List of computer criminals
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|Hacker culture & ethic|
Convicted computer criminals are people who are caught and convicted of computer crimes such as breaking into computers or computer networks. Computer crime can be broadly defined as criminal activity involving information technology infrastructure, including illegal access (unauthorized access), illegal interception (by technical means of non-public transmissions of computer data to, from or within a computer system), data interference (unauthorized damaging, deletion, deterioration, alteration or suppression of computer data), systems interference (interfering with the functioning of a computer system by inputting, transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering or suppressing computer data), misuse of devices, forgery (or identity theft) and electronic fraud.
In the infancy of the hacker subculture and the computer underground, criminal convictions were rare because there was an informal code of ethics that was followed by white hat hackers. Proponents of hacking claim to be motivated by artistic and political ends, but are often unconcerned about the use of criminal means to achieve them. White hat hackers break past computer security for non-malicious reasons and do no damage, akin to breaking into a house and looking around. They enjoy learning and working with computer systems, and by this experience gain a deeper understanding of electronic security. As the computer industry matured, individuals with malicious intentions (black hats) would emerge to exploit computer systems for their own personal profit.
Convictions of computer crimes, or hacking, began as early as 1983 with the case of The 414s from the 414 area code in Milwaukee. In that case, six teenagers broke into a number of high-profile computer systems, including Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Security Pacific Bank. On May 1, 1983, one of the 414s, Gerald Wondra, was sentenced to two years of probation.
In 2006, a prison term of nearly five years was handed down to Jeanson James Ancheta, who created hundreds of zombie computers to do his bidding via giant bot networks or botnets. He then sold the botnets to the highest bidder who in turn used them for Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.
The next longest sentences are those of 13 years for Blake Easterling, 108 months of Brian Salcedo in 2004 and upheld in 2006 by the U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals, and 68 months of Kevin Mitnick in 1999.
|Mark Abene||Phiber Optik||United States||Misdemeanor theft-of-service for a free-call scam to a 900 number||1991||35 hours of community service|
|One count of computer trespass and one count of computer conspiracy||1993||One-year jail sentence|
|Jeanson James Ancheta||Gobo||United States||Pleaded guilty to four federal charges of violating United States Code Section 1030, Fraud and Related Activity in Connection with Computers, specifically subsections (a)(5)(A)(i), 1030 (a)(5)(B)(i) and 1030(b)||8 May 2006||57 months in prison, forfeit a 1993 BMW and more than US$58,000 in profit |
Restitution of US$15,000 to the U.S. federal government for infecting military computers
|Julian Paul Assange||Mendax / profff||Australia||31 charges of hacking and related charges. pleaded guilty to 25 charges, the remaining 6 were dropped.||5 December 1996||A recorded conviction on all counts, a reparation payment of A$2,100 to ANU (to be paid in 3 months time) and a A$5,000 good-behaviour bond.|
|Andrew Auernheimer||Weev||United States (at time of sentencing)||On November 20, 2012, was found guilty of one count of identity fraud and one count of conspiracy to access a computer without authorization. ||20 November 2018||Auernheimer was sentenced to 41 months in federal prison and ordered to pay $73,000 in restitution.|
|Hamza Bendelladj||Bx1||Algerian||Pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to commit wire and bank fraud, 10 counts of wire fraud, one count of conspiring to commit computer fraud and abuse, and 11 counts of computer fraud and abuse
He is a co-creator of Trojan horse SpyEye. He stole from 217 American banks and stealing $400 million and donated all the money to Africa and Palestine. The SpyEye software was also sold to other hackers and used as part of a botnet.
