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State Assembly of Estonia
|Founded||23 April 1919|
Jüri Ratas, Centre
since 18 March 2021
Helir-Valdor Seeder, Isamaa
since 19 July 2022
Martin Helme, EKRE
since 18 March 2021
|Caretaker government (54)
|Party-list proportional representation|
Modified D'Hondt method
|5 March 2023|
|Toompea Castle, Tallinn|
Unaffiliated MP Raimond Kaljulaid votes with SDE, Anastassia Kovalenko-Kõlvart votes with Centre, Martin Repinski left Centre. Mihhail Stalnuhhin was expelled from Centre on September 6 2022.
The Riigikogu (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈriːɡikoɡu]; from Estonian riigi-, "of the state", and kogu, "assembly") is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. In addition to approving legislation, the Parliament appoints high officials, including the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and elects (either alone or, if necessary, together with representatives of local government within a broader electoral college) the President. Among its other tasks, the Riigikogu also ratifies significant foreign treaties that impose military and proprietary obligations and bring about changes in law, as well as approves the budget presented by the government as law, and monitors the executive power.
April 23, 1919, the opening session of the Estonian Constituent Assembly is considered the founding date of the Parliament of Estonia. Established under the 1920 constitution, the Riigikogu had 100 members elected for a three-year term on the basis of proportional representation. Elections were fixed for the first Sunday in May of the third year of parliament. The first elections to the Riigikogu took place in 1920. From 1923 to 1932, there were four more elections to the Riigikogu. The elections were on a regional basis, without any threshold in the first two elections, but from 1926 a moderate threshold (2%) was used. The sessions of the Riigikogu take place in the Toompea Castle, where a new building in an unusual Expressionist style was erected in the former courtyard of the medieval castle in 1920–1922.
In 1933 amendments to the first Constitution was approved by referendum, where more power was given to an executive President. The following year, the President used these new powers to adjourn parliament and declared martial law to avert an alleged coup. In 1937, a second constitution was approved by referendum which saw the introduction of a two chambered legislature, the Chamber of Deputies (Riigivolikogu) and the National Council (Riiginõukogu). Elections were subsequently held in 1938 where only individual candidates were allowed to run.
During the subsequent periods of Soviet occupation (1940–41), German occupation (1941–44), and the second Soviet occupation (1944–1991) the Parliament was disbanded. The premises of the Riigikogu were used by the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR during the second Soviet occupation.
Restitution of independence
In September 1992, a year after Estonia had regained its independence from the Soviet Union, elections to the Parliament took place on the basis of the third Constitution of Estonia adopted in a referendum in the summer of the same year. The 1992 constitution, which incorporates elements of the 1920 and 1938 Constitutions and explicitly asserts its continuity with the Estonian state as it existed between 1918 and 1940, sees the return of a unicameral parliament with 101 members. The most recent parliamentary elections were held on 5 March 2023. The main differences between the current system and a pure political representation, or proportional representation, system are the established 5% national threshold, and the use of a modified D'Hondt formula (the divisor is raised to the power 0.9). This modification makes for more disproportionality than does the usual form of the formula.
|Estonian Reform Party||190,632||31.24||+2.31||37||+3|
|Conservative People's Party of Estonia||97,966||16.05||−1.71||17||−2|
|Estonian Centre Party||93,254||15.28||−7.82||16||−10|
|Social Democratic Party||56,584||9.27||−0.56||9||−1|
|Estonian United Left Party||14,605||2.39||+2.30||0||0|
|Source: National Electoral Committee|
Current seat allocation
- Reform Party 37
- party leader: Kaja Kallas
- Conservative People's Party of Estonia 17
- party leader: Martin Helme
- Centre Party 16
- party leader: Jüri Ratas
- Estonia 200 14
- party leader: Lauri Hussar
- Social Democratic Party of Estonia 9
- party leader: Lauri Läänemets
- Isamaa 8
- party leader: Helir-Valdor Seeder
Structure of former legislatures
Estonian Parliament 1992–1995
|Isamaa||Safe Home||Popular Front||Moderates||Independence||ERP||Citizen||Greens||EEE|
Estonian Parliament 1995–1999
|Coalition/Country||Reform||Centre||RKEI and ERSP||Moderates||Home||Right|
Estonian Parliament 1999–2003
Estonian Parliament 2003–2007
|Kesk||Res Publica||Reform||People's Union||Pro Patria||Moderates|
Estonian Parliament 2007–2011
Estonian Parliament 2011–2015
Estonian Parliament 2015–2019
Estonian Parliament 2019–2023
Estonian Parliament 2023–present
Speakers of the Riigikogu
The salary of the speaker is €5,288 per month.
