LGBT adoption in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples in Europe:
  Joint adoption legal
  Stepparent adoption legal1
  No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples
1In Italy step-child adoption is only legal by court order.

Adoption by LGBT people in Europe differ legal recognition from country to country. Full joint adoption or step-child adoption or both is legal in 23 of the 56 European countries, and in all dependent territories.

Full joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in seventeen European countries, namely Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Another four, namely, Estonia, Italy, Slovenia, San Marino and Switzerland permit step-child adoption in which the registered partner can adopt the biological and, in some cases, the adopted child of his or her partner. In Croatia, a life partner may become a partner-guardian over their partner's child, which is to a great extent comparable to step-child adoption. In Greece, same-sex couples in a civil partnership may become foster - but not adoptive - parents.[1]

In dependent territories, joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in Saint Helena, Ascension Island, Tristan da Cunha, Gibraltar, Falkland Islands, Guernsey, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, the Isle of Man and Jersey. Several countries are currently considering permitting full joint or step-child adoption by same-sex couples.

Current situation[edit]

Joint adoption[edit]

Jurisdiction Entry into force Notes
[2] Andorra Andorra 25 December 2014
[3] Austria Austria 1 January 2016
[4] Belgium Belgium 30 June 2006
[5] Denmark Denmark 1 July 2010
[8] Finland Finland 1 March 2017
[9] France France 18 May 2013
  • Also applies to all French overseas territories
[10] Germany Germany 1 October 2017
[11] Iceland Iceland 27 June 2006
[12] Republic of Ireland Ireland 6 May 2016
[13] Luxembourg Luxembourg 1 January 2015
[14] Malta Malta 17 April 2014
[15][16] Netherlands Netherlands 1 April 2001
  • The law initially applied to the European Netherlands only.
  • In 2012 its scope was expanded to include the Caribbean Netherlands.
[17] Norway Norway 1 January 2009
[18] Portugal Portugal 1 March 2016
[19] Spain Spain 3 July 2005
[20] Sweden Sweden 1 February 2003
[21][22] United Kingdom United Kingdom 30 December 2005
  • The law initially applied to England and Wales only.
  • In Scotland a separate law came into force on 28 September 2009.[23]
  • In Northern Ireland since 11 December 2013[24]
  • In Isle of Man since 2 April 2011[25]
  • In Jersey since 2 April 2012[26]
  • In Gibraltar since 28 March 2014[27]
  • In Guernsey since 3 April 2017[28]

Non-European Territories:

  • In both Bermuda and the Pitcairn Islands since 2015.[29][30][31]
  • In the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension Island, and Tristan da Cunha since 2017.[32]
  • Not available in other overseas territories

Step-child adoption[edit]

Jurisdiction Entry into force Notes
[33] Estonia Estonia 1 January 2016
  • Only parties to a registered cohabitation agreement may adopt. However, cohabitation agreements cannot be registered.
[34] Italy Italy 2016
  • Court of Cassation ruled that step-child adoption by LGBT partners is allowed in some circumstances
[35][36] Slovenia Slovenia July 2011
  • In July 2011, The Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs stated that the existing law allows for second-parent adoption.
[37] San Marino San Marino 5 December 2018
[38] Switzerland Switzerland 1 January 2018

Other[edit]

Jurisdiction Entry into force Notes
[39] Croatia Croatia 5 August 2014
  • "Partner-guardianship"
[40] Greece Greece 10 May 2018
  • "Foster carer/parent". Only couples in a civil partnership are allowed to foster.

Public opinion[edit]

According to pollster Gallup Europe, women, younger generations, and the highly educated are more likely to support same-sex marriage and adoption rights for gay people than other demographics.[41]

In the United Kingdom in 2007, 64% of people said they thought gay couples should be allowed to adopt and 32% said they should not. 55% of respondents thought that male couples should be able to adopt and 59% of people thought that lesbian couples should be able to adopt.[42]

