List of artificial objects on Mars

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An example of an additional object from a spacecraft landing is the metal shroud ejected by the Viking 2 lander, as seen in this 1977 view of Mars. The shroud covered the surface sampler instrument and could be seen in images taken by the lander while it was active on the surface.[1]

The following table is a partial list of artificial objects on the surface of Mars, consisting of spacecraft which were launched from Earth. Most are defunct after having served their purpose, but the Curiosity rover and the InSight lander are still operational as of 2018. InSight is the most recent artificial object to land safely on Mars. The table does not include smaller objects, such as springs, fragments, parachutes and heat shields. As of November 5, 2016, there are about 14 spacecraft missions on the surface of Mars: some of these missions have multiple spacecraft.

Legend[edit]

Colors
No data collection
Transmitted data
Operational

Table of objects[edit]

In this listing, it is implied that each mission left debris according to its design. For example, the Schiaparelli EDM lander likely exploded on impact, creating an unknown number of fragments at one location. At another location, there may be a lower heat shield, and at another location, a parachute and upper heat shield. Another example is the counterweights ejected by MSL during its descent. In some cases, the nature and location of this additional debris has been determined and, in other cases, even the location of the main spacecraft has remained unknown. The identification of Beagle 2 after 11 years is one of the greatest breakthroughs yet, since prior to that, it could not be confirmed what had happened.[2] Spacecraft that have not been precisely located include Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 6, Mars Polar Lander, and the two Deep Space 2 probes.

Artificial object Image Nationality Landed Mass (kg) Status Location
Mars 2
1972. Марс-3.jpg
USSR 1971 1210 Failure during descent; crashed on surface Estimated @ 45°S 313°W / 45°S 313°W / -45; -313 (Mars 2) [3]
Mars 3
1972. Марс-3.jpg
USSR 1971 1210 Transmission failure 14.5 seconds after soft landing Estimated @ Sirenum Terra, 45°S 158°W / 45°S 158°W / -45; -158 (Mars 3) [4]
Mars 6
Mars6.gif
USSR 1973 635 Returned corrupted data for 224 seconds during its descent but contact lost before reaching surface[5] Estimated @ Margaritifer Terra, 23°54′S 19°25′W / 23.90°S 19.42°W / -23.90; -19.42 (Mars 6) [6]
Viking 1 lander
Viking lander model.jpg
United States 1976 657 Operated 2245 sols. Last contact Nov 11, 1982 Chryse Planitia, 22°41′49″N 48°13′19″W / 22.697°N 48.222°W / 22.697; -48.222 (Viking 1) [7]
Viking 2 lander
Viking lander model.jpg
United States 1976 657 Operated 1281 sols. Last contact Apr 11, 1980 Utopia Planitia, 48°16′08″N 225°59′24″W / 48.269°N 225.990°W / 48.269; -225.990 (Viking 2) [8]
Mars Pathfinder lander and Sojourner rover
Lander and rover drawing.gif
United States 1997 360 Operated 83 sols. Last contact Sep 27, 1997[9] Ares Vallis, 19°20′N 33°33′W / 19.33°N 33.55°W / 19.33; -33.55 (Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner) [10][11]
Mars Climate Orbiter
Mars Climate Orbiter 2.jpg
United States 1999 629 Destroyed by atmospheric stresses & friction.[12] Unknown
Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2
Mars polar lander.jpg
United States 1999 500 Unknown failure during descent; crashed on surface Estimated @ Ultimi Scopuli, 76°S 195°W / 76°S 195°W / -76; -195 (Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2) [13][14]
Beagle 2
Beagle 2 model at Liverpool Spaceport.jpg
United Kingdom 2003 33.2 Landed safely; solar panels failed to deploy Isidis Planitia, 11°31′35″N 90°25′46″E / 11.5265°N 90.4295°E / 11.5265; 90.4295 (Beagle 2 landing site)
Spirit rover (MER-A)
NASA Mars Rover.jpg
United States 2004 185 Operated 2210 sols. Last contact Mar 22, 2010 Gusev crater, 14°34′18″S 175°28′43″E / 14.5718°S 175.4785°E / -14.5718; 175.4785 (Spirit rover) [15][16]
Opportunity rover (MER-B)
NASA Mars Rover.jpg
United States 2004 185 Operated 5111 sols. Last contact June 10, 2018 Meridiani Planum, 1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity rover) [17][18]
Phoenix Mars Lander
Pia09344.jpg
United States 2008 350 Operated 155 sols. Last contact Nov 2, 2008 Vastitas Borealis, unofficially named Green Valley, 68°09′N 125°54′W / 68.15°N 125.9°W / 68.15; -125.9 (Phoenix) [19]
Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity)
Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover.jpg
United States 2012 900 Still in operation, 2262 sols Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater, 4°36′0″S 137°12′0″E / 4.60000°S 137.20000°E / -4.60000; 137.20000
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Maquette EDM salon du Bourget 2013 DSC 0192.JPG
Europe (ESA)
Russia (Roscosmos)
2016 577 Likely crashed on impact; transmitted descent telemetry Meridiani Planum
InSight lander
PIA22743-Mars-InSightLander-ArtistConcept-20181024.jpg
United States 2018 358 Landed Elysium Planitia[20][21]
4°30′N 135°00′E / 4.5°N 135.0°E / 4.5; 135.0 (InSight landing site)
Total estimated mass (kg) 10,240

