Lincoln MKZ

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lincoln MKZ
2018 Lincoln MKZ
ManufacturerThe Lincoln Motor Company (Ford Motor Company)
Also calledLincoln Zephyr (2006)
ProductionAugust 2005[1]–July 2020
Model years2006–2020
AssemblyHermosillo, Sonora, Mexico (Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly)
Body and chassis
ClassMid-size luxury car
Body style4-door sedan
LayoutFF layout / F4 layout
SuccessorLincoln Z (China)

The Lincoln MKZ, is a four-door, five-passenger mid-size luxury sedan manufactured by Ford and marketed as the Zephyr (MY 2006) and as the MKZ (MY 2007–2020) by Ford's Lincoln brand across two generations in both gasoline and hybrid gas/electric models.

Both generations of the MKZ were manufactured at Ford's Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly plant in Mexico. Production ended in 2020 to make way for new Ford vehicles.[2][3]

First generation (2006–2012)[edit]

First generation
2009 Lincoln MKZ
Also calledLincoln Zephyr (2005-2006)
ProductionAugust 1, 2005[1]–2012
Model years2006–2012
Body and chassis
PlatformFord CD3 platform (CD378)
RelatedFord Fusion
Mercury Milan
3.0 L Duratec 30 V6 ('06)
3.5 L Duratec 35 V6 ('07-'12)
Gasoline Hybrid:
2.5 L Duratec 25 I4 (Hybrid; '11-'12)
Transmission6-speed Aisin TF-80 automatic
Wheelbase107.4 in (2,728 mm)
Length2006–09 190.5 in (4,839 mm)
2010–12: 189.8 in (4,821 mm)
Width72.2 in (1,834 mm)
Height2006: 57.2 in (1,453 mm)
2007–09: 57.1 in (1,450 mm)
2010–12: 56.9 in (1,445 mm)
2011–12 Hybrid: 56.8 in (1,443 mm)
Curb weight2006: 3,438 lb (1,559 kg)
2007–09: 3,469 lb (1,574 kg)
2010–12: 3,598 lb (1,632 kg)
2011–12 Hybrid: 3,756 lb (1,704 kg)

The 2006 Lincoln Zephyr was initially unveiled in concept form at the 2004 New York International Auto Show, previewing a new entry-level luxury sedan. The front featured Lincoln's signature waterfall grille and jeweled quad projector beam headlights (HID headlights were available). Chrome trim extends along the Zephyr's beltline while the car's rear fascia features LED taillights and dual chrome exhaust tips. All Zephyrs featured low-profile tires on 17x7.5-inch wheels with painted aluminum versions standard and chrome versions optional.

Lincoln officially revived the Zephyr name in the fall of 2005; the vehicles were based on the CD3 platform, which was derived from the Mazda 6. Lincoln had previously used the Zephyr name in the late 1930s for the smaller Lincoln-Zephyr line of mid-size vehicles. The "Zephyr" name had also previously been used by Mercury during the late 1970s and early 1980s, for several vehicles built on the Fox Platform.

The Zephyr's sole powertrain was a 3.0 L DOHC Duratec V6 mated to an Aisin 6-speed automatic transmission; identical to the V6 powertrain that was optional in the Fusion and Milan. The interior is largely unique to the Lincoln, along with different equipment packaging. The 2006 Zephyr started at a base MSRP of $28,995 USD, ranging up to $35,340 USD when fully optioned.[4]

Though slightly smaller and front-wheel drive, the Zephyr was marketed as a replacement for Lincoln's previous entry level mid-size, the rear-wheel drive Lincoln LS. To facilitate a smooth transition, the Zephyr and LS were sold parallel to each other during the 2006 model year, the first model year of the Zephyr and the last for the LS. For 2007 the model was renamed MKZ, and took over the LS' market with sales beginning in September 2006. Lincoln's decision to resurrect the Zephyr name refers to the very early days of Lincoln before World War II. At that time, the only Lincoln manufactured was the Lincoln K-series which was a full-size sedan, and Lincoln, under the direction of Edsel Ford, Henry Ford's only son, hoped to introduce a smaller product to compete with the Packard One-Twenty, and the LaSalle, a smaller sibling offered at Cadillac dealerships.