Opinion polls for same-sex adoption
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
 Austria IMAS 2015 46%[43] 48%[43] 6%
 Belgium Ipsos 2013 67%[44] 33%[44] 0%[44]
 Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 12%[45] 68%[45] 20%[45]
 Cyprus Eurobarometer 2006 10%[45] 86%[45] 4%[45]
 Czech Republic Median 2018 61%[46] 31%[46] 8%[46]
 Denmark Pew Research Center 2017 75%[47] - -
 Estonia ASi 2012 26%[48] 66%[48] 8%[48]
 Finland Taloustutkimus 2013 51%[49] 42%[49] 7%[49]
 France Pew Research Center 2017 64%[50] - -
 Germany Pew Research Center 2017 67%[51] - -
 Greece DiaNeosis 2017 26%[52] 72%[52] 2%[52]
 Hungary Eurobarometer 2006 13%[45] 81%[45] 6%[45]
 Ireland Red C Poll 2011 60%[53] - -
 Italy Pew Research Center 2017 42%[54] - -
 Latvia Eurobarometer 2006 8%[45] 89%[45] 3%[45]
 Lithuania Eurobarometer 2006 12%[45] 82%[45] 6%[45]
 Luxembourg Politmonitor 2013 55%[55] 44%[55] 1%[55]
 Malta Misco 2014 20%[56] 80%[57] -
 Netherlands Pew Research Center 2017 86%[58] - -
 Norway YouGov 2012 54%[59] 34%[59] 12%[59]
 Poland Ipsos 2017 16%[60] 80%[61] 4%[62]
 Portugal Pew Research Center 2017 59%[63] 28%[63] 13%[63]
 Romania Eurobarometer 2006 8%[45] 82%[45] 10%[45]
 Russia VTsIOM 2015 3%[64] 88% 9%
 Serbia GSA 2010 8%[65] 79% 13%
 Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[45] 84%[45] 4%[45]
 Slovenia Delo Stik 2015 38%[66] 55%[66] 7%[66]
 Spain Pew Research Center 2017 81%[67] - -
 Sweden Pew Research Center 2017 80%[68] - -
  Switzerland Pink Cross 2016 50%[69] 39%[69] 11%[69]
 Ukraine Gay Alliance of Ukraine 2013 7%[70] 68%[70] 12%
13% would allow some exceptions[70]
 United Kingdom Pew Research Center 2017 73%[71] - -

