This resulted in the building of several game lodges from which they earn royalties.[citation needed]

In the late 1990s, the fences between the Kruger Park and Klaserie Game Reserve, Olifants Game Reserve, and Balule Game Reserve were dropped and incorporated into the Greater Kruger Park with 400,000 ha (4,000 km2) added to the Reserve. In 2002, Kruger National Park, Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe, and Limpopo National Park in Mozambique were incorporated into a peace park, the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.[7]

Location and geography[edit]

Geography of the Kruger National Park
Olifants River
Luvuvhu and Limpopo Rivers at Crookes Corner in Makuleke

The park lies in the northeast of South Africa,[8] in the eastern parts of Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. Phalaborwa, Limpopo is the only town in South Africa that borders the Kruger National Park. It is one of the largest national parks in the world, with an area of 19,485 km2 (7,523 sq mi). The park is approximately 360 km (220 mi) long,[8] and has an average width of 65 km (40 mi).[7] At its widest point, the park is 90 km (56 mi) wide from east to west.[8] To the north and south of the park two rivers, the Limpopo River and the Crocodile respectively, act as their natural boundaries. To the east, the Lebombo Mountains separate it from Mozambique. Its western boundary runs parallel with this range, roughly 65 km (40 mi) distant. The park varies in altitude between 200 m (660 ft) in the east and 840 m (2,760 ft) in the south-west near Berg-en-Dal. The highest point in the park is here, a hill called Khandzalive. Several rivers run through the park from west to east, including the Sabie, Olifants, Crocodile, Letaba, Luvuvhu and Limpopo Rivers.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

The climate of the Kruger National Park and lowveld is subtropical/tropical, specifically a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). Summer days are humid and hot. The rainy season is from September until May. The Kruger National Park website lists September and October as the driest periods, culminating at the beginning of the rainy season late in October. Because the park spans 360 kilometres or 220 miles from north to south, climate can vary throughout the park. Skukuza in the southern part of the park is about 2 to 3 °C (3.6 to 5.4 °F) cooler throughout the year than Pafuri in the north, with significantly more rainfall.

Climate data for Skukuza, 1961-1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 43
(109)
43
(109)
42
(108)
40
(104)
38
(100)
35
(95)
36
(97)
38
(100)
42
(108)
44
(111)
43
(109)
42
(108)
44
(111)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 33
(91)
32
(90)
31
(88)
29
(84)
28
(82)
26
(79)
26
(79)
27
(81)
29
(84)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(90)
30
(86)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 21
(70)
20
(68)
19
(66)
15
(59)
10
(50)
6
(43)
6
(43)
9
(48)
13
(55)
16
(61)
18
(64)
20
(68)
14
(57)
Record low °C (°F) 11
(52)
10
(50)
8
(46)
6
(43)
1
(34)
−4
(25)
−4
(25)
−4
(25)
1
(34)
6
(43)
10
(50)
10
(50)
−4
(25)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 94
(3.7)
96
(3.8)
66
(2.6)
38
(1.5)
14
(0.6)
11
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
8
(0.3)
28
(1.1)
40
(1.6)
63
(2.5)
92
(3.6)
561
(22.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 9 9 9 6 3 2 2 2 3 7 10 10 71
Source: SAWS[13]
Climate data for Phalaborwa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 34
(93)
33
(91)
32
(90)
30
(86)
29
(84)
27
(81)
26
(79)
28
(82)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.5
(79.7)
26
(79)
25
(77)
23
(73)
20
(68)
18
(64)
17.5
(63.5)
19
(66)
22
(72)
23
(73)
24
(75)
26
(79)
22
(72)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
17
(63)
12
(54)
10
(50)
9
(48)
11
(52)
14
(57)
17
(63)
19
(66)
21
(70)
16
(61)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 97
(3.8)
81
(3.2)
65
(2.6)
25
(1.0)
12
(0.5)
4
(0.2)
7.5
(0.30)
7
(0.3)
21
(0.8)
46
(1.8)
69
(2.7)
96
(3.8)
529
(20.8)
Source: [14]
Climate data for Pafuri Rest camp, Kruger National Park
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 35
(95)
34
(93)
33.6
(92.5)
32.7
(90.9)
29.9
(85.8)
27.7
(81.9)
28
(82)
29.9
(85.8)
32.1
(89.8)
34.7
(94.5)
34.1
(93.4)
35.1
(95.2)
32.2
(90.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 28.2
(82.8)
28
(82)
26.9
(80.4)
25.4
(77.7)
21.7
(71.1)
18.9
(66.0)
19
(66)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
26.9
(80.4)
27.2
(81.0)
28.2
(82.8)
24.6
(76.2)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 21.5
(70.7)
22
(72)
20.3
(68.5)
18.1
(64.6)
13.6
(56.5)
10.2
(50.4)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15.6
(60.1)
19.1
(66.4)
20.4
(68.7)
21.4
(70.5)
17.0
(62.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 90
(3.5)
77
(3.0)
36
(1.4)
22
(0.9)
10
(0.4)
5
(0.2)
2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
10
(0.4)
17
(0.7)
54
(2.1)
86
(3.4)
411
(16.2)
Source: [15]

