List of artificial objects on Mars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
An example of an additional object from a spacecraft landing is the metal shroud ejected by the Viking 2 lander, as seen in this 1977 view of Mars. The shroud covered the surface sampler instrument and could be seen in images taken by the lander while it was active on the surface.[1]

The following table is a partial list of artificial objects on the surface of Mars, consisting of spacecraft which were launched from Earth. Most are defunct after having served their purpose, but the Opportunity and the Curiosity rovers are still operational as of 2017. Curiosity is the most recent artificial object to land safely on Mars. The table does not include smaller objects, such as springs, fragments, parachutes and heat shields. As of November 5, 2016, there are about 14 spacecraft missions on the surface of Mars: some of these missions have multiple spacecraft.

Legend[edit]

Colors
No data collection
Transmitted data
Operational

Table of objects[edit]

In this listing, it is implied that each mission left debris according to its design. For example, the Schiaparelli EDM lander likely exploded on impact, creating an unknown number of fragments at one location. At another location, there may be a lower heat shield, and at another location, a parachute and upper heat shield. Another example is the counterweights ejected by MSL during its descent. In some cases, the nature and location of this additional debris has been determined and, in other cases, even the location of the main spacecraft has remained unknown. The identification of Beagle 2 after 11 years is one of the greatest breakthroughs yet, since prior to that, it could not be confirmed what happen.[2] Spacecraft that have not been precisely located include Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 6, Mars Polar Lander, and the two Deep Space 2 probes.

Artificial object Image Nationality Landed Mass (kg) Status Location
Mars 2
1972. Марс-3.jpg
USSR 1971 1210 Failure during descent; crashed on surface Estimated @ 45°S 313°W / 45°S 313°W / -45; -313 (Mars 2) [3]
Mars 3
1972. Марс-3.jpg
USSR 1971 1210 Transmission failure 14.5 seconds after soft landing Estimated @ Sirenum Terra, 45°S 158°W / 45°S 158°W / -45; -158 (Mars 3) [4]
Mars 6
Mars6.gif
USSR 1973 635 Returned corrupted data for 224 seconds during its descent but contact lost before reaching surface[5] Estimated @ Margaritifer Terra, 23°54′S 19°25′W / 23.90°S 19.42°W / -23.90; -19.42 (Mars 6) [6]
Viking 1 lander
Viking lander model.jpg
United States 1976 657 Operated 2245 sols. Last contact Nov 11, 1982 Chryse Planitia, 22°41′49″N 48°13′19″W / 22.697°N 48.222°W / 22.697; -48.222 (Viking 1) [7]
Viking 2 lander
Viking lander model.jpg
United States 1976 657 Operated 1281 sols. Last contact Apr 11, 1980 Utopia Planitia, 48°16′08″N 225°59′24″W / 48.269°N 225.990°W / 48.269; -225.990 (Viking 2) [8]
Mars Pathfinder lander & Sojourner rover
Lander and rover drawing.gif
United States 1997 360 Operated 83 sols. Last contact Sep 27, 1997[9] Ares Vallis, 19°20′N 33°33′W / 19.33°N 33.55°W / 19.33; -33.55 (Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner) [10][11]
Mars Climate Orbiter
Mars Climate Orbiter 2.jpg
United States 1999 629 Destroyed by atmospheric stresses & friction.[12] Unknown
Mars Polar Lander & Deep Space 2
Mars polar lander.jpg
United States 1999 500 Unknown failure during descent; crashed on surface Estimated @ Ultimi Scopuli, 76°S 195°W / 76°S 195°W / -76; -195 (Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2) [13][14]
Beagle 2
Beagle 2 model at Liverpool Spaceport.jpg
United Kingdom 2003 33.2 Landed safely; solar panels failed to deploy Isidis Planitia, 11°31′35″N 90°25′46″E / 11.5265°N 90.4295°E / 11.5265; 90.4295 (Beagle 2 landing site)
Spirit rover (MER-A)
NASA Mars Rover.jpg
United States 2004 185 Operated 2210 sols. Last contact Mar 22, 2010 Gusev crater, 14°34′18″S 175°28′43″E / 14.5718°S 175.4785°E / -14.5718; 175.4785 (Spirit rover) [15][16]
Opportunity rover (MER-B)
NASA Mars Rover.jpg
United States 2004 185 Still in operation, 4677 sols Meridiani Planum, 1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity rover) [17][18]
Phoenix Mars Lander
Pia09344.jpg
United States 2008 350 Operated 155 sols. Last contact Nov 2, 2008 Vastitas Borealis, unofficially named Green Valley, 68°09′N 125°54′W / 68.15°N 125.9°W / 68.15; -125.9 (Phoenix) [19]
Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity)
Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover.jpg
United States 2012 900 Still in operation, 1645 sols Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater, 4°36′0″S 137°12′0″E / 4.60000°S 137.20000°E / -4.60000; 137.20000
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Maquette EDM salon du Bourget 2013 DSC 0192.JPG
Europe (ESA)
Russia (Roscosmos)
2016 577 Likely crashed on impact; transmitted descent telemetry Meridiani Planum
Total estimated mass (kg) 9,880

Examples (surface)[edit]

MER-A Spirit rover lander
MER-B Opportunity's heat shield
MSL Curiosity self-portrait, 2016

From orbit[edit]