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/greece-allows-same-sex-couples-to-foster-children/2018/05/09/f0c39f4a-53a6-11e8-a6d4-ca1d035642ce_story.html?noredirect=on
  2. ^ "Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995". Bopa.ad. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  3. ^ "Homosexuelle dürfen künftig adoptieren – ohne Gesetzesnovelle - Homosexualität und Homophobie - derStandard.at › Panorama". Derstandard.at. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  4. ^ "refLex - Chrono". Reflex.raadvst-consetat.be. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  5. ^ "Lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab, lov om en børnefamilieydelse og lov om børnetilskud og forskudsvis udbetaling af børnebidrag - Udvidet adgang for registrerede partnere til adoption og overførsel af forældremyndighed m.v." retsinformation.dk. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  6. ^ "1. juli 2017: Nú kunnu samkynd giftast - Føroyski portalurin - portal.fo". 2 July 2017. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  7. ^ "Lovforslag". Folketinget (in Danish). Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  8. ^ "Lag om ändring av äktenskapslagen 156/2015 - Ursprungliga författningar - FINLEX ®". Finlex.fi. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  9. ^ "LOI n° 2013-404 du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe". Legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  10. ^ "Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts" (PDF) (in German). Bundesgesetzblatt. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  11. ^ "1445/132 lög í heild: réttarstaða samkynhneigðra | Þingtíðindi | Alþingi". Althingi.is (in Icelandic). Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  12. ^ "Children and Family Relationships Act 2015". Irishstatuebook.ie. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  13. ^ "Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014 - Legilux" (PDF). Legilux.public.lu. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  14. ^ "ACT No. IX of 2014" (PDF). Justiceservices.gov.mt. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  15. ^ "wetten.nl - Regeling - Wet openstelling huwelijk - BWBR0012099". Wetten.overheid.nl. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  16. ^ "wetten.nl - Regeling - Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba - BWBR0028063". Wetten.overheid.nl. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  17. ^ "Lov om endringer i ekteskapsloven, barnelova, adopsjonsloven, bioteknologiloven mv. (felles ekteskapslov for heterofile og homofile par) - Lovdata". Lovdata.no. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  18. ^ "ASSEMBLEIA DA REPÚBLICA : Lei n.º 2/2016" (PDF). App.parlamento.pt. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  19. ^ "Documento BOE-A-2005-11364". BOE.es. 2005-07-16. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  20. ^ "BBC NEWS : Europe : Sweden legalises gay adoption". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  21. ^ "Adoption and Children Act 2002". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  22. ^ "Adoption and Children (Scotland) Act 2007". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  23. ^ "The Adoption and Children (Scotland) Act 2007 (Commencement No. 4, Transitional and Savings Provisions) Order 2009". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  24. ^ "Gay adoption: Northern Ireland ban lifted". BBC News. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  25. ^ "Civil Partnership Act 2011" (PDF).
  26. ^ "Civil Partnership (Jersey) Law 2012". www.jerseylaw.je. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  27. ^ "Civil Partnership Act 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-07.
  28. ^ "Population Management Law 2016".
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ [2]
  31. ^ [3]
  32. ^ [4]
  33. ^ "Kooseluseadus" (in Estonian). Riigikogu. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  34. ^ "Cassazione, sì alla stepchild adoption in casi particolari". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 2016-06-22. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  35. ^ "Confronting Homophobia in Europe" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  36. ^ "First Adoption by Gay Partner of Child's Parent". www.sloveniatimes.com. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
  37. ^ "Legge 20 novembre 2018 n°147 "Regolamentazione delle Unioni Civili"". Consiglio Grande e Generale (in Italian).
  38. ^ "Stepchild adoption will be possible from 2018". Swissinfo. 10 July 2017. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  39. ^ "Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola". Archived from the original on 14 February 2017."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-26.
  40. ^ "Greece allows same-sex couples to foster children". Washington Post. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  41. ^ "Public opinion and same-sex unions (2003)". ILGA Europe. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2006.
  42. ^ Gay Adoption 28 Jan 2007 (2007-01-28). "UK Polling Report". UK Polling Report. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  43. ^ a b "86 Prozent fordern mehr Spielregeln für Zuwanderer". Krone.at. 16 October 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  44. ^ a b c "Detailed Tables". Ipsos. 18 June 2013. p. 89. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "EUROBAROMETER 66 FIRST RESULTS" (PDF). TNS. European Commission. December 2006. p. 80. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  46. ^ a b c "Poll: Most Czechs for same-sex marriages". Prague Daily Monitor. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  47. ^ https://www.termometropolitico.it/1313433_sondaggi-politici-italiani-adozioni-gay.html
  48. ^ a b c "LGBT TEEMALINE AVALIKU ARVAMUSE UURING" (PDF).
  49. ^ a b c "Extranet - Taloustutkimus Oy".
  50. ^ https://www.termometropolitico.it/1313433_sondaggi-politici-italiani-adozioni-gay.html
  51. ^ https://www.termometropolitico.it/1313433_sondaggi-politici-italiani-adozioni-gay.html
  52. ^ a b c "Τι πιστεύουν οι Έλληνες" (PDF). dianeoses.gr. 5 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  53. ^ "Nearly three quarters of Irish people in favour of gay marriage". Thejournal.ie.
  54. ^ https://www.termometropolitico.it/1313433_sondaggi-politici-italiani-adozioni-gay.html
  55. ^ a b c "Politmonitor: Breite Mehrheit für Homo-Ehe". Politmonitor. Luxemburger Wort. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  56. ^ https://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20140112/local/Survey-80-per-cent-against-gay-adoption.502248
  57. ^ Cite error: The named reference Malta 2014 opinion poll was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  58. ^ https://www.termometropolitico.it/1313433_sondaggi-politici-italiani-adozioni-gay.html
  59. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference YouGov 2012 opinion poll was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  60. ^ "Po raz pierwszy w Polsce zwolennicy jednopłciowych związków partnerskich są w większości. Może już czas". 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  61. ^ "Po raz pierwszy w Polsce zwolennicy jednopłciowych związków partnerskich są w większości. Może już czas". 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  62. ^ "Po raz pierwszy w Polsce zwolennicy jednopłciowych związków partnerskich są w większości. Może już czas". 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  63. ^ a b c "Pew Research Center".
  64. ^ "SAME-SEX MARRIAGE: PRO ET CONTRA". VTsIOM. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  65. ^ "Homophobia in Serbia 2010" (PDF). GSA. March 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  66. ^ a b c "Večina podpira istospolne poroke, do posvojitev je zadržana".
  67. ^ https://www.termometropolitico.it/1313433_sondaggi-politici-italiani-adozioni-gay.html
  68. ^ https://www.termometropolitico.it/1313433_sondaggi-politici-italiani-adozioni-gay.html
  69. ^ a b c "Das Volk will mehr Rechte für Homosexuelle". tagesanzeiger.ch. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  70. ^ a b c ""Гей-альянс Украина" публикует результаты исследования общественного мнения о восприятии ЛГБТ в украинском социуме".
  71. ^ https://www.termometropolitico.it/1313433_sondaggi-politici-italiani-adozioni-gay.html