|23 April 2016||15 years jail sentence|
|Adam Botbyl||—||United States||Conspiracy to steal credit card numbers from the Lowe's chain of home improvement stores||16 December 2004||Two years and two months imprisonment, followed by two years of supervised release|
|Michael Calce||MafiaBoy||Canada||Pleaded guilty to 56 charges of "mischief to data"||12 September 2001||Eight months "open custody", by the Montreal Youth Court, one year of probation, restricted use of the Internet and a small fine|
|David D'Amato||Terri DiSisto||United States||Found guilty of email bombings which caused service outages at a number of colleges and universities; victims were young males from whom he solicited tickling videos who had stopped co-operating with his requests||2001||Fined $5,000 (USD) and sentenced to six months in federal prison|
|Nahshon Even-Chaim||Phoenix||Australia||15 charges including trespassing on the University of Texas computer network, altering data at NASA and the theft of the ZARDOZ file||1993||One-year suspended sentence: A$1,000 good-behaviour bond and 500 hours community service|
|Raphael Gray||Curador||United Kingdom||Pleaded guilty to theft and hacking offenses which fall under the Computer Misuse Act and six charges of intentionally accessing sites containing credit card details and using this information for financial gain||6 July 2001||Three years of psychiatric treatment after evidence emerged that he was suffering from a mental condition which needed medical treatment rather than incarceration|
|Jerome Heckenkamp||MagicFX||United States||Admitted the hacking and pleaded guilty to two felonies in 2004.||2004||Sentenced to Time Served after spending 7 months in prison.|
|Jonathan James||c0mrade||United States||Two counts of juvenile delinquency||21 September 2000||Six-month prison sentence and probation until the age of eighteen|
|Richard Jones||Electron||Australia||Trespassing on the University of Texas computer network and theft of the ZARDOZ file||1993||One year and six months suspended sentence, 300 hours of community service and psychiatric assessment and treatment|
|Samy Kamkar||samy||United States||Pleaded guilty to violating California Penal Code 502(c)(8) for creating the "Samy is my hero" XSS worm that spread across the MySpace social networking site||2007||Three years of formal probation, 90 days of community service, restitution paid to MySpace, restrictions on computer use|
|Cameron Lacroix||cam0||United States||Pleaded guilty to hacking into the cell-phone account of celebrity Paris Hilton and participated in an attack on data-collection firm LexisNexis Group that exposed personal records of more than 300,000 consumers||13 September 2005||11 months in a Massachusetts juvenile detention facility|
|Adrian Lamo||—||United States||One-count of computer crimes against Microsoft, LexisNexis and The New York Times||15 July 2004||Six months detention at his parent's home plus two years probation and roughly US$65,000 in restitution|
|Lewys Martin||sl1nk||United Kingdom||Pleaded guilty to five counts of "unauthorised acts with intent to impair operation of or prevent/hinder access to a computer", two of "unauthorised computer access with intent to commit other offences", one of "unauthorised computer access with intent to commit other offences", and one of "unauthorised access to computer material".
Hacking attempt on the websites of Kent Police, Cambridge University and Oxford University. Former member of NullCrew and said to have penetrated the servers of Department of Defense (DoD), Pentagon, NASA, NSA, other UK government websites.
|16 May 2013||Two years imprisonment|
|Kevin Mitnick||Condor||United States||Four counts of wire fraud, two counts of computer fraud and one count of illegally intercepting a wire communication||9 August 1999||46 months in federal prison and US$4,125 in restitution|
|Dennis Moran||Coolio||United States||Misdemeanor charges of hacking||9 March 2001||Nine months in jail and US$5,000 in restitution to each victim|
|Robert Tappan Morris||rtm||United States||Intentional access of federal interest computers without authorization thereby preventing authorized access and causing a loss in excess of US$1,000||7 March 1991||Three years probation and 400 hours of community service in a manner determined by the Probation Office and approved by the Court|
|Jeffrey Lee Parson||T33kid||United States||Pleaded guilty on August 11, 2004 to one count of intentionally causing or attempting to cause damage to a protected computer via his version of the Blaster computer worm||28 January 2005||18 months in prison and 100 hours of community service|
|Chris Pile||The Black Baron||United Kingdom||Writing and distributing computer viruses||1995||18 months in prison|
|Kevin Poulsen||Dark Dante||United States||Pleaded guilty to seven counts of mail, wire and computer fraud, money laundering and obstruction of justice||April 10, 1995||51 months in prison and ordered to pay US$56,000 in restitution|
|Leonard Rose||Terminus||United States||Illicit use of proprietary software (UNIX 3.2 code) owned by AT&T and 2 counts of computer fraud and three counts of interstate transportation of stolen property.||12 June 1991||One-year jail sentence|
|David L. Smith||Kwyjibo||United States||Pleaded guilty to knowingly spreading a computer virus, the Melissa virus, with the intent to cause damage||1 May 2002||20 months in federal prison, US$5,000 fine and 100 hours of community service upon release|
|Kristina Svechinskaya||-||Russia||Accused of using Zeus trojan horse to attack thousands of bank accounts and opened at least five accounts in Bank of America and Wachovia, which received $35,000 (£22,000) of money theft. It is estimated that with nine other people Svechinskaya had skimmed $3 million in total.||24 June 2013||Signed a personal recognizance bond and was released under $25,000 bail. Ordered to pay $35,000 in damages.|
|Ehud Tenenbaum||Analyzer||Israel||Admitted to cracking US and Israeli computers, and pleaded guilty to conspiracy, wrongful infiltration of computerized material, disruption of computer use and destroying evidence||15 June 2001||Six months of community service, one year of probation, a two-year suspended prison sentence and fined about US$18,000|
|Kimberley Vanvaeck||Gigabyte||Belgium||Wrote the Coconut-A, Sahay-A, and Sharp-A (first virus written in C#) computer viruses. Charged and arrested for computer data sabotage against internet security firm Sophos.||16 February 2004||Released within 24 hours on bail due to being a minor (17 years old).|
|Jan de Wit||OnTheFly||Netherlands||Spreading data into a computer network with the intention of causing damage as the creator of the Anna Kournikova virus||27 September 2001||150 hours community service|
|Gerald Wondra||The 414s||United States||Unauthorized access to computers at the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York and a Los Angeles bank and two counts of "making harassing telephone calls"||1 May 1983||Two years probation|
- Bruce Sterling (1993). The Hacker Crackdown—Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier (January 1994 ed.). Project Gutenberg. p. 336. ISBN 0-553-56370-X.