The Zephyr featured a revised interior from the Fusion and Milan. The design featured shapes with real ebony or maple wood inserts (depending on desired trim) in metallic frames. These surfaces were contrasted with chrome-bezeled gauges, circular, chrome-finished vents and a metallic center stack where the radio and climate controls are housed. The Zephyr's steering wheel was leather-wrapped with real wood grips and satin-nickel audio, climate, and cruise control buttons. White LED backlighting was used for the Zephyr's controls and instrumentation. Leather seating surfaces were standard in all models.[5]

Some of these standard features in the Zephyr included: cruise control, automatic headlights, fog lights, power door locks, "global" power windows (all windows can lower simultaneously at the push of a button), power adjustable and heated mirrors with puddle lamps, remote keyless entry, a tilt and telescoping steering wheel with redundant audio and climate controls, dual-zone automatic climate control, a universal garage door opener, 10-way power driver and front passenger seats, rear-seat reading lamps, and a six-speaker audio system with an AM/FM stereo radio and a six-disc, MP3-compatible CD changer. Optional in the Zephyr was a power moonroof, a DVD-based satellite navigation system, HID headlights, heated and cooled front seats, and an industry-first THX II-Certified audio system with a six-disc, MP3-compatible CD changer and ten speakers. Safety features included standard dual front-side airbags, front seat-deployed side airbags, and curtain airbags that extend from the front to rear seats.[6]

Mechanically the Zephyr was closely related to the Fusion and Milan. As mentioned, all three cars were based on Ford's CD3 platform, which was in turn derived from the Mazda 6. Like these cars the Zephyr is natively front-wheel drive (FWD). The Zephyr uses a coil-over damper, short- and long-arm (SLA) front suspension with double-ball-joint control arms while the rear suspension is an independent multi-link design with lower control arms and a 17 mm (0.7 in) stabilizer bar. Spring rates, bushings, and dampers have been specially tuned for the Zephyr to provide excellent ride comfort without compromising handling. All Zephyrs feature standard four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes with traction control. The sole engine offered in the Zephyr was an all-aluminum 3.0 L DOHC Duratec V6 producing 221 hp (165 kW) at 6250 rpm and 205 lb·ft (278 N·m) of torque at 4800 rpm. This engine was mated to an Aisin 6-speed automatic transmission and had a final drive ratio of 3.46:1. This powertrain was identical to the V6 powertrain available in the Fusion and Milan from 2006 to 2009.[7] With this powertrain the Zephyr could accelerate from zero to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.5 seconds.[8] The FWD Zephyr came with a 17.5 US gal (66 L; 15 imp gal) fuel tank and is rated to deliver 17 mpg‑US (14 L/100 km; 20 mpg‑imp) in city driving and 26 mpg‑US (9.0 L/100 km; 31 mpg‑imp) on the highway based on the revised 2008 EPA fuel efficiency measurement standards.[9]

2007 revision[edit]

2007–2009 Lincoln MKZ

For 2007, the Zephyr was refreshed and renamed MKZ to follow a new nomenclature developed by Lincoln that mimics the alphanumeric naming schemes used by other luxury automakers like Mercedes-Benz. Management at Lincoln originally announced the MKZ with a "mark-zee" pronunciation during the 2006 auto show circuit, but eventually changed it to the phonetic "em-kay-zee" due to confusion observed among focus groups and dealership personnel.[10]