Biodiversity[edit]

Veld types
Open savanna grassland in the northern flats
Mixed woodlands in the southwest on granite
Open savanna on dry basalt flatlands in the southeast

Vegetation[edit]

Plant life consists of four main areas, which correspond roughly to the four quadrants of the park. The main veld types are determined by the rainfall gradient (400 to 750 mm per annum) and geological substrates.

Shrub mopane veld[edit]

Shrub mopane covers almost the entire northeastern part of the park.

Red bush-willow and mopane veld[edit]

This area lies in the park's western half, north of the Olifants River. The two most prominent species here are the red bush-willow (Combretum apiculatum) and the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane).

Thorn trees and red bush-willow veld[edit]

This area lies between the western boundary and roughly the centre of the park south of the Olifants River. Combretums, such as the red bush-willow (Combretum apiculatum), and Acacia species predominate while there are a great number of marula trees (Sclerocarya caffra). The Acacias are dominant along the rivers and streams, the very dense Nwatimhiri bush along the Sabie River between Skukuza and Lower Sabie being a very good example.

Knob-thorn and marula veld[edit]

South of the Olifants River in the park's eastern half, this area provides the most important grazing land. Species such as red grass (Themeda triandra) and buffalo grass (Panicum maximum) predominate while the knob-thorn (Acacia nigrescens), leadwood (Combretum imberbe) and marula (Sclerocarya caffra) are the main tree species.

Local vegetation communities[edit]

Several smaller areas in the park carry distinctive vegetation. The Pretoriuskop sourveld and Malelane mountain bushveld receive relatively high rainfall. Here sickle bush and silver cluster-leaf (Terminalia sericea) are prominent. The sandveld communities northeast of Punda Maria are equally distinctive, with a wide variety of unique plant species. The bush-clad hills along the Levuvhu River also shelter an interesting floral diversity and some near-endemic species.

Mammals[edit]

All the big five game animals are found at Kruger National Park, which has more species of large mammals than any other African game reserve (at 147 species). There are webcams set up to observe the wildlife.[16]

Kruger supports packs of the endangered African wild dog, of which there are thought to be only about 400 in the whole of South Africa.[17]

Wildlife population as of 2011
Species Count (2009) Count (2010)[18] Count (2011)[19]
South-central black rhinoceros 350 590–660
Blue wildebeest 9,612 11,500 6,400–13,100
Plains zebra 17,797 26,500 23,700–35,300
Bushbuck 500 500
African buffalo 27,000 37,500 37,130
Common eland 300 460 460
African bush elephant 11,672 13,700 13,750
Giraffe 5,114 9,000 6,800–10,300
Greater kudu 5,798 9,500 11,200–17,300
Hippopotamus 3,000 3,100 3,100
Impala 150,000 120,000 132,300–176,400
Hartebeest 50
Mountain reedbuck 150 150
Nyala 300 300
Roan antelope 90 90
Sable antelope 290 290
Common warthog 3,500 3,100–5,700
Waterbuck 5,000 5,500 3,100–7,800
Southern white rhinoceros 7,000 to 12,000[20] 10,500
African wild dog 240 120
Cheetah 120 120 120
Nile crocodile 4,420 4,420
Leopard 2,000 1,000 1,000
Lion 2,800 1,600 1,620–1,720
Spotted hyena 2,000 3,500 5,340

Birds[edit]

Birds
Harlequin quails (C. delegorguei) are irruptive migrants and late summer breeders in the grassy plains. They are plentiful nomads after good rains, but almost absent during dry years.[21]
Yellow-billed oxpeckers (B. africanus) are obligatory symbionts of large mammal herbivores. After an absence of over 80 years, they made an unaided comeback starting in 1979.[22]

A fairly uniform aggregate of bird species is present from the southern to central areas of the park, but a decline in diversity is noticeable in the mopane-dominated flats northwards of the Olifants.[21] Most species breed in summer when rains sustain most vegetable and animal food, but the larger birds of prey conversely breed during the dry winter, when their prey is most exposed.[21] Out of the 517 species of birds found at Kruger, 253 are residents, 117 non-breeding migrants, and 147 are nomads.