|Otto Strandman||January 4, 1921 – November 18, 1921||I Riigikogu|
|Juhan Kukk||November 18, 1921 – November 20, 1922||I Riigikogu|
|Konstantin Päts||November 20, 1922 – June 7, 1923||I Riigikogu|
|Jaan Tõnisson||June 7, 1923 – May 27, 1925||II Riigikogu|
|August Rei||June 9, 1925 – June 22, 1926||II Riigikogu|
|Karl Einbund||June 22, 1926 – July 19, 1932||III Riigikogu, IV Riigikogu, V Riigikogu|
|Jaan Tõnisson||July 19, 1932 – May 18, 1933||V Riigikogu|
|Karl Einbund||May 18, 1933 – August 29, 1934||V Riigikogu|
|Rudolf Penno||September 28, 1934 – December 31, 1937||V Riigikogu|
Speakers of the Riigivolikogu (lower chamber)
|Jüri Uluots||April 21, 1938 – October 12, 1939||VI Riigikogu|
|Otto Pukk||October 17, 1939 – July 5, 1940||VI Riigikogu|
|Arnold Veimer||July 21, 1940 – August 25, 1940|
Speaker of the Riiginõukogu (upper chamber)
|Mihkel Pung||April 21, 1938 – July 5, 1940||VI Riigikogu|
Chairman of the Supreme Council (1990–1992)
|Arnold Rüütel||March 29, 1990 – October 5, 1992|
Speaker of the Supreme Council (1990–1992)
|Ülo Nugis||March 29, 1990 – October 5, 1992|
|Ülo Nugis||October 21, 1992 – March 21, 1995||VII Riigikogu|
|Toomas Savi||March 21, 1995 – March 31, 2003||VIII Riigikogu, IX Riigikogu|
|Ene Ergma||March 31, 2003 – March 23, 2006||X Riigikogu|
|Toomas Varek||March 23, 2006 – April 2, 2007||X Riigikogu|
|Ene Ergma||April 2, 2007 – March 20, 2014||XI Riigikogu, XII Riigikogu|
|Eiki Nestor||March 20, 2014 – April 4, 2019||XII Riigikogu, XIII Riigikogu|
|Henn Põlluaas||April 4, 2019 – March 18, 2021||XIV Riigikogu|
|Jüri Ratas||March 18, 2021||XIV Riigikogu|
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2020)
The Chancellery of the Riigikogu (Estonian: Riigikogu Kantselei) is the administration supporting the Riigikogu in the performance of its constitutional functions.
- List of members of the Parliament of Estonia
- Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Citations and references
- ^ Krjukov, Aleksander (6 September 2022). "Keskerakonna juhatus heitis Mihhail Stalnuhhini erakonnast välja" (in Estonian). ERR. Archived from the original on 6 September 2022. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- ^ "Riigikogu". Riigikogu. Archived from the original on 5 December 1998. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- ^ Miljan 2004, p. 413.
- ^ Miljan 2004, p. 414.
- ^ "Eesti Vabariik kokku". Valimised. Archived from the original on 5 March 2023. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
- ^ "Riigikogu liikmete ja teiste kõrgemate riigiteenijate palk ei muutu". Postimees. 15 March 2017. Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Riigikogu juhatus". Riigikogu. Archived from the original on 6 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- ^ "Chancellery of the Riigikogu". Riigikogu (in Estonian). Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- Miljan, Toivo (2004). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4904-6.
- Official website
- Riigkogu's election law (in English)
Coordinates: 59°26′09″N 24°44′14″E / 59.43583°N 24.73722°E