LGBT adoption in Europe

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Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples in Europe:
  Joint adoption legal
  Stepparent adoption legal1
  No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples
1In Italy step-child adoption is only legal by court order.

Adoption by LGBT people in Europe differ legal recognition from country to country. Full joint adoption or step-child adoption or both is legal in 23 of the 56 European countries, and in all dependent territories.

Full joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in seventeen European countries, namely Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Another five, namely, Estonia, Italy, Slovenia, San Marino and Switzerland permit step-child adoption in which the registered partner can adopt the biological and, in some cases, the adopted child of his or her partner. In Croatia, a life partner may become a partner-guardian over their partner's child, which is to a great extent comparable to step-child adoption. In Greece, same-sex couples in a civil partnership may become foster - but not adoptive - parents.[1]

In dependent territories, joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Gibraltar, Falkland Islands, Guernsey, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, the Isle of Man and Jersey. Several countries are currently considering permitting full joint or step-child adoption by same-sex couples.

Current situation[edit]

Joint adoption[edit]

Jurisdiction Entry into force Notes
[2] Andorra Andorra 25 December 2014
[3] Austria Austria 1 January 2016
[4] Belgium Belgium 30 June 2006
[5] Denmark Denmark 1 July 2010
[8] Finland Finland 1 March 2017
[9] France France 18 May 2013
  • Also applies to all French overseas territories
[10] Germany Germany 1 October 2017
[11] Iceland Iceland 27 June 2006
[12] Republic of Ireland Ireland 6 May 2016
[13] Luxembourg Luxembourg 1 January 2015
[14] Malta Malta 17 April 2014
[15][16] Netherlands Netherlands 1 April 2001
  • The law initially applied to the European Netherlands only.
  • In 2012 its scope was expanded to include the Caribbean Netherlands.
[17] Norway Norway 1 January 2009
[18] Portugal Portugal 1 March 2016
[19] Spain Spain 3 July 2005
[20] Sweden Sweden 1 February 2003
[21][22] United Kingdom United Kingdom 30 December 2005
  • The law initially applied to England and Wales only.
  • In Scotland a separate law came into force on 28 September 2009.[23]
  • In Northern Ireland since 11 December 2013[24]
  • In Isle of Man since 2 April 2011[25]
  • In Jersey since 2 April 2012[26]
  • In Gibraltar since 28 March 2014[27]
  • In Guernsey since 3 April 2017[28]

Non-European Territories:

  • In both Bermuda and the Pitcairn Islands since 2015.[29][30][31]
  • In the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension Island, and Tristan da Cunha since 2017.[32]
  • Not available in other overseas territories

Step-child adoption[edit]

Jurisdiction Entry into force Notes
[33] Estonia Estonia 1 January 2016
  • Only parties to a registered cohabitation agreement may adopt. However, cohabitation agreements cannot be registered.
[34] Italy Italy 2016
  • Court of Cassation ruled that step-child adoption by LGBT partners is allowed in some circumstances
[35][36] Slovenia Slovenia July 2011
  • In July 2011, The Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs stated that the existing law allows for second-parent adoption.
[37] San Marino San Marino 5 December 2018
[38] Switzerland Switzerland 1 January 2018

Other[edit]

Jurisdiction Entry into force Notes
[39] Croatia Croatia 5 August 2014
  • "Partner-guardianship"
[40] Greece Greece 10 May 2018
  • "Foster carer/parent". Only couples in a civil partnership are allowed to foster.

Future legislation[edit]

Jurisdiction Entry into force Notes
[41][42][43] Czech Republic Czech Republic TBD
  • A same-sex marriage bill with joint and step-child adoption is being considered by the parliament
[44][45] Switzerland Switzerland TBD
  • A same-sex marriage bill with joint adoption is being currently discussed in Parliament

Public opinion[edit]

According to pollster Gallup Europe, women, younger generations, and the highly educated are more likely to support same-sex marriage and adoption rights for gay people than other demographics.[46]

  Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex marriage nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex marriage is legal in certain parts of the country
  Indicates that the country has civil unions or registered partnerships
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
Austria Austria IMAS 2015 46%[47] 48%[47] 6%
Belgium Belgium Ipsos 2013 67%[48] 33%[48] 0%[48]
Bulgaria Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 12%[49] 68%[49] 20%[49]
Cyprus Cyprus Eurobarometer 2006 10%[49] 86%[49] 4%[49]
Czech Republic Czech Republic CVVM 2019 47%[50] 47% 6%
Denmark Denmark Pew Research Center 2017 75%[51] - -
Estonia Estonia ASi 2012 26%[52] 66%[52] 8%[52]
Finland Finland Taloustutkimus 2013 51%[53] 42%[53] 7%[53]
France France Pew Research Center 2017 64%[51] - -
Germany Germany Pew Research Center 2017 67%[51] - -
Greece Greece DiaNeosis 2017 26%[54] 72%[54] 2%[54]
Hungary Hungary Eurobarometer 2006 13%[49] 81%[49] 6%[49]
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland Red C Poll 2011 60%[55] - -
Italy Italy Ipsos 2019 34%[56] - -
Latvia Latvia Eurobarometer 2006 8%[49] 89%[49] 3%[49]
Lithuania Lithuania Eurobarometer 2006 12%[49] 82%[49] 6%[49]
Luxembourg Luxembourg Politmonitor 2013 55%[57] 44%[57] 1%[57]
Malta Malta Misco 2014 20%[58] 80%[59] -
Netherlands Netherlands Pew Research Center 2017 86%[51] - -
Norway Norway YouGov 2012 54%[60] 34%[60] 12%[60]
Poland Poland Ipsos 2017 16%[61] 80%[61] 4%[61]
Portugal Portugal Pew Research Center 2017 59%[62] 28%[62] 13%[62]
Romania Romania Eurobarometer 2006 8%[49] 82%[49] 10%[49]
Russia Russia VTsIOM 2015 3%[63] 88% 9%
Serbia Serbia GSA 2010 8%[64] 79% 13%
Slovakia Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[49] 84%[49] 4%[49]
Slovenia Slovenia Delo Stik 2015 38%[65] 55%[65] 7%[65]
Spain Spain Pew Research Center 2017 81%[51] - -
Sweden Sweden Pew Research Center 2017 80%[51] - -
Switzerland Switzerland Pink Cross 2016 50%[66] 39%[66] 11%[66]
Ukraine Ukraine Gay Alliance of Ukraine 2013 7%[67] 68%[67] 12%
13% would allow some exceptions[67]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Pew Research Center 2017 73%[51] - -

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  60. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference YouGov 2012 opinion poll was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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