The 2007 MKZ was first shown at the Chicago Auto Show in February 2006. In addition to its new name, the MKZ gained a number of changes over its predecessor. The standard and optional versions of the MKZ's 17 x 7.5-inch wheels were restyled. An intelligent all-wheel-drive system was now available, seamlessly distributing power to each wheel for optimum traction. Powering the MKZ, and taking a large step toward further differentiating the car from the Fusion and Milan, was Ford's new, all-aluminum 3.5-L DOHC Duratec 35 V6. The engine was tuned to produce 265 hp (196 kW) at 6250 rpm and 249 lb·ft (337 N·m) of torque at 4500 rpm. Significantly, the new engine needed only 87-octane regular-grade gasoline to achieve its output.[11] Also, in spite of the MKZ's power advantage over the 3.0-L DOHC V6-equipped Zephyr, the fuel economy of the MKZ rivals that of the Zephyr at 17 mpg‑US (14 L/100 km; 20 mpg‑imp) in city driving and 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp) on the highway in front-wheel-drive models.[12] A road test by Motor Trend found that an MKZ equipped with all-wheel-drive could accelerate from zero to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 6.8 seconds and complete a quarter mile in 15.2 seconds at 93.4 mph (150.3 km/h) due to the more powerful engine and extra traction.[13] One of the few other changes applied to the 2007 MKZ was a revision to the available THX II-certified audio system to increase speakers to 14 and its peak output to 600 watts. Beyond the MKZ's changes, the car remained positioned as an entry-level luxury sedan with base models still starting at just under US$30,000 and fully optioned models remaining below $40,000.

For 2008, the MKZ received new standard features as a part of Lincoln's continued effort to refine the car. Sirius satellite radio, perforated leather seats, a reverse sensing system, a tire pressure-monitoring system, and Lincoln SYNC (late availability) were all newly standard.[14] For 2009, Ford's 'AdvanceTrac' stability control system became standard, while a special edition "Midnight Black" package was available, featuring black leather seating surfaces and panels contrasted with maple wood and satin nickel inserts.

2010 facelift[edit]

2010 Lincoln MKZ

The 2010 MKZ was unveiled at the 2008 Los Angeles International Auto Show, revealing an extensive update with a revised interior and exterior in addition to new features. The MKZ's exterior featured revised front and rear fascias. The MKZ's headlights were new, while its fascia and split-wing grille closely resembled that of the Lincoln MKR concept. In the rear, the taillights have been revised to be longer and thinner, similar to the original Zephyr concept. The MKZ's standard and optional 17-inch wheels were restyled and featured an 18-inch wheel option. Inside, the MKZ's interior was revised, using real wood accents and metal surfaces. Bridge of Weir leather seating surfaces were standard. Other features new for 2010 included a reverse camera system, Sirius Travel Link, a DVD-based satellite navigation system updated to accept voice commands, rain-sensing windshield wipers, a cabin air filter, and adaptive HID headlights. Mechanically, the MKZ featured suspension revised to improve ride quality and handling and a new 'SelectShift' six-speed automatic transmission. The 2010 MKZ was released during the spring of 2009.[15]

MKZ Hybrid (2011)[edit]

2012 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid
Lincoln MKZ Hybrid with leaf road logo badging used in the hybrid version

The 2011 MKZ Hybrid was unveiled at the 2010 New York International Auto Show,[16] and sales began in September 2010.[17] It is the first Lincoln hybrid electric vehicle and the first Lincoln model with a four-cylinder engine; it delivers an EPA city rating of 41 mpg‑US (5.7 L/100 km; 49 mpg‑imp) and a highway rating of 36 mpg‑US (6.5 L/100 km; 43 mpg‑imp), which made it the most fuel-efficient luxury sedan in the U.S. until the release of the 2011 Lexus CT 200h in March 2011.[18] The Lincoln MKZ Hybrid carries over the hybrid powertrain from the Ford Fusion and Mercury Milan hybrids, including the 2.5-L Duratec I4 with the electric motor producing a total of 191 hp (142 kW).[16][19] The Lincoln MKZ Hybrid has an EV mode that allows the car to travel short distances on electricity alone, at speeds up to 47 mph (76 km/h).[20] The MKZ Hybrid offers an improvement of Ford's Smart Gauge with EcoGuide, first introduced in the 2010 Fusion Hybrid. The MKZ Smart Gauge version offered a new "Flower" design compared to the "Leaf" design of the Fusion. In essence, the car rewards the driver with flower blossoms for economical driving/driving habits.[16][19]

The Lincoln MKZ Hybrid is identified by Ford's leaf road logo badge.