Constituting the southern lowveld, the park's avifaunal affinities are mainly with the tropical north. Some representatives of this group are the African openbill, hooded vulture, Dickinson's kestrel, white-crowned lapwing, brown-necked parrot, Senegal coucal, broad-billed roller, trumpeter hornbill, Böhm's spinetail, tropical boubou, Meves's starling and scarlet-chested sunbird.[21] Some 30 waterbird and wader species are dependent on the rivers or associated dams,[23] including the African finfoot, white-backed night heron, white-crowned lapwing and water thick-knee. Other species are limited to riparian thicket or forest, including African goshawk, crested guineafowl, Natal spurfowl, Narina trogon, Pel's fishing owl, bearded scrub robin, terrestrial brownbul and black-throated wattle-eye. This habitat is often reduced by drought[24] or floods or the understorey is opened up by elephant.[21]

Some of the larger birds require large territories or are sensitive to habitat degradation. Six of these birds, which are by and large restricted to Kruger and other extensive conservation areas, have been assigned to a fanciful grouping called the "Big Six Birds".[25] They are the lappet-faced vulture, martial eagle, saddle-billed stork, kori bustard, ground hornbill and the reclusive Pel's fishing owl, which is localized and seldom seen. The 2011 aerial survey found 22 martial eagle nest sites, the 2015 survey an additional 17, while the 2020 survey found 70 nest locations in all,[26] though the activity of these has yet to be determined. There are 25 to 30 breeding pairs of saddle-billed storks in the park, besides a handful of non-breeding individuals.[25] In 2012 178 family groups of ground hornbills roamed the park and 78 nests were known, of which 50% were active.[27] A 2013 study estimated that 904 pairs of white-backed vulture, 78 pairs of lappet-faced vulture and 60 pairs of white-headed vulture breed in the park.[28]

Other vertebrates[edit]

Kruger is inhabited by 126 species[29] of reptile, including black mambas, African rock pythons, and 3,000 Nile crocodiles. As yet, knowledge of the densities and distributions of the reptiles, especially on smaller spatial scales, is limited by sampling bias and a strong dependence on the park's public infrastructure is evident.[29] Thirty-three species of amphibians are found in the park,[30] as well as 50 fish species. A Zambesi shark, Carcharhinus leucas, also known as the bull shark, was caught at the confluence of the Limpopo and Luvuvhu Rivers in July 1950. Zambezi sharks tolerate fresh water and can travel far up rivers like the Limpopo.[31]

Invertebrates[edit]

A seasonally fluctuating biomass of arthropods is observed in response to the summer rainfall regime and the mostly deciduous vegetation, as shown by sampling during 11 months in grassland near Satara Camp.[32]

219 species of butterfly and skipper are native to the park.[33] The fastest and most robust of these belong to the genus Charaxes,[34] of which 12 species have been recorded.[35] Genera Papilio and Acraea are also well-represented, with about 10 and 15 species respectively.[35] The total number of Lepidoptera species in the park is unknown but could be in the order of 7,000, many of which range widely in African savanna. The mopane moth in the northern half of the park is one of the best known, and communities outside the park have at times been given permits to harvest their caterpillars.[36][37][38] The park has a high diversity of termites and 22 genera are known to occur, including the mound-building genera Macrotermes, Cubitermes, Amitermes, Odontotermes and Trinervitermes.[39] A new species of woodlouse, Ctenorillo meyeri, has been discovered inside termite nests, east of Phalaborwa and near Mopani Rest Camp.[40] It is the first instance of a termitophilous species from the family Armadillidae. Many species of mosquito occur in the park, including the Culex, Aedes and Anopheles genera which target mammals. A. arabiensis is the most prevalent of the 9 or more Anopheles species in the park, and their females transmit malaria.[41] As of 2018, 350 species of arachnids, excluding ticks and mites, are known from Kruger.[42] These are mostly true spiders, including 7 species of baboon spider, but also 9 scorpion and 7 pseudoscorpion species, 18 solifugid species (sun and roman spiders), 2 species of harvestmen and 1 species of tailless whip scorpion.[43]