Examples (surface)[edit]

MER-A Spirit rover lander
MER-B Opportunity's heat shield
MSL Curiosity self-portrait, 2016

From orbit[edit]

Viking 1 lander in 2006 (HiRise)
Viking 2 lander in 2006 (HiRise)
Phoenix lander and heat-shield in 2009 (HiRise)
Mars Pathfinder seen from space by the MRO HiRISE
MER-B Opportunity lander in Eagle crater (2006)
Beagle 2, after 11 years found and showing that it made it to the surface but did not expand fully to transmit
Curiosity landing remnants
Schiaparelli remnants (2016)

Landing site namings and memorials[edit]

Several landing sites have been named, either the spacecraft itself or the landing site:

Acidalia PlanitiaAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia TerraArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArcadia PlanitiaArgyre PlanitiaElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumIsidis PlanitiaLucas PlanumLyot CraterNoachis TerraOlympus MonsPromethei TerraRudaux CraterSolis PlanumTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisVastitas BorealisMap of Mars
The image above contains clickable linksInteractive imagemap of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of memorial sites on Mars (Yellow label = Named memorial site; Blue label = possible debris site; ? = precise location is not known). Hover your mouse to see the names of over 25 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Reds and pinks are higher elevation (+3 km to +8 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevation (down to −8 km). Whites (>+12 km) and browns (>+8 km) are the highest elevations. Axes are latitude and longitude; Poles are not shown.
(See also: Mars map & Mars Rovers map) (viewdiscuss)
Beagle 2
Curiosity
Deep Space 2
Mars 2
Mars 3
Mars 6
Mars Polar Lander
Opportunity
Phoenix
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Pathfinder
Spirit
Viking 1
Viking 2

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  4. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 3". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  5. ^ [3]
  6. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 6". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  7. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 1 lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  8. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 2 lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  9. ^ "Mars Pathfinder". Retrieved 2011-12-07.
  10. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  11. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder Rover". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  12. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Climate Orbiter". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  13. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Polar Lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  14. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Deep Space 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  15. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Spirit Rover (MER-A)". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  16. ^ "ESA Mars Express - Spirit Rover landing site image and coordinates". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  17. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Opportunity Rover (MER-B)". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  18. ^ Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bollen, D.; Bell, J. F.; Brückner, J.; Cabrol, N. A.; Calvin, W. M.; Carr, M. H.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Des Marais, D. J.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Folkner, W.; Gellert, R.; Glotch, T. D.; Golombek, M.; Gorevan, S.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hviid, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Knoll, A. H.; et al. (2006). "Overview of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Meridiani Planum: Eagle Crater to Purgatory Ripple" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 111. Bibcode:2006JGRE..11112S12S. doi:10.1029/2006JE002771. E12S12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-19. Retrieved 2010-12-24. Opportunity Rover (MER-B) coordinates on pg. 2.
  19. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Phoenix Mars Lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  20. ^ "NASA Evaluates Four Candidate Sites for 2016 Mars Mission". NASA. 4 September 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  21. ^ "Single Site on Mars Advanced for 2016 NASA Lander". NASA. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  22. ^ M. Adler, et al. – Use of MRO Optical Navigation Camera .. (2012)
  23. ^ NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9, November 29, 2011 – Vol. 4, Issue 9 Archived May 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Soviet Craft - Mars (1960-1974) Archived 2013-07-08 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ NSSDC - Viking 1 lander
  26. ^ NSSDC - Viking 2 lander
  27. ^ NSSDC - Mars Pathfinder
  28. ^ NASA - Space Shuttle Challenger Crew Memorialized on Mars
  29. ^ NASA - Space Shuttle Columbia Crew Memorialized on Mars
  30. ^ "Curiosity Landing Site Named for Ray Bradbury". NASA. August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
Acidalia PlanitiaAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia TerraArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArcadia PlanitiaArgyre PlanitiaElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumIsidis PlanitiaLucas PlanumLyot CraterNoachis TerraOlympus MonsPromethei TerraRudaux CraterSolis PlanumTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisVastitas BorealisMap of Mars
The image above contains clickable linksInteractive imagemap of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars landers and rovers
Hover your mouse to see the names of over 25 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by reds and pinks (+3 to +8 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevation (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Poles are not shown.
Beagle 2
Bradbury Landing
Deep Space 2
Columbia Memorial Station
InSight
Mars 2020
Mars 2
Mars 3
Mars 6
Mars Polar Lander
Challenger Memorial Station
Green Valley
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Carl Sagan Memorial Station
Columbia Memorial Station
Thomas Mutch Memorial Station
Gerald Soffen Memorial Station