List of Norwegian records in swimming

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Norwegian records in swimming are the fastest ever performances of swimmers from Norway, which are recognised and ratified by the Norges Svømmeforbund (NSF).

All records were set in finals unless noted otherwise.

Long Course (50 m)[edit]

Men[edit]

Event Time Name Club Date Meet Location Ref
50m freestyle 22.44 Niksa Stojkovski Bærumsvømmerne 15 April 2018 Bergen Swim Festival Bergen, Norway [1]
100m freestyle 49.65 h Markus Lie  Norway 26 July 2017 World Championships Budapest, Hungary [2]
200m freestyle 1:48.57 h Gard Kvale  Norway 27 July 2009 World Championships Rome, Italy [3]
400m freestyle 3:46.37 Henrik Christiansen Skjetten Svømming 30 March 2016 Swim Open Stockholm Stockholm, Sweden [4]
800m freestyle 7:44.21 NR Henrik Christiansen  Norway 26 July 2017 World Championships Budapest, Hungary [5]
1500m freestyle 14:53.77 Henrik Christiansen Skjetten Svømming 31 March 2016 Swim Open Stockholm Stockholm, Sweden [6]
50m backstroke 24.84 NR Lavrans Solli  Norway 9 August 2015 World Championships Kazan, Russia [7]
100m backstroke 54.57 Lavrans Solli Bergens SC 7 July 2015 Norwegian Championships Bergen, Norway [8]
200m backstroke 1:59.23 h Lavrans Solli  Norway 6 August 2015 World Championships Kazan, Russia [9]
50m breaststroke 27.20 Alexander Dale Oen  Norway 25 July 2011 World Championships Shanghai, China [10]
100m breaststroke 58.71 NR Alexander Dale Oen  Norway 25 July 2011 World Championships Shanghai, China [11]
200m breaststroke 2:09.68 Alexander Dale Oen  Norway 12 August 2010 European Championships Budapest, Hungary [12]
50m butterfly 23.59 h Tomoe Hvas  Norway 4 July 2018 European Junior Championships Helsinki, Finland [13]
100m butterfly 52.71 Tomoe Hvas Bærumsvømmerne 6 April 2018 Swim Open Stockholm Stockholm, Sweden [14]
200m butterfly 1:58.85 Sindri Thor Jakobsson Lambertseter SK 28 May 2016 Swim Festival Bergen, Norway [15]
200m individual medley 1:59.58 Tomoe Hvas  Norway 8 October 2018 Youth Olympic Games Buenos Aires, Argentina [16]
400m individual medley 4:20.34 Henrik Christiansen Skjetten Svømming 1 April 2016 Swim Open Stockholm Stockholm, Sweden [17]
4×100m freestyle relay 3:25.50 h
 Norway 21 May 2012 European Championships Debrecen, Hungary [18]
4×200m freestyle relay 7:27.72 h
 Norway 21 May 2016 European Championships London, United Kingdom [19]
4×100m medley relay 3:40.57 h  Norway 27 May 2012 European Championships Debrecen, Hungary [20]
Legend: # – Record awaiting ratification by NSF; WRWorld record; EREuropean record; NRNordic record;
Records not set in finals: h – heat; sf – semifinal; r – relay 1st leg; rh – relay heat 1st leg; b – B final; – en route to final mark; tt – time trial

Women[edit]