Threats[edit]

The park's ecosystem is subject to several threats, including intensive poaching, urban development at its borders,[44] global warming and droughts,[45] animal overpopulation,[46] and mining projects.[47]

Light pollution produced by rest camps and nearby towns affects the biodiversity of Kruger National Park. In particular, it alters the composition of nocturnal wildlife[48] and the hunting behaviour of predators.[49] In 2022 it was announced that Nkosi City, an R8 billion development is planned near the western border of the park.[50]

Floods or raising of the walls of the Massingir and Corumana dams in Mozambique could potentially damage, by silting, the pristine gorges of the Olifants and Sabie rivers respectively.[51][52] The Olifants River Gorge has a deep, single thread, pool-rapid structure which is home to many crocodiles, besides hippos and fish. The fish population of the Olifants has already been diminished by hundreds of dams in its upper reaches.[52]

Anti-poaching measures[edit]

Kruger is not exempt from the threat of poaching that many other African countries have faced. Many poachers are in search of ivory from elephant tusks or rhino horns, which are similar in composition to human fingernails.[53] The park's anti-poaching unit consists of 650[54] SANParks game rangers, assisted by the SAPS and the SANDF (including the SAAF). As of 2013, the park is equipped with two drones borrowed from Denel and two Aérospatiale Gazelle helicopters, donated by the RAF to augment its air space presence.[55][56] Automated movement sensors relay intrusions along the Mozambique border to a control center,[57] and a specialist dog unit has been introduced.[58] Buffer zones have been established along the border with Mozambique,[59] from where many poachers have infiltrated the park, as an alternative to costly new fences.[60] The original 150 km long fences were dropped in 2002 to establish the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.[54][61] The national anti-poaching committee oversees all activities and coordinates interested parties.[62][63]

Poachers[edit]

Kruger's big game poachers operate with night vision instruments and large caliber rifles, fitted with suppressors and sophisticated telescopic sights.[64][65] They are mostly Mozambique citizens that initiate their carefully planned incursions from the border region of South Africa and Mozambique.[64][66][67] In 2012 some 200 poachers were apprehended,[68] while about 30 were killed in skirmishes.[69][70]

In July 2012, a Kruger game ranger and policeman were the first to die in an anti-poaching operation,[71] while other employees reported intimidation by poachers.[72][73][74][75] A Kruger personnel strike affected some anti-poaching operations,[76] and some employees have been directly implicated.[72][77][78][79][80][81] Rangers in and around the park have been pressured or blackmailed by poaching syndicates to provide intelligence on the whereabouts of rhinos and anti-poaching operations.[82]

In December 2012, Kruger started using a Seeker II drone against rhino poachers. The drone was loaned to the South African National Parks authority by its manufacturer Denel Dynamics, South Africa.[83][84]

In June 2019, a Helix surveillance aircraft system was deployed on night missions in the park, and apprehended half a dozen suspected poachers.[85]

Other threats to poachers include the dangerous nature of the park itself. In February 2018, a poacher was believed to have been trampled by elephants and then eaten by lions, leaving rangers to later find only a human skull and a pair of trousers, alongside a loaded hunting rifle.[86][87]

In December 2021, two accused poachers were arrested in the Kruger National Park's Skukuza after they were discovered in possession of unauthorized rifles and ammunition.[88]

Rhino[edit]

Poachers make no distinction between white and black rhinos,[73][89] but losses of black rhinos are low due to their reclusive and aggressive nature.[90] Rhino horn fetches between $66,000 and $82,000 per kilogram,[67][74][90][91][92] and the CITES ban has proved largely ineffectual against the trade in rhino horn.[93][94] The second horn is sometimes also hacked from the skull to obtain about 100 ml of moisture that is sold locally as traditional medicine.[90]