- Paul Taylor. Hackers: Crime in the Digital Sublime (November 3, 1999 ed.). Routledge; 1 edition. p. 200. ISBN 0-415-18072-4.
- Steve Mizrach (2009). "The electronic discourse of the computer underground". Florida International University. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
Gordon Meyer, a sociologist who has since left academia but continues to be involved in the computer industry (and to publish the Computer Underground Digest), wrote in his seminal paper The Social Organization of the Computer Underground that the "computer underground consists of actors in three roles – computer hackers, phone phreaks, and software pirates."
- "Interview with Chris Davis". Public Broadcasting Service. 2001. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Brian Blomquist (May 29, 1999). "FBI'S web site socked as hackers target feds". New York Post. Retrieved May 8, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- Andrew Brandt (April 2, 2001). "Hacker Speak". PC World. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- "Computer User Sentenced". The New York Times. May 1, 1983. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- pg 26—Richard Gissel. Digital Underworld (August 23, 2005 ed.). Lulu. p. 222. ISBN 1-4116-4423-9.
- Robert Vamosi (January 27, 2006). "Cybercrime does pay; here's how". CNET Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- Zetter, Kim (March 25, 2010). "TJX Hacker Gets 20 Years in Prison". Wired. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- Poulsen, Kevin (February 12, 2010). "Record 13-Year Sentence for Hacker Max Vision". Wired. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Hacker Sentenced to Prison for Breaking into Lowe's Companies' Computers with Intent to Steal Credit Card Information". cybercrime.gov. December 15, 2004. Archived from the original on November 30, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Crazy-Long Hacker Sentence Upheld". Wired. July 11, 2006. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Kevin Mitnick Sentenced to Nearly Four Years in Prison". cybercrime.gov. August 9, 1999. Archived from the original on December 19, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Phiber Optik Goes to Prison—Issue 2.04". Wired. April 1994. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Elinor Mills (June 23, 2009). "Q&A: Mark Abene, from 'Phiber Optik' to security guru". CNET Networks. Retrieved June 28, 2009.
- "American owns up to hijacking PCs". BBC News. January 24, 2006. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Debra Wong Chang - United States Attorney (May 8, 2006). ""Botherder" Dealt Record Prison Sentence for Selling and Spreading Malicious Computer Code". United States Department of Justice. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Dreyfus, Suelette (1997). Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (PDF). pp. 48–49.
- Dreyfus, Suelette (1997). Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (PDF). pp. 48–49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-18.
- Zetter, Kim (November 20, 2012). "Hacker Found Guilty of Breaching AT&T Site to Obtain iPad Customer Data". Threat Level. Wired. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
- Zetter, Kim (January 23, 2013). "iPad Hack Statement Of Responsibility". wired.com. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
- "Hacker Hamza Bendelladj sentenced to 15 years". Retrieved 2016-05-23.
- Kevin Poulsen (2009). "Michigan Wi-Fi hacker jailed for nine years". The Register. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- "Judgement in a Criminal Case, 5:03CR53-02, Western District of North Carolina" (PDF). timmins. December 16, 2004. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Tony Long (February 7, 2007). "February 7, 2000: Mafiaboy's Moment". Wired. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "Mafiaboy given eight months". The Register. September 13, 2001. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "FBI Facts and Figure 2003". Federal Bureau of Investigation. April 2003. Archived from the original on March 26, 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- Scoblionkov, Deborah (5 April 2001). "Who's Laughing Now?". mycitypaper.com. Philadelphia City Paper.