Event Time Name Club Date Meet Location Ref
50m freestyle 25.05 h Susann Bjørnsen  Norway 12 August 2016 Olympic Games Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [21]
100m freestyle 55.35 h Susann Bjørnsen  Norway 10 August 2016 Olympic Games Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [22]
200m freestyle 1:59.42 Cecilie Johannessen Bergens SC 30 May 2015 Swim Festival Bergen, Norway [23]
400m freestyle 4:11.51 Irene Dalby  Norway 17 August 1989 European Championships Bonn, West Germany
800m freestyle 8:28.59 Irene Dalby  Norway 19 August 1989 European Championships Bonn, West Germany
1500m freestyle 16:42.87 Irene Dalby Hamar IL 20 June 1990 -
50m backstroke 28.53 sf Ingvild Snildal  Norway 13 August 2010 European Championships Budapest, Hungary [24]
100m backstroke 1:01.33 sf Ingvild Snildal  Norway 11 August 2010 European Championships Budapest, Hungary [25]
200m backstroke 2:15.25 Ingeborg Vassbakk Løyning Bærumsvømmerne 11 July 2017 Norwegian Championships Trondheim, Norway [26]
50m breaststroke 31.09 sf Katharina Stiberg  Norway 1 August 2009 World Championships Rome, Italy [27]
100m breaststroke 1:07.84 h Katharina Stiberg  Norway 27 July 2009 World Championships Rome, Italy [28]
200m breaststroke 2:23.02 Sara Nordenstam  Norway 15 August 2008 Olympic Games Beijing, China
50m butterfly 25.53 sf Ingvild Snildal  Norway 31 July 2009 World Championships Rome, Italy [29]
100m butterfly 56.96 Ingvild Snildal  Norway 27 July 2009 World Championships Rome, Italy [30]
200m butterfly 2:10.99 h Ingvild Snildal  Norway 31 July 2012 Olympic Games London, United Kingdom [31]
200m individual medley 2:15.13 h Sara Nordenstam  Norway 11 August 2008 Olympic Games Beijing, China
400m individual medley 4:40.28 h Sara Nordenstam  Norway 9 August 2008 Olympic Games Beijing, China
4×100m freestyle relay 3:44.09 h  Norway 21 May 2012 European Championships Debrecen, Hungary [32]
4×200m freestyle relay 8:16.16 Bærumsvømmerne 16 July 2016 Norwegian Championships Kristiansand, Norway [33]
4×100m medley relay 4:08.24 h  Norway 1 August 2009 World Championships Rome, Italy [34]
Legend: # – Record awaiting ratification by NSF; WRWorld record; EREuropean record;
Records not set in finals: h – heat; sf – semifinal; r – relay 1st leg; rh – relay heat 1st leg; b – B final; – en route to final mark; tt – time trial

Mixed relay[edit]

Event Time Name Club Date Meet Location Ref
4×100m freestyle relay 3:33.32
 Norway 20 May 2016 European Championships London, United Kingdom [35]
4×100m medley relay 3:57.03 h  Norway 17 May 2016 European Championships London, United Kingdom [36]
Legend: # – Record awaiting ratification by NSF; WRWorld record; EREuropean record;
Records not set in finals: h – heat

Short Course (25 m)[edit]

Men[edit]