The Lincoln MKZ Hybrid is marketed by Ford as a competitor to the Lexus HS 250h and Lexus ES Hybrid.[21] As of July 2011, the MKZ Hybrid was the only hybrid in the market with the same price as its conventional gasoline-engine version.[20][22] Ford reported that until June 2011, about 20% of 2011 MKZ sales have been hybrids, and the market share is even higher in markets where hybrids in general sell well, such as the Los Angeles region, where sales of the hybrid model represent 44%, and the San Francisco area, with a market share of 66%.[20] The MKZ Hybrid base price is US$35,520, and with popular options including a sunroof, navigation system, blind spot monitors, a THX surround-sound stereo, and a backup camera, the price rises to US$41,370.[20]

A complete redesign of the Ford Fusion line-up was scheduled for the 2013 model year.[23] Both the Lincoln MKZ and the Fusion Hybrid are expected to use a new compact lithium-ion battery pack and an updated powertrain that is expected to deliver a higher fuel economy up to 48 mpgUS (4.9 to 5.0 L/100 km; 56 to 58 mpgimp) highway. The next-generation Lincoln MKZ Hybrid was expected to be launched by mid-2012.[24][25] The 2013 MKZ concept car was unveiled at the 2012 North American International Auto Show.[26]

The MKZ Hybrid was one of the five finalists for the 2011 Green Car of the Year awarded by the Green Car Journal in November 2010, which was won by the Chevrolet Volt.[27] In its 2011 Hybrid Scorecard, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) ranked the MKZ Hybrid, together with the Lexus CT200h, as the top luxury hybrid models in the scorecard's environmental improvement category, an achievement the UCS attributed to their relatively small gasoline engines.[28] Nevertheless, the Lincoln MKZ Hybrid ranked higher than the Lexus on all factors: consumer value, hybrid technology, fuel efficiency, and pollution reduction. Also, the UCS praised the MKZ Hybrid, together with the Hyundai Sonata Hybrid, because both hybrids were available with few or no forced features that inflated the cost without adding to fuel savings or reducing emissions.[20] The UCS's Hybrid Scorecard ratings for the MKZ Hybrid are higher than the nonluxury Toyota Prius for environmental performance, and hybrid value; both are rated the same for forced features; and the Prius scores higher in fuel economy.[29]

Second generation (2013–2020)[edit]

Second generation
Model years2013–2020
DesignerMax Wolff (Exterior)
Soo Kang (Interior)
Body and chassis
PlatformFord CD4 platform (CD533)
Wheelbase112.2 in (2,850 mm)
Length194.1 in (4,930 mm)
Width73.4 in (1,864 mm)
Height58.1–58.2 in (1,476–1,478 mm)
Curb weight3,713–3,911 lb (1,684–1,774 kg)
Rear view (pre-facelift)

Ford redesigned the Lincoln MKZ for the 2013 model year, sharing the company's CD4 platform with Fusion and Mondeo.[30] The concept model debuted at the 2012 North American International Auto Show.[31] The production version of the second-generation MKZ was unveiled at the 2012 New York Auto Show. It followed the general concept idea released in the model displayed at the 2012 Detroit Auto Show.

The MKZ was originally set to be released in November 2012, but this was set back to January after Fusion production was delayed, which is produced at the same plant. Its release date was again pushed back after Ford looked to iron out any possible quality issues. Some MKZs were even shipped from the Mexican facility to Ford's Flat Rock plant to be reassured and inspected that they were ready to be sent to dealerships. This was an unprecedented move for such a big product launch, but Ford felt it would be profitable in the long run.[32] Cars finally started to reach dealerships in sufficient quantities by mid-March 2013.

Ford offered the 2013 MKZ with three powertrains: a 240-horsepower EcoBoost 2-liter four-cylinder (FWD or AWD), a 300-horsepower 3.7-liter V6 (FWD or AWD), and a hybrid system based on the 2-liter power plant. The hybrid, like the previous-generation MKZ Hybrid, was available for the same price as the non-hybrid model.[33][34]

Given the model's significant redesign for 2013, changes to the 2014 MKZ were primarily limited to color choices. For 2015, automatic headlights, rear parking sensors and rear view camera became standard.

EPA ratings[edit]

The Lincoln MKZ concept was unveiled at the 2012 North American International Auto Show.