Viking 1 lander in 2006 (HiRise)
Viking 2 lander in 2006 (HiRise)
Phoenix lander and heat-shield in 2009 (HiRise)
Mars Pathfinder seen from space by the MRO HiRISE
MER-B Opportunity lander in Eagle crater (2006)
Beagle 2, after 11 years found and showing that it made it to the surface but did not expand fully to transmit
Curiosity landing remnants
Schiaparelli remnants (2016)

Landing site namings and memorials[edit]

Several landing sites have been named, either the spacecraft itself or the landing site:

Acidalia Planitia Acidalia Planitia Alba Mons Amazonis Planitia Aonia Terra Arabia Terra Arcadia Planitia Arcadia Planitia Argyre Planitia Elysium Mons Elysium Planitia Hellas Planitia Hesperia Planum Isidis Planitia Lucas Planum Lyot Crater Noachis Terra Olympus Mons Promethei Terra Rudaux Crater Solis Planum Tempe Terra Terra Cimmeria Terra Sabaea Terra Sirenum Tharsis Montes Utopia Planitia Valles Marineris Vastitas Borealis Vastitas BorealisMap of Mars
Interactive imagemap of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of memorial sites on Mars (Yellow label = Named memorial site; Blue label = possible debris site; ? = precise location is not known). Hover your mouse to see the names of over 25 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Reds and pinks are higher elevation (+3 km to +8 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevation (down to −8 km). Whites (>+12 km) and browns (>+8 km) are the highest elevations. Axes are latitude and longitude; Poles are not shown.
(also see: Mars map & Mars Rovers map) (viewdiscuss)
Beagle 2
Beagle 2
Curiosity
Bradbury Landing
Deep Space 2
Deep Space 2 ?
Mars 2
Mars 2 ?
Mars 3
Mars 3 ?
Mars 6
Mars 6 ?
Mars Polar Lander
Polar Lander ?
Opportunity
Challenger Memorial Station
Phoenix
Green Valley
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Schiaparelli EDM
Pathfinder
Carl Sagan Memorial Station
Spirit
Columbia Memorial Station
Viking 1
Thomas Mutch Memorial Station
Viking 2
Gerald Soffen Memorial Station

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  4. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 3". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  5. ^ [3]
  6. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 6". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  7. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 1 lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  8. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 2 lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  9. ^ "Mars Pathfinder". Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  10. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  11. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder Rover". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  12. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Climate Orbiter". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  13. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Polar Lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  14. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Deep Space 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  15. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Spirit Rover (MER-A)". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  16. ^ "ESA Mars Express - Spirit Rover landing site image and coordinates". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  17. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Opportunity Rover (MER-B)". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  18. ^ Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bollen, D.; Bell, J. F.; Brückner, J.; Cabrol, N. A.; Calvin, W. M.; Carr, M. H.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Des Marais, D. J.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Folkner, W.; Gellert, R.; Glotch, T. D.; Golombek, M.; Gorevan, S.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hviid, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Knoll, A. H.; et al. (2006). "Overview of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Meridiani Planum: Eagle Crater to Purgatory Ripple" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 111. doi:10.1029/2006JE002771. E12S12. Retrieved 2010-12-24.  Opportunity Rover (MER-B) coordinates on pg. 2.
  19. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Phoenix Mars Lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  20. ^ M. Adler, et al. – Use of MRO Optical Navigation Camera .. (2012)
  21. ^ NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9, November 29, 2011 – Vol. 4, Issue 9 Archived May 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Soviet Craft - Mars (1960-1974)
  23. ^ NSSDC - Viking 1 lander
  24. ^ NSSDC - Viking 2 lander
  25. ^ NSSDC - Mars Pathfinder
  26. ^ NASA - Space Shuttle Challenger Crew Memorialized on Mars
  27. ^ NASA - Space Shuttle Columbia Crew Memorialized on Mars
  28. ^ "Curiosity Landing Site Named for Ray Bradbury". NASA. August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2012. 
Acidalia Planitia Acidalia Planitia Alba Mons Amazonis Planitia Aonia Terra Arabia Terra Arcadia Planitia Arcadia Planitia Argyre Planitia Elysium Mons Elysium Planitia Hellas Planitia Hesperia Planum Isidis Planitia Lucas Planum Lyot Crater Noachis Terra Olympus Mons Promethei Terra Rudaux Crater Solis Planum Tempe Terra Terra Cimmeria Terra Sabaea Terra Sirenum Tharsis Montes Utopia Planitia Valles Marineris Vastitas Borealis Vastitas BorealisMap of Mars
Interactive imagemap of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars landers and rovers (Red label = Rover; Blue label = Lander; bold red/blue = currently active). Hover your mouse to see the names of over 25 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Reds and pinks are higher elevation (+3 km to +8 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevation (down to −8 km). Whites (>+12 km) and browns (>+8 km) are the highest elevations. Axes are latitude and longitude; Poles are not shown.
Beagle 2
Beagle 2 (2003)
Bradbury Landing
Curiosity (2012) →
Deep Space 2
Deep Space 2 (1999)
Mars 2
Mars 2 (1971)
Mars 3
Mars 3 (1971)
Mars 6
Mars 6 (1973)
Mars Polar Lander
Polar Lander (1999)
Challenger Memorial Station
Opportunity (2004)
Green Valley
Phoenix (2008)
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Schiaparelli EDM (2016)
Carl Sagan Memorial Station
Sojourner (1997)
Columbia Memorial Station
Spirit (2004)
Thomas Mutch Memorial Station
Viking 1 (1976)
Gerald Soffen Memorial Station
Viking 2 (1976)