Event Time Name Club Date Meet Location Ref
50m freestyle 21.81 h Niksa Stojkovski  Norway 15 December 2017 European Championships Copenhagen, Denmark [37]
100m freestyle 47.77 h Markus Lie  Norway 12 August 2017 World Cup Eindhoven, Netherlands [38]
200m freestyle 1:44.24 h Markus Lie  Norway 2 August 2017 World Cup Moscow, Russia [39]
400m freestyle 3:37.26 Henrik Christiansen  Norway 2 December 2015 European Championships Netanya, Israel [40]
800m freestyle 7:36.06 †, NR Henrik Christiansen  Norway 4 December 2015 European Championships Netanya, Israel [41]
1500m freestyle 14:21.53 NR Henrik Christiansen  Norway 6 August 2017 World Cup Berlin, Germany [42]
50m backstroke 23.33 sf, NR Lavrans Solli  Norway 5 December 2014 World Championships Doha, Qatar [43]
100m backstroke 51.02 NR Markus Lie  Norway 7 August 2017 World Cup Berlin, Germany [44]
200m backstroke 1:55.10 Tomoe Hvas Bærumsvømmerne 16 March 2018 Norwegian Championships Nadderud, Norway [45]
50m breaststroke 26.19 NR Aleksander Hetland  Norway 12 December 2009 European Championships Istanbul, Turkey [46]
100m breaststroke 57.05 NR Alexander Dale Oen  Norway 9 December 2011 European Championships Szczecin, Poland [47]
200m breaststroke 2:06.15 Alexander Dale Oen  Norway 11 December 2011 European Championships Szczecin, Poland [48]
50m butterfly 23.40 sf, † Tomoe Hvas  Norway 13 December 2017 European Championships Copenhagen, Denmark [49]
100m butterfly 50.85 sf Tomoe Hvas  Norway 13 December 2017 European Championships Copenhagen, Denmark [50]
200m butterfly 1:53.02 h Tomoe Hvas Baerumsvoemmerne 3 November 2017 Nordsjøstevnet Kristiansand, Norway [51]
100m individual medley 52.65 h Markus Lie  Norway 3 August 2017 World Cup Moscow, Russia [52]
200m individual medley 1:54.08 h, NR Tomoe Hvas  Norway 15 December 2017 European Championships Copenhagen, Denmark [53]
400m individual medley 4:09.10 Tomoe Hvas Baerumsvoemmerne 5 November 2017 Nordsjøstevnet Kristiansand, Norway [54]
4×50m freestyle relay 1:27.72 h  Norway 13 December 2009 European Championships Istanbul, Turkey [55]
4×100m freestyle relay 3:17.71 Bergens SC 5 November 2017 Nordsjøstevnet Kristiansand, Norway [56]
4×200m freestyle relay 7:05.19 h
 Norway 9 December 2016 World Championships Windsor, Canada [57]
4×50m medley relay 1:36.28 Bergens SC 17 March 2017 Norwegian Championships Bergen, Norway [58]
4×100m medley relay 3:34.64 Bergens SC 18 March 2017 Norwegian Championships Bergen, Norway [59]
Legend: # – Record awaiting ratification by NSF; WRWorld record; EREuropean record; NRNordic record;
Records not set in finals: h – heat; sf – semifinal; r – relay 1st leg; rh – relay heat 1st leg; b – B final; – en route to final mark; tt – time trial

Women[edit]

Event Time Name Club Date Meet Location Ref
50m freestyle 24.37 = Susann Bjørnsen  Norway 3 November 2017 Nordsjøstevnet Kristiansand, Norway [60]
50m freestyle 24.37 r, = Susann Bjørnsen  Norway 15 December 2017 European Championships Copenhagen, Denmark [61]
100m freestyle 52.92 sf Ingvild Snildal  Norway 10 December 2009 European Championships Istanbul, Turkey [62]
200m freestyle 1:55.95 Cecilie Waage Johannessen  Norway 11 December 2011 European Championships Szczecin, Poland [63]
400m freestyle 4:06.56 Cecilie Waage Johannessen  Norway 23 October 2011 World Cup Berlin, Germany [64]
800m freestyle 8:26.81 Irene Dalby Hamar IL 3 February 1990 -
1500m freestyle 16:29.82 Elin Slaatmo Hamar IL 18 October 2008 Lambertseter Open Oslo, Norway [65]
50m backstroke 27.50 rh Katharina Stiberg  Norway 12 December 2009 European Championships Istanbul, Turkey [66]
100m backstroke 58.78 Ingeborg Vassbakk Løyning Bærumsvømmerne 15 March 2018 Norwegian Championships Nadderud, Norway [67]
200m backstroke 2:08.71 h Ingvild Snildal  Norway 30 October 2010 World Cup Berlin, Germany [68]
50m breaststroke 29.96 Susann Bjørnsen  Norway 5 November 2017 Nordsjøstevnet Kristiansand, Norway [69]
100m breaststroke 1:05.26 Katharina Stiberg  Norway 13 December 2009 European Championships Istanbul, Turkey [70]
200m breaststroke 2:23.40 h Sara Nordenstam  Norway 12 December 2008 European Championships Rijeka, Croatia [71]
50m butterfly 25.10 Ingvild Snildal  Norway 11 December 2009 European Championships Istanbul, Turkey [72]
100m butterfly 56.52 Ingvild Snildal  Norway 14 November 2009 World Cup Berlin, Germany [73]
200m butterfly 2:08.36 Ingvild Snildal Asker SK 25 March 2012 Norwegian Championships Drammen, Norway [74]
100m individual medley 59.12 h Katharina Stiberg  Norway 11 December 2009 European Championships Istanbul, Turkey [75]
200m individual medley 2:10.67 Ingvild Snildal Asker SK 23 March 2012 Norwegian Championships Drammen, Norway [76]
400m individual medley 4:39.84 h Sara Nordenstam  Norway 15 December 2010 World Championships Dubai, United Arab Emirates [77]
4×50m freestyle
relay
1:38.68  Norway 15 December 2017 European Championships Copenhagen, Denmark [78]
4×100m freestyle
relay
3:40.45 h  Norway 18 December 2010 World Championships Dubai, United Arab Emirates [79]
4×200m freestyle
relay
8:03.16 Bærumsvømmerne 15 March 2018 Norwegian Championships Nadderud, Norway [80]
4×50m medley
relay
1:47.38  Norway 12 December 2009 European Championships Istanbul, Turkey [81]
4×100m medley
relay
4:01.15 h  Norway 17 December 2010 World Championships Dubai, United Arab Emirates [82]
Legend: # – Record awaiting ratification by NSF; WRWorld record; EREuropean record;
Records not set in finals: h – heat; sf – semifinal; r – relay 1st leg; rh – relay heat 1st leg; b – B final; – en route to final mark; tt – time trial