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the 2013 MKZ Hybrid at 45 mpg‑US (5.2 L/100 km; 54 mpg‑imp) with the same rating for combined/city/highway cycles. The 2013 model year 2.0-liter, 4-cylinder FWD automatic MKZ rating is 26 mpg‑US (9.0 L/100 km; 31 mpg‑imp) combined, 22 mpg‑US (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg‑imp) in the city, and 33 mpg‑US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg‑imp) on the highway.

These ratings allowed the 2013 MKZ Hybrid to become the most fuel-efficient luxury vehicle in the U.S. and improve the fuel economy of the Lexus ES 300h hybrid by 5 mpg-US on the combined cycle. Despite sharing the same powertrain, the 2013 MKZ Hybrid rated 2 mpg-US combined less than its sibling, the second-generation Ford Fusion Hybrid at 47 mpg‑US (5.0 L/100 km; 56 mpg‑imp).[33]

The 2017 MKZ Hybrid's EPA rating is 41 mpg‑US (5.7 L/100 km; 49 mpg‑imp) in the city, and 38 mpg‑US (6.2 L/100 km; 46 mpg‑imp) on the highway.[35]

2017 facelift[edit]

2017 Lincoln MKZ

The MKZ received a facelift for the 2017 model year. Revealed on November 18, 2015, at the LA Auto Show, the MKZ is the first to adopt Lincoln's new design language previewed earlier on the Lincoln Continental concept car, featuring redesigned front grille and headlights. The 3.7 L V6 will be dropped in favor of an all-new 3.0 L twin-turbo V6 engine unique to Lincoln, producing between 350 and 400 horsepower depending on the drive-train.[36][37] Trim levels include the standard model, plus Premiere, Select, Reserve and top level Black Label, which is three special appearance packages, a tradition started with the Designer Editions in 1976. The MKZ offers the "Vineyard" (unique to the MKZ), "Chalet", and "Thoroughbred" theme appearance packages. In continuing with Lincoln tradition, Bridge of Weir "Deepsoft" leather is used for the Select and Reserve trim packages.

The transmission is no longer activated with a center console installed transmission selector; the computer controlled transmission uses buttons installed to the left of the MyLincoln Touch infotainment touch screen labeled "P, R, N, D, S", a revival of an approach used in the 1950s by the Chrysler push button PowerFlite and the Packard Touchbutton Ultramatic. The "S" transmission selection represents "Sport" mode, where the Continuously Controlled Damping suspension, electric power steering and transmission shift points take on a different posture.

The MKZ received no more major changes, with the new model years bringing new colors and a gradual diminishing of the lineup. For 2020, the car's final year on the market, only the Base and Reserve trims remained, with either Hybrid, Turbo, or V6 powertrains.