- Rizza, Joe. "Who Was Educating Your Children?". Antonnews.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-08. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
- Brian McWilliams (2004). Spam Kings: The Real Story behind the High-Rolling Hucksters Pushing Porn, Pills, and %*@)# Enlargements. O'Reilly. ISBN 978-0-596-00732-4.
- "Hack to the future". Melbourne: The Age. May 25, 2003. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- John Leyden (July 6, 2001). "'Bill Gates' hacker escapes jail". The Register. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- "Teen hacker escapes jail sentence". BBC News. July 6, 2001. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- Poulsen, Kevin (April 6, 2007). "Court Okays Counter-Hack of eBay Hacker's Computer". Wired News. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Michael Newton (2004). The Encyclopedia of High-Tech Crime and Crime-Fighting (November 2003 ed.). Checkmark Books, an imprint of Facts on File Inc. p. 416. ISBN 0-8160-4978-5.
- "MySpace speaks about Samy Kamkar's sentencing". TechSpot. January 31, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2010.
- Brian Krebs (February 27, 2007). "They'll Always Have Paris". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- George V. Hulme (July 15, 2004). "Hacker Lamo Sentenced To Home Detention". Information Week. United Business Media, Inc. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Is Department of Defense (DoD), Pentagon, NASA, NSA secure?, TheHackerNews, May 14, 2011.
- Man jailed for attempting to compromise websites, Kent Police, United Kingdom, 16 May 2013. Archived September 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Kevin Mitnick sentenced to nearly four years in prison". United States Department of Justice. August 9, 1999. Archived from the original on September 26, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- "Hacker sentenced, must program jail computers". USA Today. Associated Press. February 6, 2002. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- Ronald B. Standler (August 14, 2002). "Judgment in U.S. v. Robert Tappan Morris". rbs2. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- "Teen Pleds Guilty in Blaster Worm Attack". CRN Magazine. August 12, 2004. Retrieved May 11, 2009.[dead link]
- "Blaster-B worm author sentenced to 18 months in jail - but bigger villain remains free, Sophos reports". Sophos Plc. January 28, 2005. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- Henry Weinstein (March 23, 1991). "Hacker Enters Guilty Plea in Theft of Computer Data". Business; PART-D; Financial Desk: Los Angeles Times. p. 2. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Rodney Hoffman (March 27, 1991). "Legion of Doom's "Terminus" sentenced". RISKS Digest. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Rodney Hoffman (March 31, 1991). "Correction Re: Terminus". RISKS Digest. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
Under the plea agreements, ... Rose ... will serve a year in prison.
- "Creator of Melissa Computer Virus Sentenced to 20 Months in Federal Prison". United States Department of Justice. May 1, 2002. Archived from the original on August 20, 2006. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- Владимир Козловский. В деле о хакерах таблоиды США нашли вторую Чэпман (in Russian). BBC Russian Service. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Leonard, Tom (2010-10-14). "World's 'sexiest computer hacker' appears in court charged with $3m computer scam". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- "Kristina Svechinskaya: Accused Russian Hacker". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Россиянку, подозреваемую в США в мошенничестве, отпустят под залог (in Russian). RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
- Суд над арестованными в США по обвинению в кибермошенничестве российскими студентами завершится в ближайшие месяцы (in Russian). Information Security. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
- "US court frees "world's sexiest computer hacker" prosecuted for bank fraud". RAPSI. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- Kevin Poulsen (June 15, 2001). "Solar Sunrise hacker 'Analyzer' escapes jail". The Register. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- Holt, Thomas J.; Schell, Bernadette H. (2011). Corporate Hacking and Technology-Driven Crime: Social Dynamics and Implications. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference. p. 146. ISBN 9781616928056.
- "Female virus-writer, Gigabyte, arrested in Belgium, Sophos comments". Sophos. 16 February 2004. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- Robert Blincoe (September 27, 2001). "Kournikova virus kiddie gets 150 hours community service". The Register. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- John Leyden (September 14, 2001). "Anna Kournikova virus author stands trial". The Register. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Joris Evers (September 28, 2001). "Kournikova Virus Writer Found Guilty". PC World. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "Two who raided computers pleading guilty—Late City Final Edition, Section 1, Page 6, Column 1, 383 words". The New York Times. March 17, 1984. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Hacker High: 10 Stories of Teenage Hackers Getting into the System
- CUSSE List of Convicted Hackers[permanent dead link]