Mixed relay[edit]

Event Time Name Club Date Meet Location Ref
4×50m freestyle relay 1:33.30 h  Norway 16 December 2017 European Championships Copenhagen, Denmark [83]
4×50m medley relay 1:40.10  Norway 23 November 2012 European Championships Chartres, France [84]
Legend: # – Record awaiting ratification by NSF;
Records not set in finals: h – heat

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Event 31, 50m Freestyle Men - Final Seniors". livetiming.dk. 15 April 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  2. ^ "Men's 100m Freestyle Results". Omega Timing. 26 July 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  3. ^ "Men's 200m Freestyle Preliminary Results". Omega Timing. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  4. ^ "Men, 400m Freestyle, Final, 19 years and older". swimrankings.net. 30 March 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Men's 800m Freestyle Results". Omega Timing. 26 July 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  6. ^ "Men, 1500m Freestyle, Final, 19 years and older". swimrankings.net. 31 March 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  7. ^ "Men's 50m Backstroke Results". Omega Timing. 9 August 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  8. ^ "Men, 100m Backstroke, Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  9. ^ "Men's 200m Backstroke Heats Results". Omega Timing. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  10. ^ "Men's 100m Breaststroke Final Results". Omega Timing. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  11. ^ "Men's 100m Breaststroke Final Results". Omega Timing. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  12. ^ "Men's 200m Breaststroke Final Results". Omega Timing. 12 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  13. ^ "Men's 50m Butterfly Heats Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 4 July 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  14. ^ "Men's 100m Butterfly Final Results". livetiming.dk. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  15. ^ "Men, 200m Butterfly, Final, Open". 28 May 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  16. ^ "Men's 200m IM Final Results" (PDF). buenosaires2018.com. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  17. ^ "Men, 400m Medley, Final, 19 years and older". 1 April 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  18. ^ "Men's 4×100m Freestyle Relay Heats Results". Omega Timing. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  19. ^ "Men's 4×200m Freestyle Relay Heats Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  20. ^ "Men's 4×100m Medley Relay Heats Results". Omega Timing. 27 May 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  21. ^ "Women's 50m Freestyle Heats Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  22. ^ "Women's 100m Freestyle Heats Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 10 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  23. ^ "Women, 200m Freestyle, Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 30 May 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  24. ^ "Women's 50m Backstroke Semifinals Results". Omega Timing. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  25. ^ "Women's 100m Backstroke Semifinals Results". Omega Timing. 11 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  26. ^ "Women, 200m Backstroke, Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  27. ^ "Women's 50m Breaststroke Semifinals Results". Omega Timing. 1 August 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Women's 100m Breaststroke Preliminary Results". Omega Timing. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  29. ^ "Women's 50m Butterfly Semifinals Results". Omega Timing. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  30. ^ "Women's 100m Butterfly Final Results". Omega Timing. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  31. ^ "Women's 200m Butterfly Heats Results". www.london2012.com. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  32. ^ "Women's 4×100m Freestyle Relay Heats Results". Omega Timing. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  33. ^ "Women, 4 x 200m Freestyle, Timed Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  34. ^ "Women's 4×100m Medley Relay Preliminary Results". Omega Timing. 1 August 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  35. ^ "Mixed 4×100m Freestyle Relay Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  36. ^ "Mixed 4×100m Medley Relay Heats Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  37. ^ "Men's 50m Freestyle Heats Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  38. ^ "Men's 100m Freestyle Heats Results". Omega Timing. 12 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  39. ^ "Men's 200m Freestyle Heats Results". Omega Timing. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  40. ^ "Men's 400m Freestyle Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  41. ^ "Men's 1500m Freestyle Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  42. ^ "Men's 1500m Freestyle Results". Omega Timing. 