U.S. sales (2005 - 2021) China[38]
(gas & hybrid)
Hybrid-only Hybrid
2005 4,985[39]
2006 33,114[40]
2007 34,363[41]
2008 30,117[42]
2009 22,081[43]
2010 22,535[44] 1,192[45] 5.3%
2011 27,529[46] 5,739[47] 20.8%
2012 28,053[48] 6,067[49] 21.6%
2013 32,361[50] 7,469[51] 23.1%
2014 34,009[52] 10,033[53] 29.5%
2015 30,901[54] 8,403[55] 27.2% 2,801
2016 30,534[56] 7,219[57] 23.6% 7,325
2017 27,387[58] 5,931[59] 21.7% 12,497
2018 19,852[60] 12,560
2019 17,725[61] 12,409[62]
2020 12,518[63] 5,788[64]
2021 1,681[65] 2,280[66]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Binder, Alan K, ed. (2006). Ward's Automotive Yearbook 2006. Ward's Communications, Inc. p. 102.
  2. ^ "Lincoln, Rivian Partner To Deliver Lincoln's First All-Electric Vehicle" (Press release). Lincoln Motor Company. 2020-01-29. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  3. ^ Lin, Kelly (30 January 2020). "Confirmed: Lincoln MKZ Sedan Gets the Axe". Motor Trend. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  4. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2006 Zephyr Pricing." Ford Media. Jun. 16 2005. "Product Press Info | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Archived from the original on 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  5. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2006 Zephyr Exterior/Interior." Ford Media. 2005. "Product Press Info | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Archived from the original on 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  6. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2006 Zephyr Technical Specifications." Ford Media. 2005. "Product Press Info | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Archived from the original on 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  7. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2006 Zephyr Powertrain." Ford Media. 2005. "Product Press Info | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Archived from the original on 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  8. ^ Russ, Carey. "2006 Lincoln Zephyr Review." The Auto Channel. 2006.
  9. ^ United States. "2006 Lincoln Zephyr." Environmental Protection Agency. 2008.
  10. ^ "Lincoln Dealer Confusion Forces Model Name Changes". 2006-07-24. Retrieved 2006-07-24.
  11. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2007 MKZ Overview." Ford Media. 2006. "Product Press Info | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Archived from the original on 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  12. ^ United States. "2007 Lincoln MKZ." Environmental Protection Agency. 2008.
  13. ^ Stone, Matt. "First Test: 2007 Lincoln MKZ AWD." Motor Trend. 2006.
  14. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2008 MKZ Overview." Ford Media. 2007. "Product Press Info | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Archived from the original on 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  15. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2010 Lincoln MKZ Builds on Success with New Face, New Interior, More Features, Quieter Experience." Ford Media. Nov. 19 2008. "2010 LINCOLN MKZ BUILDS ON SUCCESS WITH NEW FACE, NEW INTERIOR, MORE FEATURES, QUIETER EXPERIENCE | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Archived from the original on 2009-10-04. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  16. ^ a b c "Ford Introduces 2011 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid; Projected 41 mpg City". Green Car Congress. 2010-03-31. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  17. ^ "September 2010 Dashboard: Hybrid Sales Slide, While Clean Diesel Continues Growth". 2010-10-05. Archived from the original on 2010-10-08. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
  18. ^ "2011 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid EPA-Rated at 41 mpg City/36 mpg Highway; Most Fuel Efficient Luxury Sedan in US". Green Car Congress. 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-06-16.
  19. ^ a b Floyd, Mike (March 2010). "2011 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  20. ^ a b c d e Garrett, Jerry (2010-07-22). "Upwardly Mobile Hybrids: Splurging While Saving Gas". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
  21. ^ Durbin, Dee-Ann (2013-10-09). "Lincoln takes on Lexus in new ads". Yahoo! Finance. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-06-19.
  22. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2010-07-22). "Is This the End of the Hybrid Price Premium?". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
  23. ^ "2012 Ford Fusion Review". Ford Auto Show. 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  24. ^ Loveday, Eric (2011-06-13). "Report: Next-gen Ford Fusion Hybrid to get up to 48 mpg highway". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  25. ^ Voelcker, John (2011-06-13). "All-New 2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid To Get 47-48 City MPG: Report". GreenCarReports. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  26. ^ Ernst, Kurt (2011-08-12). "2013 Lincoln MKZ Concept Coming to 2012 Detroit Auto Show". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
  27. ^ "Chevrolet Volt Electric Car is 2011 Green Car of the Year". Green Car Journal. 2010-11-18. Archived from the original on 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  28. ^ Jensen, Cheryl (2011-07-07). "Scientists Demand Improved Hybrid Performance From Automakers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
  29. ^ "Hybrid Scorecard". Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 2011-07-23 – via