Poaching rhino horn escalated in the 21st century, with 949 rhinos killed in Kruger in the first 12 years,[55] and more than 520 in 2013 alone.[95][96] A memorandum of agreement is seen as a necessary milestone in stemming the tide between South Africa and Vietnam, in addition to the one with China,[60][97][98] while negotiations have not yet started with Thailand.[99] The amount of rhino horn held in storage is not publicly known.[100] Since 2009, some Kruger rhinos have been fitted with invisible tracing devices in their bodies and horns which enable officials to locate their carcasses and to track the smuggled horns by satellite.[101] South Africa's 22,000 white and black rhinos represent some 93% of these species' world population, 12,000 of which are found in Kruger.[73][94]

Elephant[edit]

Kruger experienced significant elephant poaching in the 1980s.[101] Due to international and national efforts, including a worldwide ban on ivory sales beginning in 1989, the poaching was abated for many years, but a sharp rise in 2014 has continued and the numbers of elephants poached per year in the park is growing at an alarming rate.[102][103]

Following approval by CITES, 47 tonnes of stockpiled ivory from Kruger were auctioned on 6 November 2008. The sale fetched approximately US$6.7 million which was allocated to increased anti-poaching measures. The intention was to flood the market, crash prices and make poaching less profitable. But instead, the legal sale was followed by "an abrupt, significant, permanent, robust and geographically widespread increase" in elephant poaching, as subsequent research showed.[104][105]

The latest Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), summit voted down proposals for further one-off ivory sales from stockpiles for having led to increases in poaching across the continent.[106][107] Across the continent the African elephant population decreased 30% in the period between 2007 and 2014. [108][109]

Other[edit]

It is foreseen that the placement of wire traps to procure meat would eventually become the most challenging form of poaching.[110] A scheme has been proposed to reward adjacent communities with the proceeds of game sales in return for their cooperation in game preservation.[110] The larger communities include Bosbokrand, Acornhoek, Hazyview, Hoedspruit, Komatipoort, Malelane, Marloth Park, Nelspruit and Phalaborwa.[94] Communities along the northern boundary have complained about a number of issues that affect them, including livestock killed by escaped predators.[111] In 2021 and 2022 there were cases of poisoning of carcasses near Punda Maria, evidently to obtain the body parts of scavengers.[112]

Gates to the Kruger Park[edit]

North & South Gates
Kruger National Park
Pafuri Gate
(northernmost entrance to the park)
Punda Maria Gate
Punda Maria Gate
(another northern entrance)
Crocodile Bridge
(a southeastern entrance to the park)
Phabeni Gate
(a southwestern entrance to the park)

The Kruger Park has the following gates:

Name Road From Town Coordinates
Crocodile Bridge Gate on the extension of Rissik Street from Komatipoort 25°21′30″S 31°53′37″E / 25.35833°S 31.89361°E / -25.35833; 31.89361 (Crocodile Bridge Gate)
Malelane Gate on the R570 off the N4 near Malelane 25°27′43″S 31°31′59″E / 25.46194°S 31.53306°E / -25.46194; 31.53306 (Malelane Gate)
Numbi Gate on the R569 road from Hazyview 25°9′19″S 31°11′51″E / 25.15528°S 31.19750°E / -25.15528; 31.19750 (Numbi Gate)
Phabeni Gate on the road off the R536 from Hazyview 25°01′30″S 31°14′29″E / 25.02500°S 31.24139°E / -25.02500; 31.24139 (Phabeni Gate)
Paul Kruger Gate on the R536 road from Hazyview 24°58′53″S 31°29′7″E / 24.98139°S 31.48528°E / -24.98139; 31.48528 (Paul Kruger Gate)
Orpen Gate on the R531 road from Klaserie 24°28′33″S 31°23′27″E / 24.47583°S 31.39083°E / -24.47583; 31.39083 (Orpen Gate)
Phalaborwa Gate on the R71 road from Phalaborwa 23°56′44″S 31°9′54″E / 23.94556°S 31.16500°E / -23.94556; 31.16500 (Phalaborwa Gate)
Punda Maria Gate on the R524 road from Thohoyandou 22°44′18″S 31°0′33″E / 22.73833°S 31.00917°E / -22.73833; 31.00917 (Punda Maria Gate)
Pafuri Gate on the R525 road from Musina 22°24′1″S 31°2′29″E / 22.40028°S 31.04139°E / -22.40028; 31.04139 (Pafuri Gate)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Carruthers, Jane (1995). The Kruger National Park: A Social and Political History. Natal: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. ISBN 9780869809150.

External links[edit]