6 August 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  43. ^ "Men's 50m Backstroke Semifinal Results". Omega Timing. 6 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  44. ^ "Men's 100m Backstroke Results". Omega Timing. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  45. ^ "Men, 200m Backstroke, Final, Open". swimrankings.net. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  46. ^ "Men's 50m Breaststroke Final Results". Omega Timing. 12 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  47. ^ "Men's 100m Breaststroke Final Results". Omega Timing. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  48. ^ "Men's 200m Breaststroke Final Results". Omega Timing. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  49. ^ "Men's 100m Butterfly Semifinal Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  50. ^ "Men's 100m Butterfly Semifinal Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  51. ^ "Men, 200m Butterfly, Prelim, Open". swimrankings.net. 3 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  52. ^ "Men's 100m Individual Medley Heats Results". Omega Timing. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  53. ^ "Men's 200m IM Heats Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  54. ^ "Men, 400m Medley, Timed Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 5 November 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  55. ^ "Mens 4×50m Freestyle Heats Results". Omega Timing. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  56. ^ "Men, 4 x 100m Freestyle, Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 5 November 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  57. ^ "Men's 4×200m Freestyle Relay Heats Results". Omega Timing. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  58. ^ "Men, 4 x 50m Medley, Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 17 March 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  59. ^ "Men, 4 x 100m Medley, Timed Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  60. ^ "Women, 50m Freestyle, Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 3 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  61. ^ "Women's 4×50m Freestyle Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  62. ^ "Women's 100m Freestyle Semifinals Results". Omega Timing. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  63. ^ "Women's 200m Freestyle Final Results". Omega Timing. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  64. ^ "Women's 400m Freestyle Final Results". Omega Timing. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  65. ^ "Women, 1500m Freestyle, Timed Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 18 October 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  66. ^ "Women's 4x50m Medley Relay Heats Results". Omega Timing. 12 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  67. ^ "Women, 100m Backstroke, Final, Open". swimrankings.net. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  68. ^ "Women's 200m Backstroke Preliminary Results". Omega Timing. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  69. ^ "Women's 50m Breaststroke Final Results". Swimrankings. 5 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  70. ^ "Women's 100m Breaststroke Final Results". Omega Timing. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  71. ^ "Women's 200m Breaststroke Heats Results". Omega Timing. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  72. ^ "Women's 50m Butterfly Final Results". Omega Timing. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  73. ^ "Women's 100m Butterfly Final Results". Omega Timing. 14 November 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  74. ^ "Women, 200m Butterfly, Final, 20 years and older". swimrankings.net. 25 March 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  75. ^ "Women's 100m Individual Medley Heats Results". Omega Timing. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  76. ^ "Women, 200m Medley, Final, 20 years and older". swimrankings.net. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  77. ^ "Women's 400m Individual Medley Heats Results". Omega Timing. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  78. ^ "Women's 4×50m Freestyle Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  79. ^ "Women's 4×100m Freestyle Relay Heats Results". Omega Timing. 18 December 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  80. ^ "Women, 4 x 200m Freestyle, Timed Final, Open". swimrankings.net. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  81. ^ "Women's 4×50m Medley Relay Results". Omega Timing. 12 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  82. ^ "Women's 4×100m Medley Relay Heats Results". Omega Timing. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  83. ^ "Mixed 4×50m Freestyle Relay Heats Results" (PDF). microplustiming.com. 16 December 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  84. ^ "Mixed 4×50m Medley Relay Results". Omega Timing. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012.

External links[edit]