  30. ^ "2013 Lincoln MKZ". Car and Driver. 22 March 2011.
  31. ^ Garrett, Jerry (2012-01-10). "MKZ Concept Is the Next Step in Lincoln's Reinvention". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
  32. ^ "Lincoln dealers frustrated over slow MKZ production ramp-up" from autoblog (February 12, 2013)
  33. ^ a b Blanco, Sebastian (2012-10-16). "Lincoln MKZ Hybrid rated at 45 mpg, below 47-mpg Fusion Hybrid". Retrieved 2012-10-17.
  34. ^ Warren, Tamara (2012-04-03). "In New York, Lincoln MKZ Makes a Proposition". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
  35. ^ "2017 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid FWD". U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  36. ^ Tingwall, Eric (2015-11-18). "2017 Lincoln MKZ Revealed: Further from the Ford". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  37. ^ Bell, Kirk (2015-11-17). "2017 Lincoln MKZ Gets Major Update, 400 Horsepower". Motor Authority. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  38. ^ "Lincoln MKZ China auto sales figures". 2 August 2017.
  39. ^ "Ford Achieves First Car Sales Increase Since 1999". 2004-11-17. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
  40. ^ "Ford Motor Company 2007 sales". January 3, 2008. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009.
  41. ^ "Crossovers, Lincoln Highlight Ford's 2007 Sales Performance" (PDF). January 3, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 25, 2011.
  42. ^ "F-Series drives ford to higher market share for third consecutive month" (PDF). Ford Motor Company. January 5, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
  43. ^ "FORD CAPS 2009 WITH 33 PERCENT SALES INCREASE, FIRST FULL-YEAR MARKET SHARE GAIN SINCE 1995 | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". 2010-01-05. Archived from the original on 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
  44. ^ "December 2010 Sales: Ford Motor Company - Cheers & Gears Forums". Retrieved 2011-01-04.
  45. ^ "December 2010 Dashboard: Year End Tally". 2011-01-07. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
  46. ^ "2011 Ford Brand Sales up 17 Percent for the Year in U.S." (PDF). Ford Motor Company. 2012-01-04. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-31. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  47. ^ "December 2011 Dashboard: Sales Still Climbing". 2012-01-09. Archived from the original on 2013-08-10. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
  48. ^ "Ford Cars, Utilities and Trucks All Post U.S. Sales Gains in 2012" (PDF). Ford Motor Company. 2013-01-03. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-23. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  49. ^ "December 2012 Dshboard". 2013-01-08. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
  50. ^ "Ford Delivers Best Sales Year Since 2006" (PDF). Ford Motor Company. 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  51. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2014-01-06). "December 2013 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
  52. ^ "Ford Posts Best U.S. December Sales Results since 2005" (PDF). Ford Motor Company. 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2015-01-07.
  53. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2015-01-06). "December 2014 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-01-07.
  54. ^ "New Products Make Ford Best-Selling Brand for Sixth Straight Year" (PDF). (Press release). January 5, 2016. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  55. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-06). "December 2015 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  56. ^ "Ford U.S. December Retail Sales up 5 Percent - a 12-Year High; Ford America's Best-Selling Brand for Seventh Year" (PDF). 2017-01-04. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
  57. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-05). "December 2016 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
  58. ^ "Ford SUVs Post Record Sales While F-Series Marks 41 Years as America's Best-Selling Pickup; Ford Achieves 8th Consecutive Year as the Country's Favorite Brand" (PDF). 2018-01-03. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  59. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2018-01-04). "December 2017 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  60. ^[bare URL PDF]
  61. ^ "F-Series Hits 43rd Straight Year as America's Best-Selling Pickup; Ford Achieves 10 Straight Years of Leadership as America's Best-Selling Brand; Lincoln SUV Sales Best in 16 Years". 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  62. ^ "2019年12月豪华中级车终端销量:奥迪A4L夺冠 雷克萨斯ES进前三". 2020-01-21. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
  63. ^ "Truck Customers Make F-Series America's Best-Selling Pickup For 44 Straight Years; Ford Brand Achieves 11 Straight Years as America's Best-Selling Brand; Ford Explorer Claims Top Spot in 2020; Luxury Customers Propel Lincoln SUVs to Highest Sales in 17 Years". Ford Media Center. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  64. ^ "2020年12月豪华中级车销量:奥迪A4L夺冠 雷克萨斯ES月销13348辆". 2021-01-18. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  65. ^ "Ford Best-Selling Automaker in Q4; Becomes No. 2 for Electric Vehicle Sales for 2021; F-Series Best-Selling Truck for 45th Year In Row and Best-Selling Vehicle for 40th straight year; SUV Share Expands | Ford Media Center". Ford Media Center. Ford Motor Company. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  66. ^ "2020年12月豪华中级车销量:2021年12月豪华中级车销量:雷克萨斯ES月销10719辆夺冠". 2022-01-23. Retrieved 2022-01-23.

External links[edit]